Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: September 2012

Chapter 7 - Energy Resources and Potentials

Summary

Executive Summary

An energy resource is the first step in the chain that supplies energy services (for a definition of energy services, see Chapter 1). Energy services are largely ignorant of the particular resource that supplies them; however, often the infrastructures, technologies, and fuels along the delivery chain are highly dependent on a particular type of resource. The availability and costs of bringing energy resources to the market place are key determinants to affordable and accessible energy services.

Energy resources pose no inherent limitation to meeting the rapidly growing global energy demand as long as adequate upstream investment is forthcoming – for exhaustible resources in exploration, production technology, and capacity (mining and field development) and, by analogy, for renewables in conversion technologies.

Hydrocarbons and Nuclear

Occurrences of hydrocarbons and fissile materials in the Earth's crust are plentiful – yet they are finite. The extent of the ultimately recoverable oil, natural gas, coal, or uranium is the subject of numerous reviews, yet still the range of values in the literature is large (Table 7.1). For example, the range for conventional oil is between 4900 exajoules (EJ) for reserves to 13,700 EJ (reserves plus resources) – a range that sustains continued debate and controversy. The large range is the result of varying boundaries of what is included in the analysis of a finite stock of an exhaustible resource, e.g., conventional oil only or conventional oil plus unconventional occurrences, such as oil shale, tar sands, and extra-heavy oils.

References
Adhikari, B. K., S., Barrington and J., Martinez, 2006: Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production. Waste Management Resources, 24 (5): 421–433.
Aguilera, R. F., R. G., Eggert, G. C. C., Lagos and J. E., Tilton, 2009: Depletion and the Future Availability of Petroleum Resources. The Energy Journal, 30 (1): 141–174.
Ahlbrandt, T. and T., Klett, 2005: Comparison of Methods Used to Estimate Conventional Undiscovered Petroleum Resources: World Examples. Natural Resources Research, 14 (3): 187–210.
Aitken, C. M., D. M., Jones, and S. R., Larter, 2004: Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs. Nature, 431 (7006): 291–294.
Aldhous, P., P., McKenna, and C., Stier, 2010: Gulf Leak: Biggest Spill may not be Biggest Disaster. New Scientist, 2764.
Aleklett, K., M., Höök, K., Jakobsson, M., Lardelli, S., Snowden, and B., Söderbergh, 2010: The Peak of the Oil Age – Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008. Energy Policy, 38 (3): 1398–1414.
Alfè, D., M. J., Gillan, and G. D., Price, 2002: Composition and temperature of the Earth's core constrained by combining ab initio calculations and seismic data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 195 (1–2): 91–98.
Allsema, E. and M., van Brummelen, 1993: Het Potentieel van PV-Systemen in OECD Landen. Utrecht University, Department of Science, Technology and Society: pp. 53.
Altun, N. E., C., Hicyilmaz, J.-Y., Hwang, A. S., Bagci, and M. V., Kok, 2006: Oil shales in the world and Turkey; reserves, current situation and future prospects: a review. Oil Shale. A Scientific-Technical Journal (Estonian Academy Publishers), 23 (3): 211–227.
Ananenkov, D. G., 2007: Role of Gas in Development of Global and Russian Fuel and Energy Industry in XXI Century, Paper P-1. In Proceedings of the International Conference on World Gas Resources and Reserves and Advanced Development Technologies, VNIIGAZ, Moscow.
Antilla, P., T., Karjalainen, and A., Asikainen, 2009: Global Potential of Modern Firewood. Finnish Forest Institute, Vantaa. www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2009/mwp118.htm (accessed January 16, 2011).
Archer, C. L. and M. Z., Jacobson, 2005: Evaluation of global wind power. J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D12): D12110.
Archer, C. L. and K., Caldeira, 2009: Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power. Energies, 2 (2): 307–319.
Arthur, J. D., B., Bohm, and M., Layne, 2008: Hydraulic Fracturing Considerations for Natural gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale. In The Ground Water Protection Council 2008 Annual Forum, Cincinnati, OH.
Asikainen, A., H., Liiri, S., Peltola, T., Karjalainen, and J., Laitila, 2008: Forest energy potential in Europe (EU 27). Finnish Forest Institute, Vantaa. www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2008/mwp069.htm (accessed November 25, 2010).
Atlas, R. M. and R., Bartha, 1992: Hydrocarbon Biodegradation and Oil Spill Bioremediation In Advances in Microbial Ecology. K. C., Marshall, (ed.), Plenum Press, London, 13, pp. 282–338.
,AUA (Australian Uranium Association), 2009: Uranium Stewardship – Best Practice Guidelines for Uranium Exploration Date Accessed: 2010, April, 10, www.aua.org.au/Content/ExplorationGuidelines.aspx.
Avery, W. H. and C., Wu, 1994: Renewable Energy From the Ocean—A Guide to OTEC, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Series in Science and Engineering, J. R., Apel ed., Oxford University Press, NY.
,AWEA (American Wind Energy Association), 2010: Basic Principles of Wind Resource Evaluation. www.awea.org/faq/basicwr.html (accessed on: March 30, 2010).
Bentley, R. W. and M. R., Smith, 2004: World Oil Production Peak – A Supply-Side Perspective. International Association for Energy Economics Newsletters, 13 (Third Quarter): 25–28.
Berndes, G., M., Hoogwijk, and R., van den Broek, 2003: The contribution of biomass in the future global energy supply: a review of 17 studies. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25 (1): 1–28.
Berndes, G., 2008: Water demand for global bioenergy production: trends, risks and opportunities. In Welt im Wandel: Zukunftsfähige Bioenergie und nachhaltige Landnutzung, WBGU (Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umwelt Veränderungen, Berlin.
Bertani, R., 2003: What is Geothermal Potential?IGA News, (53): 1–3.
Bertani, R., 2005: World geothermal power generation in the period 2001–2005. Geothermics, 34 (6): 651–690.
Bertani, R., 2007: World Geothermal Power Generation in 2007. In Proceedings of the European Geothermal Congress. 30 May – 1 June, Unterhaching, Germany.
Bertani, R., 2009: Long-term Projections of Geothermal-electric Development in the World. GeoTHERM Expo & Congress. March 5–6, 2009, Offenburg, Germany.
Bertani, R., 2010: Geothermal Power Generation in the World: 2005–2010: Update Report. International Geothermal Association. Bochum, Germany.
,BGR, 2007: Reserves, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources 2006. Annual Report, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany.
,BGR, 2009: Energierohstoffe 2009 – Reserven, Ressourcen, Verfügbarkeit. Annual Report, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany.
,BGR, 2010: Reserves, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources. Annual Reports, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany.
Bhattacharya, S. C., 1991: Characterization of Selected Agro-forestry Residues. In Biocoal Technology and Economics, Bhattacharya, S.C. and R. M., Shrestha, (eds.), Regional Energy Resources Information Center (RERIC), Bangkok.
Bhattacharya, S. C., J. M., Thomas, and P. Abdul, Salam, 1997: Greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation potential of using animal wastes in Asia. Energy, 22 (11): 1079–1085.
Biglarbigi, K., H., Mohan and J., Killen, 2009: USA, World Possess Rich Resource Base. Oil & Gas Journal, 107 (3): 56–61.
Binger, A., 2004: Potential and Future Prospects for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) In Small Islands Developing States (SIDS). UNESCO (UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation).
Boehlert, G. W., G. R., McMurray, and C. E., Tortorici, (eds.), 2008: Ecological Effects of Wave Energy in the Pacific Northwest. NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-F/SPO-92. US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.
Boehlert, G. W. and A. B., Gill, 2010: Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development. Oceanography, 23 (2): 68–81.
,BP, 2010: Statistical Review of World Energy. BP, London.
Broesamle, H., H., Mannstein, C., Schillings, and F., Trieb, 2001: Assessment of solar electricity potentials in North Africa based on satellite data and a geographic information system. Solar Energy, 70 (1): 1–12.
Bunn, M., S., Fetter, J. P., Holdren, and B., van der Zwaan, 2003: The Economics of Reprocessing vs. Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Project on Managing the Atom. DE-FG26–99FT4028, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Burton, T., D., Sharpe, N., Jenkins, and E., Bossanyi, 2001: Wind Energy Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Butler, R. M. and D. J., Stephens, 1980: The Gravity Drainage of Steam-Heated Heavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells; Paper CIM # 80–31–31. In Presented at the 31st Petroleum Society of CIM Annual Technical Meeting, 25–28 May, Calgary.
Butler, R. M. and D. J., Stephens, 1981: The Gravity Drainage of Steam-heated Heavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2 (2): 90–96.
Campbell, C. J. and J. H., Laherrère, 1998: The End of Cheap Oil. Scientific American, 278 (3): 78–83.
Campbell, J. E., D. B., Lobell, R. C., Genova, and C. B., Field, 2008: The Global Potential of Bioenergy on Abandoned Agriculture Lands. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (15): 5791–5794.
Canale, M., L., Fagiano, and M., Milanese, 2007: Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation EEE Control Systems Magazine, pp. 25–38.
,CAPP (Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers), 2009: Crude Oil: Forecast Markets & Pipline Report. www.capp.ca/getdoc.aspx?DocId=173003 (accessed May 5, 2011).
Cataldi, R., 1999: Geothermal development in Europe to the year 2020: prospects or hopes?Technika Poszukiwań Geologicznych, 38 (4–5): 48–60.
Cedigaz, , 2009: Natural Gas in the World. A., Lecarpentier, (ed.) Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France.
Charpentier, A. D., J. A., Bergerson, and H. L., MacLean, 2009: Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research Letters, 4 (1): 014005.
Cherubini, F., N. D., Bird, A., Cowie, G., Jungmeier, B., Schlamadinger, and S., Woess-Gallasch, 2009: Energy- and greenhouse gas-based LCA of biofuel and bioenergy systems: Key issues, ranges and recommendations. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 53 (8): 434–447.
Chitrakar, R., H., Kanoh, Y., Miyai, and K., Ooi, 2001: Recovery of Lithium from Seawater Using Manganese Oxide Adsorbent (H1.6Mn1.6O4) Derived from Li1.6Mn1.6O4. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40 (9): 2054–2058.
Chum, H., A., Faaij, J., Moreira, G., Berndes, P., Dhamija, H., Dong, B., Gabrielle, A. Goss, Eng, W., Lucht, M., Mapako, O. Masera, Cerutti, T., McIntyre, T., Minowa, K., Pingoud, 2011: Bioenergy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation, O., Edenhofer, R., Pichs-Madruga, Y., Sokona, K., Seyboth, P., Matschoss, S., Kadner, T., Zwickel, P., Eickemeier, G., Hansen, S., Schlömer, C., von Stechow (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Clarke, G. M. and P. W., Harben, 2009: Lithium Availability Wall Map. www.lithium-alliance.org/about-lithium/lithium-sources/85-broad-based-lithium-reserves (accessed January 3, 2011).
Clemens, J., M., Triborn, P., Weiland, and B., Amon, 2005: Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 112 (2–3): 171–177.
Collett, T. S., 2002: Energy Resource Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates. AAPG Bulletin, 86 (11): 1971–1992.
Collett, T. S., A., Johnson, C. C., Knapp, and R., Boswell, 2009: Natural Gas Hydrates – A Review. In Natural Gas Hydrates – Energy Resource Potential and Associated Geologic Hazards. T. S., Collett, A., Johnson, C. C., Knapp and R., Boswell, (eds.), American Association of Petroleum Geologists; Memoir 89, pp. 137.
Couch, G. R., 1988: Lignite Resources and Characteristics, IEACR/13. IEA Coal Research, London, UK.
Crawford, P. M., K., Biglarbigi, A. R., Dammer, and E., Knaus, 2008: Advances in World Oil Shale Production Technologies, SPE # 116570 In Presented at the 2008 Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 21–24 September, Denver, CO.
Crawford, P. M., K., Biglarbigi, E., Knaus, and J., Killen, 2009: New Approaches Overcome Past Technical Issues. Oil & Gas Journal, 107 (4): 44–49.
Curtis, R., J., Lund, B., Sanner, L., Rybach, and G., Hellström, 2005: Ground Source Heat Pumps – Geothermal Energy for Anyone, Anywhere: Current Worldwide Activity. In Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress. April 24–29, Antalya.
Daul, J., 1995: Untersuchung über die Verteilung und Veränderung der Steinkohlevorräte im Ruhrgebiet und deren Ausnutzung. PhD-Thesis, Montanuniversität Leoben, Leoben.
de Vries, B. J. M., D. P., van Vuuren and M. M., Hoogwijk, 2007: Renewable energy sources: Their global potential for the first-half of the 21st century at a global level: An integrated approach. Energy Policy, 35 (4): 2590–2610.
de Wit, M. and A., Faaij, 2010: European biomass resource potential and costs. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34 (2): 188–202.
Denholm, P. and W., Short, 2006: Documentation of WinDS Base Case. Version AEO 2006 (1). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
,Deutsche Bank, 2009: The Cost of Producing Oil. FITT Research. Deutsche Bank A.G., London.
,DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), 2009: Characterisation of Solar Electricity Import Corridors from MENA to Europe – Potential, Infrastructure and Cost. DLR, Stuttgart.
,DOE (US Department of Energy), 2010: Enhanced oil Recovery/CO2 Injection. http://fossil.energy.gov/programs/oilgas/eor/ (accessed March 20, 2011).
Dubreuil, A., G., Gaillard, and R., Müller-Wenk, 2007: Key Elements in a Framework for Land Use Impact Assessment Within LCA (11 pp). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12 (1): 5–15.
Dusseault, M. B., 2002: New Oil Production Technologies. SPE Distinguished Lectures Series 2002–2003. Paper SPE # 101463 DLP.
Dusseault, M. B. and A., Shafiei, 2011: Tar Sands. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Engineering, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Dyni, J. R., 2006: Geology and Resources of Some World Oil-Shale Deposits. Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5294, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
E4Tech, 2009: Biomass Supply Curves for the UK. E4Tech, London.
,Earth Policy Institute, 2007: Is World Oil Production Peaking?www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2007/Update67_printable.htm (accessed November 30, 2010).
,ECE (Economic Commission for Europe), 2010: United Nations International Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009. The ECE Energy Series, No. 39, Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
,EGEC (European Geothermal Energy Council), 2009: The Future of Geothermal Development. EGEC -Renewable Energy House, Brussels, Belgium.
Ekins, P., R., Vanner, and J., Firebrace, 2007: Zero emissions of oil in water from offshore oil and gas installations: economic and environmental implications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15 (13–14): 1302–1315.
,EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute), 1978: Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years. Special Report ER-611-SR. www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/purl/5027376-y14BJ4/ (accessed February 12, 2011).
Evans, R. K., 2008: An Abundance of Lithium. www.che.ncsu.edu/ILEET/phevs/lithium-availability/An_Abundance_of_Lithium.pdf (accessed April 20, 2010).
,EWG (Energy Watch Group), 2006. Uranium Resources and Nuclear Energy, EWG-Series No 1/2006. Zittel, W. And J., Schindler (eds.). Ludwig Bölkow Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn/Achen, Germany.
,EWG (Energy Watch Group), 2007: Crude Oil: The Supply Outlook Report to the Energy Watch Group. EWG-Series No 3/2007, Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn.
,EWG (Energy Watch Group), 2008: Zukunft der weltweiten Erdölversorgung. Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn.
Exxon, , 2008: Öldorado 2008. Jubiläum 50 Jahre, ExxonMobil, Hamburg.
,FAO, 2006a: World agriculture: towards 2015/2030 – Interim report. Prospects for food, nutrition, agriculture and major commodity groups. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome.
,FAO, 2006b: World agriculture: towards 2030/2050 – Interim report. Prospects for food, nutrition, agriculture and major commodity groups. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome.
,FAO, 2006c: Gridded Livestock of the World. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGAinfo/resources/en/glw/default.html (accessed September 21, 2010).
,FAO, 2009: FAOSTAT 2009. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome. http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/default.aspx#ancor (accessed September 21, 2010).
Farrell, A. E., 2008: Energy Notes. News from the University of California Energy Institute. Vol. 6: p. 3.
Fettweis, G. B., 1976: Weltkohlenvorräte. Eine vergleichende Analyse ihrer Erfassung und Bewertung. Verlag Glückauf, Essen.
Fettweis, G. B., 1990: Der Produktionsfaktor Lagerstätte. In Bergwirtschaft. S. v., Wahl, (ed.), Verlag Glückauf, Essen.
Field, C. B., J. E., Campbell, and D. B., Lobell, 2008: Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23 (2): 65–72.
Firbank, L., 2008: Assessing the Ecological Impacts of Bioenergy Projects. BioEnergy Research, 1 (1): 12–19.
Fischer, G., E., Hizsnyik, S., Prieler, and H., van Velthuizen, 2007: Assessment of biomass potentials for bio-fuel feedstock production in Europe: Methodology and results. REFUEL Project. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
Florentinus, A., C., Hamelinck, S., de Lint, and S., van Iersel, 2008: Worldwide Potential of Aquatic Biomass Ecofys, Utrecht.
Foley, J. A., R., DeFries, G. P., Asner, C., Barford, G., Bonan, S. R., Carpenter, F. S., Chapin, M. T., Coe, G. C., Daily, H. K., Gibbs, J. H., Helkowski, T., Holloway, E. A., Howard, C. J., Kucharik, C., Monfreda, J. A., Patz, I. C., Prentice, N., Ramankutty, and P. K., Snyder, 2005: Global Consequences of Land Use. Science, 309 (5734): 570–574.
Fridleifsson, I. B., 1999: Worldwide Prospects for Geothermal Energy in the 21st Century. Technika Poszukiwa n Geologicznych, 38 (4–5): 28–34.
Fridleifsson, I. B., R., Bertani, E., Huenges, J., Lund, A., Ragnarsson, and L., Rybach, 2008: The Possible Role and Contribution of Geothermal Energy to the Mitigation of Climate Change. In IPCC Scoping Meeting on Renewable Energy Sources. 21–25 January, Lübeck.
Gawell, K., M., Reed, and P. M., Wright, 1999: Geothermal Energy: The Potential for Clean Power from the Earth. Geothermal Energy Association, Washington, DC.
,GEA (Geothermal Energy Association), 2005: Factors Affecting Costs of Geothermal Power Development. Report for the US Department of Energy, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Gerbens-Leenes, W., A. Y., Hoekstra, and T. H., van der Meer, 2009: The water footprint of bioenergy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (25): 10219–10223.
Gesamtverband, Steinkohle, 2007: Zahlen der Betribsstatistik. Annual Report, Gesamtverband Steinkohle, Essen.
Gibbs, H. K., M., Johnston, J. A., Foley, T., Holloway, C., Monfreda, N., Ramankutty, and D., Zaks, 2008: Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters, 3 (3): 034001.
Gold, T. and S., Soter, 1980: The Deep-earth Gas hypothesis. Scientific American, 242 (6): 155–161.
Gold, T. and S., Soter, 1982: Abiogenic Methane and the Origin of Petroleum. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 1 (2): 89–104.
Gold, T., 1988: Origin of Petroleum: Two Opposing Theories and a Test in Sweden. In The Methane Age. T. H., Linden, D. A., Dreyfus and T., Vasko, (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Gold, T., 1999: The Deep Hot Biosphere. Springer, New York.
Goldstein, B. A., A. J., Hill, A., Long, A. R., Budd, F., Holgate, and M., Malavos, 2009: Hot Rock Geothermal Energy Plays in Australia. In Proceedings of the 34th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. 9–11 February, Stanford UniversityStanford, CA.
Graue, A., B., Kvamme, B. A., Baldwin, J., Stevens, J., Howard, G., Ersland, J., Husebo, and D. R., Zornes, 2006: Magnetic resonance imaging of methane – carbon dioxide hydrate reactions in sandstone pores. Paper Number SPE 102915. In Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24–27 September, San Antonio, TX.
,Green Cross International, 2009: Global Solar Report Cards. Green Cross International, Geneva.
Gruber, P. and P., Medina, 2010: Global Lithium Availability: A Constraint for Electric Vehicles? MSc Thesis, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan.
Gustavson, M. R., 1979: Limits to Wind Power Utilization. Science, 204 (4388): 13–17.
Haberl, H., K.-H., Erb, F., Krausmann, W., Loibl, N., Schulz, and H., Weisz, 2001: Changes in ecosystem processes induced by land use: Human appropriation of aboveground NPP and its influence on standing crop in Austria. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15 (4): 929–942.
Haberl, H., K. H., Erb, F., Krausmann, V., Gaube, A., Bondeau, C., Plutzar, S., Gingrich, W., Lucht, and M., Fischer-Kowalski, 2007a: Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (31): 12942–12947.
Haberl, H., K. H., Erb, C., Plutzar, M., Fischer-Kowalski and F., Krausmann, 2007b: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP) as Indicator for pressures on Biodiversity. In Sustainability Indicators: A Scientific Assessment (SCOPE). T., Hak, B., Moldan and A. L., Dahl, (eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC.
Haberl, H., V., Gaube, R., Díaz-Delgado, K., Krauze, A., Neuner, J., Peterseil, C., Plutzar, S. J., Singh and A., Vadineanu, 2009: Towards an integrated model of socioeconomic biodiversity drivers, pressures and impacts. A feasibility study based on three European long-term socio-ecological research platforms. Ecological Economics, 68 (6): 1797–1812.
Hakala, K., M., Kontturi and K., Pahkala, 2009: Field Biomass as Global Energy Source. Agricultural and Food Science, 18: 347–368.
Haq, Z. and J., Easterly, 2006: Agricultural residue availability in the United States. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 129 (1): 3–21.
Harms, A. A., D. R., Kingdon, K. F., Schoepf, and G. H., Miley, 2000: Principles of Fusion Energy. World Scientific Publishing Company, London.
,HDWA (Hydropower and Dams World Atlas), 2008: Hydropower and Dams World Atlas. The International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, Sutton: Aquamedia Publications, Surrey, UK.
Head, I. M., D. M., Jones, and S. R., Larter, 2003: Biological activity in the deep subsurface and the origin of heavy oil. Nature, 426 (6964): 344–352.
Heinberg, R. and D., Fridley, 2010: The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468 (7322): 367–369.
Hirsch, R. L., 2005: Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, & Risk Management. Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. National Energy Technology Laboratory.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P. J., Mumby, A. J., Hooten, R. S., Steneck, P., Greenfield, E., Gomez, C. D., Harvell, P. F., Sale, A. J., Edwards, K., Caldeira, N., Knowlton, C. M., Eakin, R., Iglesias-Prieto, N., Muthiga, R. H., Bradbury, A., Dubi, and M. E., Hatziolos, 2007: Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science, 318 (5857): 1737–1742.
Hofman, Y., D., de Jager, E., Molenbroek, F., Schilig, and M., Voogt, 2002: The Potential Of Solar Electricity to Reduce CO2 Emissions. Ecofys, Utrecht.
Hoogwijk, M., 2004: On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources. Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht.
Hoogwijk, M., B., de Vries, and W., Turkenburg, 2004: Assessment of the global and regional geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy. Energy Economics, 26 (5): 889–919.
Hoogwijk, M., A., Faaij, B., de Vries, and W., Turkenburg, 2009: Exploration of regional and global cost-supply curves of biomass energy from short-rotation crops at abandoned cropland and rest land under four IPCC SRES land-use scenarios. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33 (1): 26–43.
Hubbert, M. K., 1971: Energy Resources of the Earth. Scientific American, 224 (3): 60–70.
,IAASTD, 2009. Agriculture at a Crossroads. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), Global Report. Island Press, Washington, DC.
,IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), 2005: Thorium Fuel Cycle – Potential Benefits and Challenges. IAEA-TECDOC-1350, Vienna.
,IEA (International Energy Agency), 2000: Hydropower and the Environment: Present context and guidelines for future action. Subtask 5 Report, Volume II: Main Report, International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2001: Potential for building integrated photovoltaics. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2006a: World Energy Outlook 2006. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2006b: Energy Technology Perspectives 2006: Scenarios & Strategies to 2050. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2007a: Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2004–2005 – 2007 Edition. CD-ROM. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2007b: Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 2004–2005 – 2007 Edition. CD-ROM. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2008a: World Energy Outlook 2008. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2008b: Renewables Information 2008. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2009: World Energy Outlook 2009. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2010a: World Energy Outlook 2010. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2010b: Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA, 2010c: Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy. International Energy Agency of the Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris.
,IEA Coal, 1983: Concise Guide to World Coal fields. International Energy Agency Coal Research, London.
,IGC (International Geological Congress), 1913: The Coal Resources of the World. Enquiry made upon the initiative of the Executive Committee of the Twelfth International Geological Congress, Morang & Co., Toronto.
,IGU (International Gas Union), 1994: Report of IGU Committee A (Production, Treatment and Underground Storage of Natural Gas) 9.2 Production from Deep Fields. IGU/A-94. In Proceedings of the19th World Gas Conference, 20–23 June, Milan.
,IGU, 2003: Report of IGU Working Committee 1: Exploration, production and treatment of natural gas. In 22nd World Gas Conference, 1–5 June, Tokyo.
,IHS-CERA (Cambridge Energy Research Associates), 2006: Why the “Peak Oil” Theory Falls Down Myths, Legends, and the Future of Oil Resources. P., Jackson (ed.), CERA, Cambridge, MA.
,IHS-CERA, 2010: Oil Sands, Greenhouse Gases, and US Oil Supply. Special Report, IHS-CERA Inc., Cambridge, MA.
,IHS-CERA, 2011: Oil Sands Technology, Past, Present and Future. Special Report, IHS CERA Inc., Cambridge, MA.
,IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995. In Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-technical Analysis. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). R. T., Watson, M. C., Zinyowera, and R. H., Moss, (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
,IPCC, 2006: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.
,IPCC, 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of working group III to the Fourth Assessment report of the IPCC, B., Metz, O. R., Davidson, P. R., Bosch, R., Dave and L. A., Meyer, (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Iqbal, M., 1983: An Introduction to Solar Radiation. Academic Press, New York.
Jaccard, M., 2006: Sustainable Fossil Fuels: the Unusual Suspect in the Quest for Clean and Enduring Energy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jacobson, M. Z. and G. M., Masters, 2001: Exploiting wind versus coal. Science, 293 (5534): 1438.
Jaksula, B. W., 2008: US Geological Survey Minerals yearbook – 2007. US Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
Jeglic, F., 2004: Analysis of Ruptures and Trends on Major Canadian Pipeline Systems. National Energy Board of Canada, Calgary, AB.
Jekayinfa, S. O. and V., Scholz, 2007: Assessment of availability and cost of energetically usable crop residues in Nigeria. In Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development. 9–11 October, University of Göttingen.
Johansson, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K.N. and H., Williams, (eds), 1993: Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity. Washington, DC: Island Press.
'Johnston, M., J. A., Foley, T., Holloway, C. J., Kucharik and C., Monfreda, 2009: Resetting global expectations from agricultural biofuels. Environmental Research Letters, 4 (1): 01 4004.
Junginger, M., R., Sikkema and A. P. C., Faaij, 2009: Analysis of the global pellet market. Including major driving forces and possible technical and non-technical barriers. Report for the Pellet@las project, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht.
Kato, T., K., Okugawa, Y., Sugihara, and T., Matsumura, 1999: Conceptual Design of Uranium Recovery Plant from Seawater. Journal of the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society, 50 (1): 71–77.
Kenney, J. F., 1996: Considerations about recent predictions of impending shortages of petroleum evaluated from the perspective of modern petroleum science. Special Edition on “The Future of Petroleum” in Energy World, British Institute of Petroleum, London.
Kenney, J. F., V. A., Kutcherov, N. A., Bendeliani, and V. A., Alekseev, 2002: The evolution of multicomponent systems at high pressures: VI. The thermodynamic stability of the hydrogen-carbon system: The genesis of hydrocarbons and the origin of petroleum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 (17): 10976–10981.
Kenney, J. F., V. I., Sozanksy, and P. M., Chepil, 2009: On the Spontaneous Renewal of Oil and Gas Fields. Energy Politics, XVII (Spring 2009).
Koopmans, A. and J., Koppejan, 1998: Agricultural and forest residues – generation, utilization and availability. In Regional Consultation on Modern Applications of Biomass Energy, 6–10 January, Kuala Lumpur.
Krajick, K., 2001: Defending Deadwood. Science, 293 (5535): 1579–1581.
Krausmann, F., K.-H., Erb, S., Gingrich, C., Lauk, and H., Haberl, 2008: Global patterns of socioeconomic biomass? ows in the year 2000: A comprehensive assessment of supply, consumption and constraints. Ecological Economics, 65 (3): 471–487.
Kudryavtsev, N. A., 1951: Against the Organic Hypothesis of Oil Origin. Oil Economy Journal, (9): 17–29.
Kundel, H., 1985: Face technology in German coal mines in 1984. In German Longwall Mining – Facts and Figures. In Glückauf Bergbau Handbuch Nr. 32., Verlag Glückauf, Essen.
Laherrère, J. H., 2004: Future of Natural Gas Supply. In Contribution to the 3rd International Workshop on Oil & Gas Depletion. 24–25 May, Berlin.
Laherrère, J. H., 2005: Review on Oil Shale Data. http://www.oilcrisis.com/laherrere/OilShaleReview200509.pdf.
Lal, R., 2004: Agricultural activities and the global carbon cycle. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 70 (2): 103–116.
Lal, R., 2005: World crop residues production and implications of its use as a biofuel. Environment International, 31 (4): 575–584.
Lal, R., 2006: Soil and Environmental Implications of Using Crop Residues as Biofuel Feedstock. International Sugar Journal, 108 (1287): 161–167.
Landsmann, H., 2009: Personal communication on soft brown coal mining cost ranges.
Lauk, C. and K.-H., Erb, 2009: Biomass consumed in anthropogenic vegetation fires: Global patterns and processes. Ecological Economics, 69 (2): 301–309.
Ledru, P., D., Bruhn, P., Calcagno, A., Genter, E., Huenges, M., Kaltschmitt, C., Karytsas, T., Kohl, L., Le Bel, A., Lokhorst, A., Manzella, and S., Thorhalsson, 2007: Enhanced Geothermal Innovative Network for Europe: The State-of-the-Art. Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, 36.
Lehner, B., G., Czisch, and S., Vassolo, 2001: Europe's Hydropower Potential Today and in the Future. EuroWasser, Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kassel.
Lemperiere, F., 2006: The Role of Dams in the XXI Century: Achieving a Sustainable Development Target. International Journal on Hydropower & Dams, 13 (3): 98–108.
Lewandowski, I. and A. P. C., Faaij, 2006: Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30 (2): 83–104.
Lewis, W. B., 1972: Energy in the Future: the Role of Nuclear Fission and Fusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Sect. A.
Li, L., A. P., Ingersoll, X., Jiang, D., Feldman and Y. L., Yung, 2007: Lorenz energy cycle of the global atmosphere based on reanalysis datasets. Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (16): L16813.
Lindner, M., J., Meyer, T., Eggers and A., Moiseyev, 2005: Environmentally enhanced bioenergy potential from European forests. Report commission by the European Environmental Agency, European Forest Institute, Paris.
Lollar, B. S., T. D., Westgate, J. A., Ward, G. F., Slater, and G., Lacrampe-Couloume, 2002: Abiogenic Formation of Alkanes in the Earth's Crust as a Minor Source for Global Hydrocarbon Reservoirs. Nature, 416 (6880): 522–524.
Long, S. P., E. A., Ainsworth, A. D. B., Leakey, J., Nösberger, and D. R., Ort, 2006: Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations. Science, 312 (5782): 1918–1921.
Lorenz, E. N., 1967: The nature and theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. eapsweb.mit.edu/research/Lorenz/publications.htm (accessed November 29, 2011).
Lund, J. W., D. H., Freeston and T. L., Boyd, 2005: Direct Application of Geothermal Energy: 2005 Worldwide Review. Geothermics, 34 (6): 691–727.
Lund, J. W., 2010: Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy. Energies, 3 (8): 1443–1471.
Marika, E., F., Uriansrud, R., BIlak, and M. B., Dusseault, 2009: Acheiving Zero Discharge using Deep Well Disposal Paper 2009-WHOC09–350. In Proceeds of the World Heavy Oil Congress, Marguarita, Venezuela.
Mastuani, S. M. and P. K., Takahashi, 2000: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. In Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. J. G., Webster (ed.), Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Max, M. D., A., Johnson, and W. P., Dillon, 2006: Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
McKay, G., 2002: Dioxin characterisation, formation and minimisation during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration: review. Chemical Engineering Journal, 86 (3): 343–368.
McKelvey, V. E., 1967: Mineral Resource Estimates and Public Policy. American Scientist, (60): 32–40.
McKenzie-Brown, P., 2008: Colin Campbell and the Cracks of Doom. languageinstinct.blogspot.com/2008/03/colin-campbell-and-crack-of-doom.html (accessed January 17, 2009).
,MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), 2005: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being – Our Human Planet. Summary for Decision Makers, Island Press, Washington, DC.
Mendeleev, D., 1877: L'Origine du Petrole. Revue Scientifique, 2 (8): 409–416.
Meyer, R. F. and W. D., Dietzman, 1979: World Geography of Heavy Crude Oils. In UNITAR Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands Conference, 4–12 July, Edmonton, AB.
Meyer, R. F. and W. D., Dietzman, 1981: Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. Inc The Future of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. R. F., Meyer, C. T., Steele, and J. C., Olson, (eds.), McGraw HillNew York.
Meyer, R. F. and J. W., Duford, 1989: Resources of heavy oil and natural bitumen worldwide. In Fourth United Nations Institute for Training and Research/United Nations Development Program International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Edmonton.
Meyer, R. F. and E. D., Attanasi, 2004: Natural Bitumen and Extra Heavy Oil, Chapter 4. In World Energy Council – Survey of Energy ResourcesJ., Trinnaman and A., Clarke, (eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 93–117.
Meyer, R. F., E. D., Attanasi and P. A., Freeman, 2007: Heavy oil and natural bitumen resources in geological basins of the world. Open-File Report 2007–1084, US Geological Survey, Washington, DC. pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1084/ (accessed November 29, 2010).
Minchener, A., 2007: Coal Supply Challenges for China. CCC/127, IEA-Clean Coal Centre, London.
Monni, S., R., Pipatte, A., Lehtilä, I., Savolainen and S., Syri, 2006: Global climate change mitigation scenarios for solid waste management. Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Epoo.
Moridis, G. J., T. S., Collett, R., Boswell, M., Kurihara, M. T., Reagan, E. D., Sloan and C., Koh, 2008: Toward production from gas hydrates: assessment of resources and technology and the role of numerical simulation. SPE 114163. In Proceedings of the 2008 SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference. 10–12 February, Keystone, CO.
Müller, C., A., Bondeau, H., Lotze-Campen, W., Cramer and W., Lucht, 2006: Comparative Impact of Climatic and Nonclimatic Factors On Global Terrestrial Carbon and Water Cycles. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20 (4): GB4015.
Nasr, T. N. and O. R., Ayodele, 2005: Thermal Techniques for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. SPE# 97488. In the SPE International Improved Oil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific. 5–6 December, Kuala Lumpur.
,NEA (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency), 2006: Forty Years of Uranium Resources, Production and Demand in Perspective – The Red Book Perspective. NEA No.6096, OECD, Paris.
,NEA/IAEA, 2008: Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. NEA No.6098, OECD/IAEA (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and International Atomic Energy Agency), Paris.
,NEA/IAEA, 2010: Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand. OECD/IAEA (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and International Atomic Energy Agency), Paris.
Nihous, G. C., 2005: An Order-of-Magnitude Estimate of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 127 (4): 328–333.
Nobukawa, H., M., Kitamura, S. A. M., Swylem, and K., Ishibashi, 1994: Development of a floating type system for uranium extraction from seawater using sea current and wave power. In Proceedings of the 4th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. 10–15 April, Osaka.
Nord-Larsen, T. and B., Talbot, 2004: Assessment of forest-fuel resources in Denmark: technical and economic availability. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27 (2): 97–109.
,NPC, 2007: Hard Truths – Facing the Hard Truths about Energy. NPC (National Petroleum Council), Washington, DC.
,NREL, 2011: What is Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion?National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL). www.nrel.gov/otec/what.html (accessed 29th December, 2011).
Odell, P., 2004: Why Carbon Fuels will Dominate the 21st Century's Global Energy Economy. Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd, Brentwood, UK.
Odell, P., 2010: Refereed Papers: The Long-Term Future for Energy Resources' Exploitation. Energy & Environment, 21 (7): 785–802.
,OGJ (Oil & Gas Journal), 2007: Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production. Oil & Gas Journal, 105 (48).
,OGJ, 2010: Various articles between April and December 2010 related to the BP Macondo Well blow-out in the Gulf of Mexico. Various articles between July and December 2010 related to the Enbridge pipeline rupture in Michigan, USA.
Ongena, J. and G., van Oost, 2004: Energy for Future Centuries – Will Fusion be an Inexhaustible, Safe, and Clean Energy Source?Fusion Science and Technology, 45 (2T): 3–14.
,OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 2008: Annual Statistical Bulletin 2007. OPEC, Vienna.
Pan, K., 2005: The depth distribution of Chinese coal resources. In Presentation at the School of Social Development and Public Policy. –Fudan University, Shanghai.
,PCA (The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia), 2006: Australia's uranium – Greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world. A case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the Inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry. House of Representatives, Standing Committee on Industry and Resources, Canberra.
Peixóto, , J., and A. H., Oort, 1984: Physics of Climate. Reviews of Modern Physics, 56 (3): 365–429.
Pelc, R. and R. M., Fujita, 2002: Renewable energy from the ocean. Marine Policy, 26 (6): 471–479.
Penney, T. R. and D., Bharathan, 1987: Power from the Sea, Sci. Am. 256 (1) 86–92.
Pollack, H. N., S. J., Hurter, and J. R., Johnson, 1993: Heat Flow from the Earth's Interior: Analysis of the Global Data Set. Rev. Geophys., 31 (3): 267–280.
Pulleman, M. M., J., Bouma, E. A., van Essen, and E. W., Meijles, 2000: Soil Organic Matter Content as a Function of Different Land Use History. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64 (2): 689–693.
Rajabapaiah, P., S., Jayakumar, and A. K. N., Reddy, 1993: Biogas Electricity – the Pura Village Case Study. In Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and electricity. T. B., Johansson, H., Kelly, A. K. N., Reddy and R. H., Williams, (eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC.
Rempel, H., S., Schmidt, and U., Schwarz-Schampera, 2007: Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfügbarkeit von Energierohstoffen – Jahresbericht 2006. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover.
Repa, E. W., 2005: 2005 Tip Fee Survey. National Solid Wastes Management Association, Washington, DC.
Ritschel, W. and H.-W., Schiffer, 2007: Weltmarkt für Steinkohle. RWE-Rhein Braun A.G., Essen.
Roberts, B. W., D. H., Shepard, K., Caldeira, M. E., Cannon, D. G., Eccles, A. J., Grenier, and J. F., Freidin, 2007: Harnessing High-Altitude Wind Power. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22 (1): 136–144.
Rogner, H. H., 1997: An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 22 (1): 217–262.
Rogner, H. H., F., Barthel, M., Cabrera, A. P. C., Faaij, M., Giroux, D. O., Hall, V., Kagramanian, S., Kononov, T., Lefevre, R., Moreira, R., Nötstaller, P., Odell and M., Taylor, 2000: Energy Resources. In World Energy Assessment J., Goldemberg, (ed.), United Nations Development Program, World Energy Council, New York, pp. 135–172.
Rühl, C., 2010: Statistical Review of World Energy 2010 – What's Inside. BP, London.
Sagar, A. D. and S., Kartha, 2007: Bioenergy and Sustainable Development?Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32 (1): 131–167.
San-Sebastiàn, M., B., Armstrong, J. A., Córdoba, and C., Stephens, 2001: Exposures and Cancer Incidence near Oil Fields in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58 (8): 517–522.
Schenk, C. J., T. A., Cook, R. R., Charpentier, R. M., Pollastro, T. R., Klett, M. E., Tennyson, M. A., Kirschbaum, M. E., Brownfield, and J. K., Pitman, 2009: An estimate of recoverable heavy oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3028.
Schimel, D. S., 1995: Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle. Global Change Biology, 1 (1): 77–91.
,Schlumberger Inc., 2010: Oilfield Glossary. www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm?Term=enhanced%20oil%20recovery (accessed March 20, 2011).
Schneider, E.A. and W.C., Sailor, 2008: Long-Term Uranium Supply Estimates. Nuclear Technology, 162: 379–387.
Searchinger, T., R., Heimlich, R. A., Houghton, F., Dong, A., Elobeid, J., Fabiosa, S., Tokgoz, D., Hayes, and T.-H., Yu, 2008: Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land-Use Change. Science, 319 (5867): 1238–1240.
Shepherd, W., 2003: Energy Studies. Imperial College Press, World Scientific Publication Co., London.
Shifley, S. R., F. R., Thompson, W. D., Dijak, M. A., Larson, and J. J., Millspaugh, 2006: Simulated effects of forest management alternatives on landscape structure and habitat suitability in the Midwestern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 229 (1–3): 361–377.
Sigurdsson, H., 2000: Volcanic Episodes and the Rate of Volcanism. In Encyclopaedia of Volcanoes. J., Stix, (ed.) Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Sitch, S., C., Huntingford, N., Gedney, P. E., Levy, M., Lomas, S. L., Piao, R., Betts, P., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Friedlingstein, C. D., Jones, I. C., Prentice and F. I., Woodward, 2008: Evaluation of the terrestrial carbon cycle, future plant geography and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks using five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Global Change Biology, 14 (9): 2015–2039.
Smeets, E. and A., Faaij, 2007: Bioenergy potentials from forestry in 2050. Climatic Change, 81 (3): 353–390.
Smeets, E. M. W., A. P. C., Faaij, I. M., Lewandowski, and W. C., Turkenburg, 2007: A bottom-up assessment and review of global bio-energy potentials to 2050. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33 (1): 56–106.
Smith, A., K., Brown, S., Ogilvie, K., Rushton and J., Bates, 2001: Waste Management Options and Climate Change. Final Report to the European Commission, Brussels.
Sørensen, B., 1979: Renewable Energy, Academic Press, London, UK.
Sørensen, B., 1999: Long Term Scenarios for Global Energy Demand and Supply. Four Global Greenhouse mitigation Scenarios. Roskilde University.
Sørensen, B., 2004: Renewable Energy: Its Physics, Engineering, Use, Environmental Impacts, Economy and Planning Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, London.
,SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers), 2005: Glossary of Terms Used in Petroleum Reserves/Resources Definitions, Richardson, Texas, USA.
,Statistics Canada, 2005: Human Activity and the Environment. Statistics Canada-Environment Accounts and Statistics Division, Ottawa.
,Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft, 2009: Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2008 Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft E.V., Essen-Köln.
Stefansson, V., 2005: World Geothermal Assessment. In Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005. 24–29 April, Antalya
Stinner, W., K., Möller and G., Leithold, 2008: Effects of biogas digestion of clover/grass-leys, cover crops and crop residues on nitrogen cycle and crop yield in organic stockless farming systems. European Journal of Agronomy, 29 (2–3): 125–134.
Sugo, T., M., Tamada, S., Tadao, S., Takao, U., Masaki and K., Ryoichi, 2001: Recovery System for Uranium from Seawater with Fibrous Adsorbent and its Preliminary Cost Estimation. Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of japan, 43 (10): 1010–1016.
Tahil, W., 2007: The Trouble with Lithium. Meridian International Research, Martainville, France.
Tamada, M., N., Seko, N., Kasai, and T., Shimizu, 2006: Cost Estimation of Uranium Recovery from Seawater with System of Braid Type Adsorbent. JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2005, JAEA-Review 2006–042, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan.
Tamada, M., 2009: Current status of technology for collection of uranium from sea-water. In Erice Seminar. Erice, Italy.
,TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute), 1985: “Biogas Technology – an information package,” Tata Energy Documentation and Information Centre, Mumbai.
Tester, J. W., E. M., Drake, M. J., Driscoll, M. W., Golay and P. W., Peters, 2005: Sustainable Energy Choosing Among Options. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Themelis, N. J. and L. N., Themelis, 2007: Trip of Nickolas Themelis to China. Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Institute (WTERT), Chongqing. Columbia University, New York.
Trieb, F., C., Schillings, M., O'Sullivan, T., Pregger, and C., Hoyer-Klick, 2009: Global Potential of Concentrating Solar Power. In Solar Places Conference. Berlin.
Tsoutsos, T., N., Frantzeskaki and V., Gekas, 2005: Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies. Energy Policy, 33 (3): 289–296.
Tubiello, F. N., J.-F., Soussana, and S. M., Howden, 2007: Crop and pasture response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (50): 19686–19690.
Turek, M., K., Skryzynksi and A., Smolinksi, 2008: Structure and Changes of Production Costs in 1998–2005 in the Polish Hard Coal Industry. Glückauf Essen.
,UNECE/FAO, 2009: Forest Products Annual Market Review, 2008–2009. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UNECE/FAO), New York/Geneva.
,UNEP, 2009: Assessing Biofuels – Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Division of Technology Industry and Economics, International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management, Paris.
,UNESC (United Nations Economic and Social Council), 1997: “United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources.” Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, Switzerland.
,United Nations Population Division, 2008: World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database. United Nations Economic & Social Affairs, New York. esa.un.org/unup/ (accessed March 23, 2011).
,UNWWAP, 2006: Water: A Shared Responsibility. New York: United Nations World Water Assessment Program (UNWWAP).
,US EIA, 2007: Methodology for allocating municipal solid wastes to biogenic energy. US Energy Information Administration (US EIA), US Department of Energy. Washington, DC.
,US EIA, 2008: International Energy Statistics. US Energy Information Administration (US EIA), US Department of Energy. (accessed May 1, 2011).
,US EIA, 2010: US Natural Gas Wellhead Price. US Energy Information Administration (US EIA), US Department of Energy. tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9190us3m.htm (accessed May 1, 2011).
,USGS, 1980: Principles of a Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals. US Geological Survey (USGS) Circular 831.
,USGS, 2000: World Petroleum Assessment. CD-ROM. Washington, DC, US Geological Survey (USGS).
,USGS, 2008: Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. Fact Sheet 2008–3049, US Geological Survey (USGS), Washington, DC.
,USGS, 2009: Chapter D: Availability, Coal Resource Recoverability and Economics Evaluation in the United States- A Summary. Professional Paper 1625 F. In The National Coal Resource Overview. B. S., Pierce and K. O., Donnen, (eds.), US Geological Survey (USGS), Washington, DC.
,USGS, 2010: Mineral commodity Summaries 2010 (Lithium). US Geological Survey (USGS), Washington, DC.
Van den Ende, K. and F., Groeman, 2007: Blue Energy. Leonardo Energy. www.leonardo-energy.org/drupal/book/export/html/2243 (accessed April 20, 2011).
Vega, L. A., 1995: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. In Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment. A., Bisio and S., Boots, (eds.), Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ.
Veil, J. A., K. P., Smith, D., Tomasko, D., Elcock, E. L., Blunt, and G. P., Williams, 1999: Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns. Contract W-31–109-Eng-38, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office, Washington, DC.
Veil, J. A. and J. J., Quinn, 2008: Water Issues Associated with Heavy Oil Production. Report ANL/EVS/R-08/4 Argonne National Laboratory for the U S. Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office, Washington, DC.
Wagner, H., 1998: Zur Frage der Wirtschaftlichen Nutzung von Vorkommen Mineralischer Rohstoffe. In Energievorräte und Mineralische Rohstoffe: Wie Lange Noch? J., Zemann, (ed.), Verlag der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, 12, pp. 149–175.
Wagner, H. and G. B. L., Fettweis, 2001: About science and technology in the field of mining in the Western world at the beginning of the new century. Resources Policy, 27 (3): 157–168.
Walsh, M. E., 2008: U.S. cellulosic biomass feedstock supplies and distribution. M & E Biomass, Oak Ridge, TN.
Watson, R. T., I. R., Noble, B., Bolin, N. H., Ravindranath, D. J., Verardo, and D. J., Dokken, 2000: Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry. Special Report of the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
,WBGU, 2008: Welt im Wandel. Zukunftsfähige Bioenergie und nachhaltige Landnutzung. Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU), Berlin.
,WCI, 2008: The Coal Resource: A Comprehensive Overview of Coal. World Coal Institute (WCI), London.
,WEC, 1974: World Energy Conference Survey of Energy Resources 1974. 9th World Energy Conference, Detroit, September 1974. World Energy Council (WEC), US National Committee of the World Energy Conference, New York.
,WEC, 1994: New Renewable Energy Resources. World Energy Council (WEC), London.
,WEC, 1998: Survey of Energy Resources (18th Edition), World Energy Council (WEC), London.
,WEC, 2007: Survey of Energy Resources. World Energy Council (WEC), London.
,WEC, 2010: Survey of Energy Resources. World Energy Council (WEC), London.
Wellmer, F. W., 2008: Reserves and resources of the geosphere, terms so often misunderstood. Is the life index of reserves of natural resources a guide to the future?Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 159 (4): 575–590.
Wilhelm, W. W., J., Johnson, D., Karlen, and D., Lightle, 2007: Corn Stover to Sustain Soil Organic Carbon Further Constrains Biomass Supply. Agronomy Journal, 99 (6): 1665–1667.
Witze, A., 2007: Energy: That's oil folks…. Nature, 445: 14–17.
,WNA, 2009: Environmental Aspects of Uranium Mining. World Nuclear Association (WNA). www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf25.html (accessed April 20, 2010).
Wood, W. T. and W. Y., Jung, 2008: Modelling the Extend of the Earth's Marine Methane Hydrate Cryosphere. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates. July 6–10, Vancouver, BC.
,World Bank, 2008a: Global Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
,World Bank, 2008b: World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
,WPC (World Power Conference), 1936: Statistical yearbook of the World Power Conference. No.1 1933–1934, Central Office of the World Power Conference, London.
Yaksic, A. and J. E., Tilton, 2009: Using the cumulative availability curve to assess the threat of mineral depletion: The case of lithium. Resources Policy, 34 (4): 185–194.
Yang, B., Y., Lu, J., Sun, and S., Donghai, 2005: Potential for Cellulosic Ethanol Production in China. In International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. San Diego, CA.
Yoshioka, T., K., Aruga, T., Nitami, H., Sakai, and H., Kobayashi, 2006: A case study on the costs and the fuel consumption of harvesting, transporting, and chipping chains for logging residues in Japan. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30 (4): 342–348.
Young, G. C., 2006: Zapping MSW with Plasma Arc: An economic evaluation of a new technology for municipal solid waste treatment facilities. Pollution Engineering, 38 (11): 26–29.