Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
English in the Caribbean
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Stell, Gerald 2018. Representing Variation in Creole Continua: A Folk Linguistic View of Language Variation in Trinidad. Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Hackert, Stephanie and Laube, Alexander 2018. You ain’t got principle, you ain’t got nothing. English World-Wide, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 278.

    Kirk, John and Nelson, Gerald 2018. The International Corpus of English project: A progress report. World Englishes, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 697.

    Deuber, Dagmar Leimgruber, Jakob R. E. and Sand, Andrea 2018. Singaporean internet chit chat compared to informal spoken language. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 48.

    Salmon, William 2017. Language attitudes, generations, and identity in coastal Belize. African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 299.

    WILSON, GUYANNE WESTPHAL, MICHAEL HARTMANN, JOHANNA and DEUBER, DAGMAR 2017. The use of question tags in different text types of Trinidadian English. World Englishes, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 726.

    Westphal, Michael 2017. Language Variation on Jamaican Radio. Vol. G60, Issue. ,

    Patrick, Peter L. 2017. Language Contact in Africa and the African Diaspora in the Americas. Vol. 53, Issue. , p. 275.

    GUT, ULRIKE and FUCHS, ROBERT 2017. Exploring speaker fluency with phonologically annotated ICE corpora. World Englishes, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 387.

    NELSON, GERALD 2017. The ICE project and world Englishes. World Englishes, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 367.

    Evans, Stephen 2016. The English Language in Hong Kong. p. 1.

    Seoane, Elena 2016. World Englishes. Vol. G57, Issue. , p. 1.

    Hackert, Stephanie 2016. World Englishes. Vol. G57, Issue. , p. 85.

    Salmon, William and Gómez Menjivar, Jennifer 2016. Language variation and dimensions of prestige in Belizean Kriol. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Vol. 31, Issue. 2, p. 316.

    Salmon, William 2015. Language Ideology, Gender, and Varieties of Belizean Kriol. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 46, Issue. 6, p. 605.

    ×

Book description

This book presents an in-depth study of English as spoken in two major anglophone Caribbean territories, Jamaica and Trinidad. Based on data from the International Corpus of English, it focuses on variation at the morphological and syntactic level between the educated standard and more informal educated spoken usage. Dagmar Deuber combines quantitative analyses across several text categories with qualitative analyses of transcribed text passages that are grounded in interactional sociolinguistics and recent approaches to linguistic style and identity. The discussion is situated in the context of variation in the Caribbean and the wider context of world Englishes, and the sociolinguistic background of Jamaica and Trinidad is also explored. This volume will be of interest to students and researchers interested in the fields of sociolinguistics, world Englishes, and language contact.

Reviews

‘Corpus linguistics meets sociolinguistics meets creole studies: this thorough study offers fresh perspectives on the intricacies and interdependencies of standards, styles, variability and the creole continuum in Jamaica and Trinidad.’

Edgar W. Schneider - University of Regensburg

‘This book is a groundbreaking contribution to our understanding of the complex relationships between style, linguistic variation, and emergent standards in the more formal spoken English of Jamaica and Trinidad.’

Donald Winford - Ohio State University

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

References

Aceto, Michael. 2003. ‘What are Creole languages? An alternative approach to the anglophone Atlantic world with special emphasis on Barbudan Creole English.’ In Michael Aceto and Jeffrey P. Williams (eds.), Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 121–40.
Aceto, Michael 2004a. ‘Eastern Caribbean English-derived language varieties: morphology and syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 439–53.
Aceto, Michael 2004b. ‘Eastern Caribbean English-derived language varieties: phonology.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. i, pp. 481–500.
Akers, Glenn A. 1981. Phonological Variation in the Jamaican Creole Continuum. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1971. ‘Acculturation and the cultural matrix of creolization.’ In Hymes (ed.), pp. 169–86.
Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1980. Comparative Afro-American: An Historical-Comparative Study of English-Based Afro-American Dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Allsopp, Richard. 1958. ‘The English language in British Guyana.’ English Language Teaching 12: 59–66.
Allsopp, Richard 1996. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. Oxford University Press.
Alo, M. A. and Rajend Mesthrie. 2004. ‘Nigerian English: morphology and syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 813–27.
Alsagoff, Lubna. 2007. ‘Singlish: negotiating culture, capital and identity.’ In Viniti Vaish, S. Gopinathan and Yongbing Liu (eds.), Language, Capital, Culture: Critical Studies of Language and Education in Singapore. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 25–46.
Ansaldo, Umberto. 2004. ‘The evolution of Singapore English: finding the matrix.’ In Lim (ed.), pp. 127–49.
Antaki, Charles, Susan Condor and Mark Levine. 1996. ‘Social identities in talk: speakers’ own orientations.’ British Journal of Social Psychology 35: 473–92.
Antaki, Charles and Sue Widdicombe (eds.). 1998. Identities in Talk. London: Sage.
Auer, Peter. 1984a. Bilingual Conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Auer, Peter 1984b. ‘On the meaning of conversational code-switching.’ In Peter Auer and Aldo di Luzio (eds.), Interpretive Sociolinguistics: Migrants – Children – Migrant Children. Tübingen: Narr, pp. 87–108.
Auer, Peter 1988. ‘A conversation analytic approach to code-switching and transfer.’ In Heller (ed.), pp. 187–213.
Auer, Peter 1992. ‘Introduction: John Gumperz’ approach to contextualization.’ In Peter Auer and Aldo di Luzio (eds.), The Contextualization of Language. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 1–37.
Auer, Peter 1995. ‘The pragmatics of code-switching: a sequential approach.’ In Lesley Milroy and Pieter Muysken (eds.), One Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching. Cambridge University Press, pp. 115–35.
Auer, Peter (ed.). 1998. Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity. London: Routledge.
Auer, Peter 2005. ‘A postscript: code-switching and social identity.’ Journal of Pragmatics 37: 403–10.
Bailey, Beryl L. 1966. Jamaican Creole Syntax: A Transformational Approach. Cambridge University Press.
Bailey, Beryl L. 1971. ‘Jamaican Creole: can dialect boundaries be defined?’ In Hymes (ed.), pp. 341–48.
Baker, Philip. 1999. ‘Investigating the origin and diffusion of shared features among the Atlantic English Creoles.’ In Philip Baker and Adrienne Bruyn (eds.), St Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles: The Texts of Samuel Augustus Mathews in Perspective. London: University of Westminster Press, pp. 315–64.
Baker, Philip and Chris Corne. 1982. Isle de France Creole: Affinities and Origins. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1984. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, ed. and trans. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1986. Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, trans. Vern W. McGee, ed. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Bandhan, Shirley. 1990. ‘An investigation into the implementation of the draft primary school Language Arts syllabus – 1986.’ MEd thesis, University of the West Indies, St Augustine.
Bautista, Ma.LourdesS. 2004. ‘The verb in Philippine English: a preliminary analysis of modal would.’ World Englishes 23: 113–28.
Beckford Wassink, Alicia. 1999. ‘Historic low prestige and seeds of change: attitudes toward Jamaican Creole.’ Language in Society 28: 57–92.
Beckford Wassink, Alicia 2001. ‘Theme and variation in Jamaican vowels.’ Language Variation and Change 13: 135–59.
Belgrave, Korah. 2008. ‘Speaking the Queen's English: attitudes of Barbadians to British, American and Barbadian accents.’ La Torre: Revista General de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 49–50: 429–44.
Bell, Allan. 1984. ‘Language style as audience design.’ Language in Society 13: 145–204.
Bell, Allan 1990. ‘Audience and referee design in New Zealand media language.’ In Allan Bell and Janet Holmes (eds.), New Zealand Ways of Speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, pp. 165–94.
Bell, Allan 1992. ‘Hit and miss: referee design in the dialects of New Zealand television advertising.’ Language and Communication 12: 327–40.
Bell, Allan 1999. ‘Styling the other to define the self: a study in New Zealand television advertising.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 3: 523–41.
Bell, Allan 2001. ‘Back in style: reworking audience design.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 139–69.
Berglund, Ylva. 1997. ‘Future in present-day English: corpus-based evidence on the rivalry of expressions.’ ICAME Journal 21: 7–20.
Berglund, Ylva 1999. ‘Utilising present-day English corpora: a case study concerning expressions of future.’ ICAME Journal 24: 25–63.
Bhatt, Rakesh M. 2004. ‘Indian English: syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 1016–30.
Biber, Douglas. 1988. Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge University Press.
Biber, Douglas 1994. ‘An analytical framework for register studies.’ In Biber and Finegan (eds.), pp. 31–56.
Biber, Douglas and Edward Finegan (eds.). 1994. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. Oxford University Press.
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finegan. 1999. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
Bickerton, Derek. 1973. ‘The nature of a creole continuum.’ Language 49: 640–69.
Bickerton, Derek. 1975. Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge University Press.
Bickerton, Derek. 1980. ‘Decreolisation and the creole continuum.’ In Valdman and Highfield (eds.), pp. 109–27.
Bickerton, Derek. 1983. Review of Baker and Corne, Isle de France Creole. The Carrier Pidgin 13.4: 8–9.
Bickerton, Derek. 1988. ‘Creole languages and the bioprogramme.’ In Frederick J. Newmeyer (ed.), Linguistics: the Cambridge Survey, vol. ii: Linguistic Theory: Extensions and Implications. Cambridge University Press, pp. 268–84.
Biewer, Carolin. 2009. ‘Modals and semi-modals of obligation and necessity in South Pacific Englishes.’ Anglistik 20: 41–55.
Biewer, Carolin, Marianne Hundt and Lena Zipp. 2010. ‘“How” a Fiji corpus: challenges in the compilation of an ESL ICE component.’ ICAME Journal 34: 5–23.
Blom, Jan-Petter and John J. Gumperz. 1972. ‘Social meaning in linguistic structure: code-switching in Norway.’ In Gumperz and Hymes (eds.), pp. 407–34.
Blouet, Olwyn M. 2002. ‘The Caribbean.’ In Brian W. Blouet and Olwyn M. Blouet (eds.), Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic and Regional Survey (4th edn). New York: Wiley, pp. 311–66.
Borely, Clive. n.d. ‘Teaching Trinidadian(s) English.’ Educational Journal of Trinidad and Tobago 2.2: 1–6.
Brown-Blake, Celia. 2008. ‘The right to linguistic non-discrimination and Creole language situations: the case of Jamaica.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 23: 32–74.
Bruckmaier, Elisabeth and Stephanie Hackert. 2011. ‘Bahamian Standard English: a first approach.’ English World-Wide 32: 174–205.
Carpenter, Karen and Hubert Devonish. 2010. ‘Swimming against the tide: Jamaican Creole in education.’ In Bettina Migge, Isabelle Léglise and Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 167–81.
Carrington, Lawrence D. 1976. ‘Determining language education policy in Caribbean sociolinguistic complexes.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 8: 27–43.
Carrington, Lawrence D. 1978. ‘Language problems in schools of today.’ Trinidad and Tobago Review, January 1987: 15–16, 26.
Carrington, Lawrence D. 2001. ‘The status of Creole in the Caribbean.’ In Pauline Christie (ed.), Due Respect: Essays on English and English-Related Creoles in the Caribbean in Honour of Professor Robert Le Page. Mona: University of the West Indies Press, pp. 25–36.
Carrington, Lawrence D. and Clive B. Borely. 1978. The Language Arts Syllabus 1975: Comment and Counter Comment. St Augustine: UWI School of Education.
Cassidy, Frederic G. 1961. Jamaica Talk: Three Hundred Years of the English Language in Jamaica. London: Macmillan.
Cassidy, Frederic G. and Robert B. Le Page (eds.). 1980. Dictionary of Jamaican English (2nd edn). Cambridge University Press.
Central Intelligence Agency. 2012a. ‘Jamaica.’ In The World Factbook. www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Central Intelligence Agency. 2012b. ‘Trinidad and Tobago.’ In The World Factbook. www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/td.html. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Cheshire, Jenny, Viv Edwards and Pamela Whittle. 1993. ‘Non-standard English and dialect levelling.’ In James Milroy and Lesley Milroy (eds.), Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles. London: Longman, pp. 53–96.
Christie, Pauline. 1989. ‘Questions of standards and intra-regional differences in Caribbean examinations.’ In Ofelia Garcia and Ricardo Otheguy (eds.), English across Cultures, Cultures across English: A Reader in Cross-Cultural Communication. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 243–62.
Christie, Pauline. 2003. Language in Jamaica. Kingston: Arawak Publications.
Coates, Jennifer. 1983. The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries. London: Croom Helm.
Collins, Peter C. 2005. ‘The modals and quasi-modals of obligation and necessity in Australian English and other Englishes’. English World-Wide 26: 249–73.
Collins, Peter C. 2007a. ‘Can/could and may/might in British, American and Australian English: a corpus-based account.’ World Englishes 26: 474–91.
Collins, Peter C. 2007b. ‘Modality across world Englishes: the modals and semi-modals of prediction and volition.’ In Christopher S. Butler, Raquel Hidalgo Downing and Julia Lavid (eds.), Functional Perspectives on Grammar and Discourse: In Honour of Angela Downing. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 448–68.
Collins, Peter C. 2009a. Modals and Quasi-modals in English. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Collins, Peter C. 2009b. ‘Modals and quasi-modals in world Englishes.’ World Englishes 28: 281–92.
Comrie, Bernard. 1985. Tense. Cambridge University Press.
Coupland, Nikolas. 1980. ‘Style-shifting in a Cardiff work setting.’ Language in Society 9: 1–12.
Coupland, Nikolas. 1984. ‘Accommodation at work: some phonological data and their implications.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 46: 49–70.
Coupland, Nikolas. 1985. ‘“Hark, hark, the lark”: social motivations for phonological style-shifting.’ Language and Communication 5: 153–71.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2001a. ‘Dialect stylization in radio talk.’ Language in Society 30: 345–75.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2001b. ‘Language, situation and the relational self: theorizing dialect-style in sociolinguistics.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 185–210.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2007a. ‘Aneurin Bevan, class wars and the styling of political antagonism.’ In Peter Auer (ed.), Style and Social Identities: Alternative Approaches to Linguistic Heterogeneity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 213–45.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2007b. Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge University Press.
Craig, Dennis. 1966. ‘Teaching English to Jamaican Creole speakers: a model of a multi-dialect situation.’ Language Learning 16: 49–61.
Craig, Dennis. 1971. ‘Education and Creole English in the West Indies: some sociolinguistic factors.’ In Hymes (ed.), pp. 371–87.
Craig, Dennis. 1976. ‘Bidialectal education: Creole and Standard in the West Indies.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 8: 93–134.
Craig, Dennis. 1978. ‘Language education in a post-creole society.’ In BernardSpolsky and RobertL. Cooper (eds.), Case Studies in Bilingual Education. Rowley: Newbury House, pp. 404–26.
Craig, Dennis. 1980. ‘Models for educational policy in Creole-speaking communities.’ In Valdman and Highfield (eds.), pp. 245–65.
Craig, Dennis. 1982. ‘Toward a description of Caribbean English.’ In Braj B. Kachru (ed.), The Other Tongue: English across Cultures. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, pp. 210–26.
Craig, Dennis. 1997. ‘The English of West Indian university students.’ In Schneider (ed.), pp. 11–24.
Craig, Dennis. 1999. Teaching Language and Literacy: Policies and Procedures for Vernacular Situations. Georgetown, Guyana: Education and Development Services.
Craig, Dennis. 2006. ‘The use of the vernacular in West Indian education.’ In Simmons-McDonald and Robertson (eds.), pp. 99–117.
DeCamp, David. 1960. ‘Four Jamaican Creole texts with introduction, phonemic transcription and glosses.’ In Le Page (ed.), pp. 128–79.
DeCamp, David. 1961. ‘Social and geographical factors in Jamaican dialects.’ In Robert B. Le Page (ed.), Proceedings of the Conference on Creole Language Studies Held at the University College of the West Indies March 28 – April 4, 1959 (Creole Language Studies ii). London: Macmillan, pp. 61–84.
DeCamp, David. 1971. ‘Toward a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum.’ In Hymes (ed.), pp. 349–70.
de Rooij, Vincent. 1995. ‘Variation.’ In Jacques Arends, Pieter Muysken and Norval Smith (eds.), Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 53–64.
Deterding, David. 2003. ‘Tenses and will/would in a corpus of Singapore English.’ In Deterding, Low and Brown (eds.), pp. 31–8.
Deterding, David. 2007. Singapore English. Edinburgh University Press.
Deterding, David, Low Ee Ling and Adam Brown (eds.). 2003. English in Singapore: Research on Grammar. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
Deuber, Dagmar. 2005. Nigerian Pidgin in Lagos: Language Contact, Variation and Change in an African Urban Setting. London: Battlebridge.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2006. ‘Morphosyntactic and lexical variation in the Jamaican acrolect: Creole elements in the conversational component of ICE-Jamaica.’ Paper presented at Sociolinguistics Symposium 16, Limerick, July.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2009a. ‘Caribbean ICE corpora: some issues for fieldwork and analysis.’ In Andreas H. Jucker, Marianne Hundt and Daniel Schreier (eds.), Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse. Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 29). Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 425–50.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2009b. ‘“The English we speaking”: morphological and syntactic variation in educated Jamaican speech.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24: 1–52.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2009c. ‘Standard English in the secondary school in Trinidad: problems – properties – prospects.’ In Hoffmann and Siebers (eds.), pp. 83–104.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2010. ‘Modal verb usage at the interface of English and a related Creole: a corpus-based study of can/could and will/would in Trinidadian English.’ Journal of English Linguistics 38: 105–42.
Deuber, Dagmar. 2011. ‘The creole continuum and individual agency: approaches to stylistic variation in Jamaica.’ In Hinrichs and Farquharson (eds.), pp. 133–61.
Deuber, Dagmar, Carolin Biewer, Stephanie Hackert and Michaela Hilbert. 2012. ‘Will and would in selected New Englishes: general and variety-specific tendencies.’ In Marianne Hundt and Ulrike Gut (eds.), Mapping Unity and Diversity World-Wide: Corpus-Based Studies of New Englishes. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 77–102.
Deuber, Dagmar and Lars Hinrichs. 2007. ‘Dynamics of orthographic standardization in Jamaican Creole and Nigerian Pidgin.’ World Englishes 26: 22–47.
Deuber, Dagmar and Glenda Leung. 2013. ‘Investigating attitudes towards an emerging standard of English: evaluations of newscasters’ accents in Trinidad.’ Multilingua 32: 289–319.
Deuber, Dagmar and Valerie Youssef. 2007. ‘Teacher language in Trinidad: a pilot corpus study of direct and indirect creolisms in the verb phrase.’ In Corpus Linguistics Conference 2007, Proceedings. www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/corpus/publications/conference-archives/2007-birmingham.aspx. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Devonish, Hubert. 1986. Language and Liberation: Creole Language Politics in the Caribbean. London: Karia.
Devonish, Hubert. 1998. ‘On the existence of autonomous language varieties in “creole continuum situations”.’ In Pauline Christie, Barbara Lalla, Velma Pollard and Lawrence Carrington (eds.), Studies in Caribbean Language II. St Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics, pp. 1–12.
Devonish, Hubert. 2003. ‘Language advocacy and “conquest” diglossia in the “anglophone” Caribbean.’ In Christian Mair (ed.), The Politics of English as a World Language: New Horizons in Postcolonial Cultural Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 157–77.
Devonish, Hubert and Otelemate G. Harry. 2004. ‘Jamaican Creole and Jamaican English: phonology.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. i, pp. 451–80.
Dyche, Caroline. 1996. ‘Writing proficiency in English and academic performance: the University of the West Indies, Mona.’ In Pauline Christie (ed.), Caribbean Language Issues – Old and New: Papers in Honour of Professor Mervyn Alleyne. Mona: University of the West Indies Press, pp. 143–59.
Eckert, Penelope. 2000. Linguistic Variation as Social Practice: The Linguistic Construction of Identity in Belten High. Oxford: Blackwell.
Eckert, Penelope. 2001. ‘Style and social meaning.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 119–26.
Eckert, Penelope. 2005. ‘Variation, convention, and social meaning.’ Plenary paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Oakland, January. www.stanford.edu/~eckert/EckertLSA2005.pdf. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Eckert, Penelope. 2008. ‘Variation and the indexical field.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 12: 453–76.
Eckert, Penelope and John R. Rickford (eds.). 2001. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge University Press.
Edwards, Walter F. 1975. ‘Sociolinguistic behaviour in rural and urban circumstances in Guyana.’ PhD thesis, University of York.
Edwards, Walter F. 1983. ‘Code selection and shifting in Guyana.’ Language in Society 12: 295–311.
Edwards, Walter F. 1985. ‘Intra-style shifting and linguistic variation in Guyanese speech.’ Anthropological Linguistics 27: 87–93.
Eerdmans, Susan L., Carlo L. Prevignano and Paul J. Thibault (eds.). 2003. Language and Interaction: Discussions with John J. Gumperz. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Escure, Geneviève. 1982. ‘Contrastive patterns of intragroup and intergroup interaction in the creole continuum of Belize.’ Language in Society 11: 239–64.
Escure, Geneviève. 1997. Creole and Dialect Continua: Standard Acquisition Processes in Belize and China (PRC). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Evans, Hyacinth. 2001. Inside Jamaican Schools. Mona: University of the West Indies Press.
Facchinetti, Roberta. 2002. ‘Can and could in contemporary British English: a study of the ICE-GB corpus.’ In Pam Peters, Peter Collins and Adam Smith (eds.), New Frontiers of Corpus Research: Papers from the Twenty First International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora Sydney 2000. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 229–46.
Facchinetti, Roberta, Manfred Krug and Frank Palmer (eds.). 2003. Modality in Contemporary English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Filppula, Markku, Juhani Klemola and Heli Paulasto. 2009a. ‘Digging for roots: universals and contact in regional varieties of English.’ In Filppula, Klemola and Paulasto (eds.), pp. 231–61.
Filppula, Markku, Juhani Klemola and Heli Paulasto (eds.). 2009b. Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond. London: Routledge.
Finegan, Edward and Douglas Biber. 1994. ‘Register and social dialect variation: an integrated approach.’ In Biber and Finegan (eds.), pp. 315–47.
Finegan, Edward and DouglasBiber. 2001. ‘Register variation and social dialect variation: the register axiom.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 235–67.
Gargesh, Ravinder. 2004. ‘Indian English: phonology.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. i, pp. 992–1002.
Garrett, Peter. 2010. Attitudes to Language. Cambridge University Press.
Giles, Howard and Peter F. Powesland. 1975. Speech Style and Social Evaluation. London: Academic Press.
Görlach, Manfred. 1991. ‘English as a world language – the state of the art.’ In Manfred Görlach, Englishes: Studies in Varieties of English 1984–1988. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 10–35.
Greenbaum, Sidney (ed.). 1996a. Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English. Oxford: Clarendon.
Greenbaum, Sidney. 1996b. ‘Introducing ICE.’ In Greenbaum (ed.), pp. 3–12.
Gumperz, John J. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge University Press.
Gumperz, John J. 1999. ‘On interactional sociolinguistic method.’ In Srikant Sarangi and Celia Roberts (eds.), Talk, Work and Institutional Order: Discourse in Medical, Mediation and Management Settings. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 453–71.
Gumperz, John J. and Dell Hymes (eds.). 1972. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser. 1994. The Step-Tongue: Children's English in Singapore. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gut, Ulrike. 2009. ‘Past tense marking in Singapore English verbs.’ English World-Wide 30: 262–77.
Guy, Gregory R. and SallyBoyd. 1990. ‘The development of a morphological class.’ Language Variation and Change 2: 1–18.
Hackert, Stephanie. 2004. Urban Bahamian Creole: System and Variation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hackert, Stephanie. 2006. ‘Oral narrative and tense in urban Bahamian Creole.’ In Ana Deumert and Stephanie Durrlemans (eds.), Structure and Variation in Language Contact. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 225–42.
Hackert, Stephanie. 2010. ‘ICE-Bahamas: why and how?ICAME Journal 34: 41–53.
Hackert, Stephanie, Dagmar Deuber, Carolin Biewer and Michaela Hilbert. 2013. ‘Modals of possibility, ability and permission in selected New Englishes.’ In Magnus Huber and Joybrato Mukherjee (eds.), Corpus Linguistics and Variation in English: Focus on Non-Native Englishes (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change 13). www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/13/hackert_deuber_biewer_hilbert/. Viewed 11 November 2013.
Hancock, Ian F. 1987. ‘A preliminary classification of the anglophone Atlantic Creoles with syntactic data from thirty-three representative dialects.’ In Glenn G. Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 264–333.
Heller, Monica (ed.). 1988. Codeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hewitt-Bradshaw, Iris. 2001. ‘An investigation into the development of oral language skills in Standard English of pupils in selected primary schools in Trinidad.’ MPhil thesis, University of the West Indies, St Augustine.
Hilbert, Michaela. 2008. ‘Interrogative inversion in non-standard varieties of English.’ In Peter Siemund and Noemi Kintana (eds.), Language Contact and Contact Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 261–89.
Hinrichs, Lars. 2006. Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-Mail Communication. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hinrichs, Lars and Joseph Farquharson (eds.). 2011. Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Ho, Mian Lian. 2003. ‘Past marking in Singapore English.’ In Deterding, Low and Brown (eds.), pp. 39–47.
Ho, Mian Lian and John Platt. 1993. Dynamics of a Contact Continuum: Singaporean English. Oxford: Clarendon.
Hodge, Merle. 1997. The Knots in English: A Manual for Caribbean Users. Wellesley: Calaloux Publications.
Hoffmann, Thomas and Lucia Siebers (eds.). 2009. World Englishes – Problems, Properties and Prospects: Selected Papers from the 13th IAWE Conference. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Höhn, Nicole. 2011. ‘Quotatives in the Jamaican acrolect: corpus-based variationist studies of vernacular globalisation in World Englishes.’ PhD thesis, University of Freiburg.
Holm, John A. 1984. ‘Variability of the copula in Black English and its creole kin.’ American Speech 59: 291–309.
Holm, John A. 1988. Pidgins and Creoles, vol. i: Theory and Structure. Cambridge University Press.
Holm, John A. 1989. Pidgins and Creoles, vol. ii: Reference Survey. Cambridge University Press.
Holm, John A. 1994. ‘English in the Caribbean.’ In Robert Burchfield (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. v: English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development. Cambridge University Press, pp. 328–81.
Holm, John A. with Alison Watt Shilling. 1982. Dictionary of Bahamian English. Cold Spring, NY: Lexic House.
Holmes, Janet. 1996. ‘The New Zealand spoken component of ICE: some methodological challenges.’ In Greenbaum (ed.), pp. 163–81.
Huber, Magnus and Kari Dako. 2004. ‘Ghanaian English: morphology and syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 854–65.
Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge University Press.
Hudson-Ettle, Diana M. and Josef Schmied. 1999. ‘Manual to accompany the East African Component of the International Corpus of English.’ www.tu-chemnitz.de/phil/english/chairs/linguist/real/independent/ICE-EA/. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Hundt, Marianne. 2006. ‘The committee has/have decided …: on concord patterns with collective nouns in inner- and outer-circle varieties of English.’ Journal of English Linguistics 34: 206–32.
Hymes, Dell (ed.). 1971. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Cambridge University Press.
Hymes, Dell. 1972. ‘Models of the interaction of language and social life.’ In Gumperz and Hymes (eds.), pp. 35–71.
Irvine, Alison. 1994. ‘Dialect variation in Jamaican English: a study of the phonology of social group marking.’ English World-Wide 15: 55–78.
Irvine, Alison. 2004. ‘A good command of the English language: phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19: 41–76.
Irvine, Alison. 2008. ‘Contrast and convergence in Standard Jamaican English: the phonological architecture of the standard in an ideologically bidialectal community.’ World Englishes 27: 9–25.
Irvine, Judith T. 2001. ‘“Style” as distinctiveness: the culture and ideology of linguistic differentiation.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 21–43.
Jamaica, Ministry of Education, Youth and Culture. 2001. Language Education Policy. moeyc.gov.jm/policies/languagepolicy.pdf. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Jamaican Language Unit. 2005. ‘The language attitude survey of Jamaica: data analysis.’ www.mona.uwi.edu/dllp/jlu/projects/Report for Language Attitude Survey of Jamaica.pdf. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Jamaican Language Unit. 2009. Writing Jamaican the Jamaican Way/Ou fi Rait Jamiekan. Kingston: Arawak.
James, Winford and Valerie Youssef. 2002. The Languages of Tobago: Genesis, Structure and Perspectives. St Augustine: UWI School of Continuing Studies.
James, Winford and Valerie Youssef. 2004. ‘The Creoles of Trinidad and Tobago: morphology and syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 454–81.
Jantos, Susanne. 2009. ‘Agreement in educated Jamaican English: a corpus investigation of ICE-Jamaica.’ PhD thesis, University of Freiburg.
Jantos, Susanne. 2010. ‘Agreement in educated Jamaican English: a corpus-based study of spoken usage in ICE-Jamaica.’ In Anja Wanner and Heidrun Dorgeloh (eds.), Approaches to Syntactic Variation and Genre. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 305–31.
Kennedy, Graeme. 2002. ‘Variation in the distribution of modal verbs in the British National Corpus.’ In Randi Reppen, Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Douglas Biber (eds.), Using Corpora to Explore Linguistic Variation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 73–90.
Kortmann, Bernd and Edgar W. Schneider (eds.). 2004. A Handbook of Varieties of English. 2 vols. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kortmann, Bernd and Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2004. ‘Global synopsis: morphological and syntactic variation in English.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 1142–1202.
Kouwenberg, Silvia, Winnie Anderson-Brown, Terri-Ann Barrett, Shyrel-Ann Dean, Tamirand De Lisser, Havenol Douglas, Marsha Forbes, Autense France, Lorna Gordon, Byron Jones, Novelette McLean and Jodianne Scott. 2011. ‘Linguistics in the Caribbean: empowerment through Creole language awareness.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 26: 387–403.
Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju. 1998. ‘Telugu.’ In Steever (ed.), pp. 202–40.
Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju. 2003. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press.
Krug, Manfred. 2000. Emerging English Modals: A Corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kujore, Obafemi. 1985. English Usage: Some Notable Nigerian Variations. Ibadan: Evans.
Labov, William. 1963. ‘The social motivation of a sound change.’ Word 19: 273–309.
Labov, William. 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov, William. 1972a. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Labov, William. 1972b. ‘Some principles of linguistic methodology.’ Language in Society 1: 97–120.
Labov, William. 1984. ‘Field methods of the Project on Linguistic Change and Variation.’ In John Baugh and Joel Sherzer (eds.), Language in Use. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 28–53.
Labov, William. 2001. ‘The anatomy of style-shifting.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 85–108.
Labov, William. 2006. The Social Stratification of English in New York City (2nd edn). Cambridge University Press.
Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins and John Lewis. 1968. A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City. 2 vols. New York: Columbia University.
Lalla, Barbara. 2005. ‘Creole and respec’ in the development of Jamaican literary discourse.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 20: 53–84.
Lalla, Barbara and Jean D’Costa. 1990. Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Lawton, David. 1980. ‘Language attitude, discreteness, and code-shifting in Jamaican Creole.’ English World-Wide 1: 211–26.
Leech, Geoffrey. 2003. ‘Modality on the move: the English modal auxiliaries 1961–1992.’ In Facchinetti, Krug and Palmer (eds.), pp. 223–40.
Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair and Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study. Cambridge University Press.
Leimgruber, Jakob. 2009. ‘Modelling variation in Singapore English.’ PhD thesis, University of Oxford.
Leimgruber, Jakob. 2012. ‘Singapore English: an indexical approach.’ World Englishes 31: 1–14.
Le Page, Robert B. 1960a. ‘An historical introduction to Jamaican Creole.’ In Le Page (ed.), pp. 3–124.
Le Page, Robert B. (ed.). 1960b. Jamaican Creole (Creole Language Studies i). London: Macmillan.
Le Page, Robert B. and Andrée Tabouret-Keller. 1985. Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge University Press.
Leung, Glenda Alicia. 2009. ‘Negotiation of Trinidadian identity in ragga soca music.’ World Englishes 28: 509–31.
Leung, Glenda Alicia. 2012. ‘The man-of-words revisited: Jamaican Creole and American English in Trinidadian verbal play.’ In Kristian Van Haesendonck (ed.), Going Caribbean: New Perspectives on Caribbean Literature and Art. Ribeirᾶo: Húmus, pp. 181–200.
Lim, Lisa (ed.). 2004. Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Lim, Lisa and Joseph A. Foley. 2004. ‘English in Singapore and Singapore English: background and methodology.’ In Lim (ed.), pp. 1–18.
Mair, Christian. 1992. ‘Problems in the compilation of a corpus of Standard Caribbean English: a pilot study.’ In Gerhard Leitner (ed.), New Directions in English Language Corpora: Methodology, Results, Software Developments. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 75–96.
Mair, Christian. 2002. ‘Creolisms in an emerging standard: written English in Jamaica.’ English World-Wide 23: 31–58.
Mair, Christian. 2003a. ‘Kreolismen und verbales Identitätsmanagement im geschriebenen jamaikanischen Englisch.’ In Elisabeth Vogel, Antonia Napp and Wolfram Lutterer (eds.), Zwischen Ausgrenzung und Hybridisierung: Zur Konstruktion von Identitäten in kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 79–96.
Mair, Christian. 2003b. ‘Language, code, and symbol: the changing roles of Jamaican Creole in diaspora communities.’ Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 28: 231–48.
Mair, Christian. 2007. ‘Corpus linguistics meets sociolinguistics: the role of corpus evidence in the study of sociolinguistic variation and change.’ Paper presented at ICAME 28, Stratford-upon-Avon, May [published as Mair 2009].
Mair, Christian. 2009. ‘Corpus linguistics meets sociolinguistics: the role of corpus evidence in the study of sociolinguistic variation and change.’ In Antoinette Renouf and Andrew Kehoe (eds.), Corpus Linguistics: Refinements and Reassessments. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 7–32.
Mair, Christian and Andrea Sand. 1998. ‘Caribbean English: structure and status of an emerging variety.’ In Raimund Borgmeier, Herbert Grabes and Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Anglistentag 1997 Giessen. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, pp. 187–98.
Masica, Colin P. 1991. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press.
McWhorter, John. 1995. ‘Sisters under the skin: a case for genetic relationship between the Atlantic English-based creoles.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 10: 289–333.
McWhorter, John. 1997. ‘It happened at Cormantin: locating the origin of the Atlantic English-based Creoles.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 12: 59–102.
McWhorter, John. 2006. ‘Creole transplantation: a source of solutions to resistant anomalies.’ In J. Clancy Clements, Thomas A. Klingler, Deborah Piston-Hatlen and Kevin J. Rottet (eds.), History, Society and Variation: In Honour of Albert Valdman. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 103–33.
Meade, Rocky R. 2001. Acquisition of Jamaican Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Mendoza-Denton, Norma. 2008. Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mesthrie, Rajend. 1992. English in Language Shift: The History, Structure and Sociolinguistics of South African Indian English. Cambridge University Press.
Meyerhoff, Miriam and Nancy Niedzielski. 2003. ‘The globalisation of vernacular variation.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 7: 534–55.
Miller, Faye. 1987. ‘Acrolectal Jamaican English: some aspects of phonological and morpho-syntactic variation.’ MPhil thesis, University of the West Indies, Mona.
Milroy, Lesley. 2001. ‘Conversation, spoken language, and social identity.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 268–78.
Mindt, Dieter. 1995. An Empirical Grammar of the English Verb: Modal Verbs. Berlin: Cornelsen.
Morgan, Marcyliena (ed.). 1994. Language and the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies.
Mufwene, Salikoko S. 1994. ‘On decreolization: the case of Gullah.’ In Morgan (ed.), pp. 63–99.
Mufwene, Salikoko S. 2001. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge University Press.
Mühleisen, Susanne. 2001. ‘Is “Bad English” dying out? A diachronic comparative study of attitudes towards Creole versus Standard English in Trinidad.’ PhiN 15: 43–78. web.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin15/p15t3.htm. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Mühleisen, Susanne. 2002. Creole Discourse: Exploring Prestige Formation and Change across Caribbean English-Lexicon Creoles. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Mukherjee, Joybrato. 2007. ‘Steady states in the evolution of New Englishes: present-day Indian English as an equilibrium.’ Journal of English Linguistics 35: 157–87.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1983. ‘The negotiation of identities in conversation: a theory of markedness and code choice.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 44: 115–36.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1988. ‘Code switching as indexical of social negotiations.’ In Heller (ed.), pp. 151–85.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Social Motivations for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon.
Myers-Scotton, Carol and Agnes Bolonyai. 2001. ‘Calculating speakers: codeswitching in a rational choice model.’ Language in Society 30: 1–28.
Nelson, Gerald. 1996. ‘The design of the corpus.’ In Greenbaum (ed.), pp. 27–53.
Nelson, Gerald. 2002. ‘Markup manual for spoken texts.’ http://ice-corpora.net/ice/manuals.htm. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Nelson, Gerald. 2003. ‘Modals of obligation and necessity in varieties of English.’ In Pamela Peters (ed.), From Local to Global English: Proceedings of the Style Council 2001/2. Sydney: Macquarie University, Dictionary Research Centre, pp. 25–32.
Nkemleke, Daniel. 2007. ‘Frequency and use of modals in Cameroonian English and application to language education.’ Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics 33: 87–105.
O’Donnell, William R. and Loreto Todd 1980. Variety in Contemporary English. London: Allen and Unwin.
Palmer, Frank R. 1990. Modality and the English Modals (2nd edn). London: Longman.
Patrick, Peter L. 1994. ‘Functional pressures on plural-marking in Jamaican Patwa.’ Paper presented at the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics meeting, Georgetown, Guyana, August.
Patrick, Peter L. 1999. Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Patrick, Peter L. 2004. ‘Jamaican Creole: morphology and syntax.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. ii, pp. 407–38.
Patrick, Peter L., Isolda Carranza and Shari Kendall. 1993. ‘Number-marking in the speech of Jamaican women.’ Paper presented at NWAVE-XXII, Ottawa, October.
Platt, John. 1975. ‘The Singapore English speech continuum and its basilect “Singlish” as a “creoloid”.’ Anthropological Linguistics 17: 363–74.
Platt, John. 1979. ‘Variation and implicational relationships: copula realization in Singapore English.’ General Linguistics 19: 1–14.
Platt, John and Heidi Weber. 1980. English in Singapore and Malaysia: Status, Features, Functions. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Platt, John, Heidi Weber and Mian Lian Ho. 1984. The New Englishes. London: Routledge.
Preston, Dennis R. 2001. ‘Style and the psycholinguistics of sociolinguistics: the logical problem of language variation.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 279–304.
Prevignano, Carlo L. and Aldo di Luzio. 2003. ‘A discussion with John J. Gumperz.’ In Eerdmans, Prevignano and Thibault (eds.), pp. 7–29.
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents. London: Longman.
Rampton, Ben. 1998. ‘Language crossing and the redefinition of reality.’ In Auer (ed.), pp. 290–317.
Rampton, Ben. 2006. Language in Late Modernity: Interaction in an Urban School. Cambridge University Press.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Ministry of Education. 1999. Primary School Syllabus (Infants I and II and Standards I & II), Language Arts.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Ministry of Education. 2003. Draft Secondary School Curriculum, Form Three, Language Arts.
Rickford, John R. 1979. Variation in a Creole Continuum: Quantitative and Implicational Approaches. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania. Ann Arbor: UMI.
Rickford, John R. 1985. ‘Standard and non-standard language attitudes in a Creole continuum.’ In Nessa Wolfson and Joan Manes (eds.), Language of Inequality. Amsterdam: Mouton, pp. 145–60.
Rickford, John R. 1986. ‘Past-marking in the Guyanese mesolect: a close look at Bonnette.’ In Keith M. Denning, Sharon Inkelas, Faye C. McNair-Knox and John R. Rickford (eds.), Variation in Language: NWAV-XV at Stanford. Stanford University Department of Linguistics, pp. 379–94.
Rickford, John R. 1987. Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts and Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford University Press.
Rickford, John R. 1992. ‘The creole residue in Barbados.’ In Joan H. Hall, Nick Doane and Dick Ringler (eds.), Old English and New: Studies in Honor of Frederic G. Cassidy. New York: Garland, pp. 182–201.
Rickford, John R. 1996. ‘Copula variability in Jamaican Creole and African American Vernacular English: a reanalysis of DeCamp's texts.’ In Gregory R. Guy, Crawford Feagin, Deborah Schiffrin and John Baugh (eds.), Towards a Social Science of Language: Papers in Honor of William Labov, vol. i: Variation and Change in Language and Society. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 357–72.
Rickford, John R. 1999. ‘Variation in the Jamaican Creole copula and its relation to the genesis of AAVE: new data and analysis.’ In John R. Rickford and Suzanne Romaine (eds.), Creole Genesis, Attitudes and Discourse: Studies Celebrating Charlene J. Sato. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 143–56.
Rickford, John R. 2001. ‘Style and stylizing from the perspective of a non-autonomous sociolinguistics.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 220–31.
Rickford, John R. and Renée A. Blake. 1990. ‘Copula contraction and absence in Barbadian English, Samaná English and Vernacular Black English.’ In Kira Hall, Jean-Pierre Koenig, Michael Meacham, Sondra Reinman and Laurel A. Sutton (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 257–68.
Rickford, John R. and Penelope Eckert. 2001. ‘Introduction.’ In Eckert and Rickford (eds.), pp. 1–18.
Rickford, John R. and Faye McNair-Knox. 1994. ‘Addressee- and topic-influenced style-shift: a quantitative sociolinguistic study.’ In Biber and Finegan (eds.), pp. 235–76.
Roberts, Peter A. 1988. West Indians and Their Language. Cambridge University Press.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1980. ‘Stylistic variation and evaluative reactions to speech: problems in the investigation of linguistic attitudes in Scotland.’ Language and Speech 23: 213–32.
Rosenfelder, Ingrid. 2008. ‘Sociophonetic variation in educated Jamaican English: an analysis of the spoken component of ICE-Jamaica.’ PhD thesis, University of Freiburg.
Rosenfelder, Ingrid. 2009. ‘Rhoticity in educated Jamaican English: an analysis of the spoken component of ICE-Jamaica.’ In Hoffmann and Siebers (eds.), pp. 61–82.
Sand, Andrea. 1999. Linguistic Variation in Jamaica: A Corpus-Based Study of Radio and Newspaper Usage. Tübingen: Narr.
Sand, Andrea. 2004. ‘Shared morpho-syntactic features in contact varieties of English: article use.’ World Englishes 23: 281–98.
Sand, Andrea. 2005. ‘Angloversals? Shared morpho-syntactic features in contact varieties of English.’ Postdoctoral thesis, University of Freiburg.
Sand, Andrea. 2008. ‘Angloversals? Concord and interrogatives in contact varieties of English.’ In Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta and Minna Korhonen (eds.), The Dynamics of Linguistic Variation: Corpus Evidence on English Past and Present. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 183–202.
Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 1998. ‘Investigating self-conscious speech: the performance register in Ocracoke English.’ Language in Society 27: 53–83.
Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2002. ‘Investigating stylistic variation.’ In J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 375–401.
Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2004. ‘Constructing ethnicity in interaction.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 8: 163–95.
Schmied, Josef. 1996. ‘Second-language corpora.’ In Greenbaum (ed.), pp. 182–96.
Schneider, Edgar W. 1990. ‘The cline of Creoleness in English-oriented Creoles and semi-Creoles of the Caribbean.’ English World-Wide 11: 79–113.
Schneider, Edgar W. (ed.). 1997. Englishes around the World, vol ii: Caribbean, Africa and Australasia. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Schneider, Edgar W. 1999. ‘Notes on Singaporean English.’ In Uwe Carls and Peter Lucko (eds.), Form, Function and Variation in English: Studies in Honour of Klaus Hansen. Bern: Lang, pp. 193–205.
Schneider, Edgar W. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge University Press.
Schneider, Edgar W. and Christian Wagner. 2006. ‘The variability of literary dialect in Jamaican Creole: Thelwell'sThe Harder They Come. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 21: 45–95.
Sebba, Mark. 1993. London Jamaican: Language Systems in Interaction. London: Longman.
Sebba, Mark. 1997. Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Sebba, Mark and Tony Wootton. 1998. ‘We, they and identity.’ In Auer (ed.), pp. 262–86.
Sedlatschek, Andreas. 2009. Contemporary Indian English: Variation and Change. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Sey, Kofi. 1973. Ghanaian English: An Exploratory Survey. London: Macmillan.
Sharma, Devyani. 2001. ‘The pluperfect in native and non-native English: a comparative corpus study.’ Language Variation and Change 13: 343–73.
Sharma, Devyani. 2009. ‘Typological diversity in New Englishes.’ English World-Wide 30: 170–95.
Sharma, Devyani and John R. Rickford. 2009. ‘AAVE/creole copula absence: a critique of the imperfect learning hypothesis.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24: 53–90.
Shields, Kathryn. 1987. ‘Language variation in the classroom.’ PhD thesis, University of the West Indies, Mona.
Shields, Kathryn. 1989. ‘Standard English in Jamaica: a case of competing models.’ English World-Wide 10: 41–53.
Shields-Brodber, Kathryn. 1992. ‘Dynamism and assertiveness in the public voice: turn-taking and code-switching in radio talk shows in Jamaica.’ Pragmatics 2: 487–504.
Shields-Brodber, Kathryn. 1997. ‘Requiem for English in an “English-speaking” community: the case of Jamaica.’ In Schneider (ed.), pp. 57–67.
Shields-Brodber, Kathryn. 2006. ‘Is the pain in your belly-bottom? Extending the boundaries of Jamaican Creole to non-native users.’ In Simmons-McDonald and Robertson (eds.), pp. 188–210.
Siegel, Jeff. 1997. ‘Pidgin and English in Melanesia: is there a continuum?World Englishes 16: 185–204.
Siegel, Jeff. 2006. ‘Keeping Creoles and dialects out of the classroom: is it justified?’ In Shondel J. Nero (ed.), Dialects, Englishes, Creoles, and Education. Mahwah: Erlbaum, pp. 39–67.
Silverstein, Michael. 2003. ‘Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life.’ Language and Communication 23: 193–229.
Simmons-McDonald, Hazel. 2006. ‘Attitudes of teachers to St Lucian language varieties.’ Caribbean Journal of Education 28: 51–84.
Simmons-McDonald, Hazel and Ian Robertson (eds.). 2006. Exploring the Boundaries of Caribbean Creole Languages. Mona: University of the West Indies Press.
Smith, Geoff P. 2002. Growing up with Tok Pisin: Contact, Creolization and Change in Papua New Guinea's National Language. London: Battlebridge.
Smith, Nicholas. 2003. ‘Changes in the modals and semi-modals of strong obligation and epistemic necessity in recent British English.’ In Facchinetti, Krug and Palmer (eds.), pp. 241–66.
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt. 2003. ‘be going to versus will/shall: does syntax matter?Journal of English Linguistics 31: 295–323.
Solomon, Denis. 1993. The Speech of Trinidad: A Reference Grammar. St Augustine: UWI School of Continuing Studies.
Stassen, Leon. 2008. ‘Zero copula for predicate nominals.’ Chapter 120 in Martin Haspelmath, Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil and Bernard Comrie (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. http://wals.info/feature/120. Viewed 12 June 2009.
Steever, Sanford B. (ed.). 1998a. The Dravidian Languages. London: Routledge.
Steever, Sanford B. 1998b. ‘Kannada.’ In Steever (ed.), pp. 129–57.
Tagliamonte, Sali A. and Alexandra D’Arcy. 2007. ‘The modals of obligation/necessity in Canadian perspective.’ English World-Wide 28: 47–87.
Taylor, Monica. 2010. A Model of Verbal Interaction: A Portrait of English Language Classrooms in Jamaica. Saarbrücken: Lambert.
Thaxter, Kenneth E. 1977. ‘Language variation in a Jamaican training college.’ MA thesis, University of the West Indies, Mona.
Tickoo, Makhan L. 1996. ‘Fifty years of English in Singapore: all gains, (a) few losses?’ In Joshua A. Fishman, Andrew W. Conrad and Alma Rubal-Lopez (eds.), Post-Imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies, 1940–1990. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 431–55.
Trudgill, Peter. 1974. The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge University Press.
Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. 2002. International English: A Guide to Varieties of Standard English (4th edn). London: Arnold.
Valdman, Albert and Arnold Highfield (eds.). 1980. Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies. New York: Academic Press.
Walker, James A. and Miriam Meyerhoff. 2006. ‘Zero copula in the Eastern Caribbean: evidence from Bequia.’ American Speech 81: 146–63.
Ward, Gregory, Betty J. Birner and Jeffrey P. Kaplan. 2003. ‘A pragmatic analysis of the epistemic would construction in English.’ In Facchinetti, Krug and Palmer (eds.), pp. 71–9.
Wells, John C. 1982. Accents of English, vol. iii: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge University Press.
Winer, Lise. 1982. ‘An analysis of errors in the written compositions of Trinidadian English Creole speakers.’ PhD thesis, University of the West Indies, St Augustine.
Winer, Lise. 1984. ‘Early Trinidadian Creole: the Spectator Texts.’ English World-Wide 5: 181–210.
Winer, Lise. 1986. ‘An analysis of errors in written compositions of Trinidadian secondary school students.’ Caribbean Journal of Education 13: 88–109.
Winer, Lise. 1989. ‘Variation and transfer in English Creole–Standard English language learning.’ In Miriam R. Eisenstein (ed.), The Dynamic Interlanguage: Empirical Studies in Second Language Variation. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 155–73.
Winer, Lise. 1990. ‘Orthographic standardization for Trinidad and Tobago: linguistic and sociopolitical considerations in an English Creole community.’ Language Problems and Language Planning 14: 237–68.
Winer, Lise. 1993. Trinidad and Tobago. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Winer, Lise. 1995. ‘Penny Cuts: differentiation of varieties in Trinidad English Creole, 1904–06.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 10: 127–55.
Winer, Lise (ed.). 2009. Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago: On Historical Principles. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
Winford, Donald. 1972. ‘A sociolinguistic description of two communities in Trinidad.’ PhD thesis, University of York.
Winford, Donald. 1976. ‘Teacher attitudes towards language varieties in a Creole community.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 8: 45–75.
Winford, Donald. 1978. ‘Phonological hypercorrection in the process of decreolization – the case of Trinidadian English.’ Journal of Linguistics 14: 277–91.
Winford, Donald. 1980. ‘The Creole situation in the context of sociolinguistic studies.’ In Richard R. Day (ed.), Issues in English Creoles: Papers from the 1975 Hawaii Conference. Heidelberg: Groos, pp. 51–76.
Winford, Donald. 1983. ‘A sociolinguistic analysis of negation in Trinidadian English.’ In Lawrence Carrington (ed.), Studies in Caribbean Language. St Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics, pp. 203–10.
Winford, Donald. 1985. ‘The concept of “diglossia” in Caribbean creole situations.’ Language in Society 14: 345–56.
Winford, Donald. 1991. ‘The Caribbean.’ In Jenny Cheshire (ed.), English around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, pp. 565–84.
Winford, Donald. 1992a. ‘Another look at the copula in Black English and Caribbean Creoles.’ American Speech 67: 21–60.
Winford, Donald. 1992b. ‘Back to the past: the BEV/Creole connection revisited.’ Language Variation and Change 4: 311–57.
Winford, Donald. 1993a. Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Winford, Donald. 1993b. ‘Variability in the use of perfect have in Trinidadian English: a problem of categorical and semantic mismatch.’ Language Variation and Change 5: 141–87.
Winford, Donald. 1994. ‘Sociolinguistic approaches to language use in the anglophone Caribbean.’ In Morgan (ed.), pp. 43–62.
Winford, Donald. 1997. ‘Re-examining Caribbean English creole continua.’ World Englishes 16: 233–79.
Winford, Donald. 2009. ‘The interplay of “universals” and contact-induced change in the emergence of New Englishes.’ In Filppula, Klemola and Paulasto (eds.), pp. 206–30.
Youssef, Valerie. 1990. ‘The development of linguistic skills in some Trinidadian children: an integrative approach to verb phrase development.’ PhD thesis, University of the West Indies, St Augustine.
Youssef, Valerie. 1991. ‘The acquisition of varilingual competence.’ English World-Wide 12: 87–102.
Youssef, Valerie. 1992. ‘Variation as a feature of language acquisition in the Trinidadian context.’ Language Variation and Change 3: 75–101.
Youssef, Valerie. 1993. ‘Children's linguistic choices: audience design and societal norms.’ Language in Society 22: 257–74.
Youssef, Valerie. 1996. ‘Varilingualism: the competence underlying codemixing in Trinidad and Tobago.’ Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 11: 1–22.
Youssef, Valerie. 2002a. ‘Issues of bilingual education in the Caribbean: the cases of Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 5: 182–93.
Youssef, Valerie. 2002b. ‘The language range of the Tobagonian people.’ Chapter 2 in James and Youssef, pp. 12–39.
Youssef, Valerie. 2004. ‘“Is English we speaking”: Trinbagonian in the twenty-first century. Some notes and comments on the English usage of Trinidad and Tobago.’ English Today 20.4: 42–9.
Youssef, Valerie. 2005. ‘It's not the what but the why: motivation in acquiring Standard English in the Caribbean.’ Paper presented at the Eighth Annual Eastern Caribbean Islands-in-Between Conference, Tobago, November.
Youssef, Valerie. 2011. ‘The varilingual repertoire of Tobagonian speakers.’ In Hinrichs and Farquharson (eds.), pp. 191–206.
Youssef, Valerie. Forthcoming. ‘The varilingual language use of Trinidadian secondary school teachers.’ In Hazel Simmons-McDonald (ed.), Papers in Honour of Dennis Craig. Mona: University of the West Indies Press.
Youssef, Valerie and Dagmar Deuber. 2007. ‘ICE Trinidad and Tobago: teacher language investigation in a university research class.’ In Corpus Linguistics Conference 2007, Proceedings. www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/corpus/publications/conference-archives/2007-birmingham.aspx. Viewed 17 February 2012.
Youssef, Valerie and Winford James. 2004. ‘The Creoles of Trinidad and Tobago: phonology.’ In Kortmann and Schneider (eds.), vol. i, pp. 508–24.