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Charlemagne's Practice of Empire
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  • Cited by 5
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chandler, Cullen J. 2019. Carolingian Catalonia.

    Rankin, Susan 2018. Writing Sounds in Carolingian Europe.

    Jones, Chris Mauntel, Christoph and Oschema, Klaus 2017. Controversial Terminology. The Medieval History Journal, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 233.

    Hodges, Richard 2017. KLAVS RANDSBORG AND THE NINTH CENTURY AD. Acta Archaeologica, Vol. 88, Issue. 1, p. 155.

    Nelson, Jinty 2016. The Encyclopedia of Empire. p. 1.

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Book description

Revisiting one of the great puzzles of European political history, Jennifer R. Davis examines how the Frankish king Charlemagne and his men held together the vast new empire he created during the first decades of his reign. Davis explores how Charlemagne overcame the two main problems of ruling an empire, namely how to delegate authority and how to manage diversity. Through a meticulous reconstruction based on primary sources, she demonstrates that rather than imposing a pre-existing model of empire onto conquered regions, Charlemagne and his men learned from them, developing a practice of empire that allowed the emperor to rule on a European scale. As a result, Charlemagne's realm was more flexible and diverse than has long been believed. Telling the story of Charlemagne's rule using sources produced during the reign itself, Davis offers a new interpretation of Charlemagne's political practice, free from the distortions of later legend.

Reviews

‘Historians have rightly emphasized the importance of religion to Charlemagne and his contemporaries. In this refreshingly original, lucid and strongly argued book, Jennifer R. Davis shows that ideology is only part of the story. Finding what worked empirically was what drove Charlemagne’s practice of empire, and produced some enduring effects.'

Janet Nelson - King’s College London

'Jennifer R. Davis' study fundamentally revises older romantic images of Charlemagne's empire as a short period of a Renaissance of central authority and imperial unity. Exploring its formation as the result of an experimental process that was much more shaped by practical reason than by ideology, by pragmatic flexibility, and by fuzzy conceptions than by the implementation of an imperial master plan, Davis provides us with a fresh look at the formation of a new imperial culture, which shaped European politics for many centuries to come.'

Helmut Reimitz - Princeton University, New Jersey

‘Davis has written not yet another Charlemagne biography, but rather an audacious reassessment of his reign as a crucial episode in the history of European rulership and governance. Deeply learned, meticulously researched, and subtly argued, it is a model for how to write pre-modern political and institutional history in the twenty-first century.’

Adam J. Kosto - Columbia University, New York

'With this prodigious study, Jennifer R. Davis has announced herself as an important scholar of Carolingian politics.'

Hans Hummer Source: German History

'This book has already established itself as essential reading for specialists of the period and for all historians concerned with the question of empire and pre-modern states. It manages to combine the study of institutions of government with that of networks of power, too often seen as contradictory. It suggests approaching the great sovereigns in terms of their concrete actions, leaving aside for the moment how they were represented. The results are convincing and even astonishing, because even if the author did not set out to write a biography, by the end of the book, the reader is left with an original impression of the personality of Charlemagne.'

Martin Gravel Source: Revue historique

‘In some ways this is a radical book … But while the arguments are bold, the underlying scholarship is sound and thorough … [Jennifer R. Davis] has written an important book brimming with new ideas and suggestions for further research.’

C. M. A. West Source: The English Historical Review

‘This book has much to offer scholars of the early Middle Ages. Davis gleans as much from of the sources as possible, but rather than force the evidence into a particular vision or framework of empire, she’s able to elucidate both the specific political practices and broader outlines of Charlemagne’s rulership. Additionally, she is able to address the extensive body of scholarship on Charlemagne’s reign, balancing older, still relevant works, such as that of the eminent François-Louis Ganshof, with more recent studies of Charlemagne’s reign. This is an important contribution to the still-growing body of work on early medieval politics and Carolingian kingship.’

Jace Stuckey Source: Speculum

‘Jennifer Davis’s new book combines the traditional and the new in intriguing and productive ways … an important and distinctive view of Charlemagne and his rule … Davis’s study encourages us all to think substantially harder about what exactly Charlemagne was trying to do, the methods he used and both his successes and failures.’

Rachel Stone Source: Early Medieval Europe

'Charlemagne's Practice of Empire is a challenging read - the type that forces the reader to immediately think about how to react to it. It is as provocative as it is profound, and which will hopefully become a standard work of reference for the years to come, inspiring students and more advanced scholars alike.'

Rutger Kramer Source: Sehepunkte

'This is material with which Davis is intimately familiar, and her command of the subtleties of these texts and their manuscript traditions comes through clearly throughout the volume … Whether one accepts some or all of Davis’ conclusions, her study is now essential reading for all specialists working on early medieval Europe. Essential.'

David S. Bachrach Source: H-France Review

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Chronicon Laurissense breve: see Annales Laurissenses minores.
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Concilia. Ed. Werminghoff, A., MGH, LL III, Concilia, vol. II, part I, Concilia Aevi Karolini, vol. I, part I (Hanover and Leipzig: Hahn, 1906).
Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum. Ed. Lošek, F. as Die Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum und der Brief des Erzbischofs Theotmar von Salzburg, MGH Studien und Texte XV (Hanover: Hahn, 1997).
Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum. Ed. Hallinger, K., vol. 1: Initia consuetudinis Benedictinae, Consuetudines saeculi octavi et noni (Siegburg: Schmidt, 1963).
Denkmäler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem VIII–IX Jahrhundert. Ed. Müllenhoff, K. and Scherer, W., 4th edition by Steinmeyer, E., 2 vols. (Berlin: Weidmann, 1892, reprinted 1964).
Documenti per la storia della città di Arezzo nel medioevo. Ed. Pasqui, U., Documenti di storia italiana XI, vol. 1 (Florence: G.P. Vieusseux, 1899).
Edictus ceteraeque Langobardorum leges. Ed. Bluhme, F., MGH, Fontes iuris germanici antiqui in usum scholarum separatim editi II (Hanover: Hahn, 1869).
Trans. in The Lombard Laws, trans. Drew, K.F. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973).
Einhard. Letters, ed. Dümmler, E., in MGH, EPV, Epistolae Karolini Aevi III (Berlin: Weidmann, 1899), pp. 109–45.
Trans. in Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard, ed. and trans. Dutton, P.E., Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures II (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998), pp. 131–84.
Einhard. Vita Karoli Magni, ed. Holder-Egger, O., from the editions by Pertz, G.H. and Waitz, G., MGH, SRG XXV, 6th edition (Hanover: Hahn, 1911, reprinted 1922).
Trans. in Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard, ed. and trans. Dutton, P.E., Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures II (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998), pp. 1539; Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. P.E. Dutton, 2nd edition, Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures I (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2004), pp. 26–49; Einhard and Notker the Stammerer: Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. D. Ganz (London: Penguin Books, 2008); Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. T.F.X. Noble (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009).
,. Translatio et miracula sancti Marcellini et Petri, ed. Waitz, G., in MGH, SS XV, part I (Hanover: Hahn, 1887), pp. 239–64.
Trans. in Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard, ed. and trans. Dutton, P.E., Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures II (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998), pp. 69130.
Epistolae. Ed. Dümmler, E., MGH, EP III, Epistolae Merowingici et Karolini Aevi I (Berlin: Weidmann, 1892).
Epistolae. Ed. Dümmler, E., MGH, EP IV, Epistolae Karolini Aevi II (Berlin: Weidmann, 1895).
Partial trans. in Charlemagne: Translated Sources, trans. King, P.D. (University of Lancaster Press, 1987), pp. 308–30.
Epistolae. Ed. Dümmler, E., MGH, EPV, Epistolae Karolini Aevi III (Berlin: Weidmann, 1899).
Epistolae variorum Carolo Magno regnante scriptae. Ed. Dümmler, E., in MGH, EP IV, Epistolae Karolini Aevi II (Berlin: Weidmann, 1895), pp. 496567.
Partial trans. in The Reign of Charlemagne: Documents on Carolingian Government and Administration, trans. Loyn, H.R. and Percival, J., Documents of Medieval History II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975), pp. 134–5.
Ermoldus Nigellus. Carmen in honorem Hludowici pii, ed. and French trans. Faral, E. as Poème sur Louis le Pieux et Épîtres au roi Pépin, Les classiques de l'histoire de France au moyen âge (Paris: Champion, 1932).
Trans. in Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. Noble, T.F.X. (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009).
Étaix, R.Un manuel de pastorale de l’époque carolingienne (Clm 27152),Revue Bénédictine, 91 (1981), 105–30.
Formulae. Ed. Zeumer, K., MGH, LL V (Hanover: Hahn, 1886).
Partial trans. in The Formularies of Angers and Marculf: Two Merovingian Legal Handbooks, trans. Rio, A., Translated Texts for Historians XLVI (Liverpool University Press, 2008).
Fredegar, . The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations, ed. and trans. Wallace-Hadrill, J.M. (London: Thomas Nelson, 1960).
Gallia Christiana novissima: Histoire des archevêchés, évêchés & abbayes de France. Ed. Albanés, J.-H. and Chevalier, U., vol. 2: Marseille (Valence: Imprimerie Valentonoise, 1889).
Hariulf. Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Riquier (ve siècle–1104), ed. Lot, F., Collections de textes pour servir à l’étude et à l'enseignement de l'histoire (Paris: Picard, 1894).
Hincmar of Reims. De ordine palatii, ed. Gross, T. and Schieffer, R., MGH, Fontes iuris germanici antiqui in usum scholarum separatim editi III (Hanover: Hahn, 1980).
Trans. in The History of Feudalism, trans. Herlihy, D. (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1970), pp. 209–27, reprinted in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. P.E. Dutton, 2nd edition, Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures I (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2004), pp. 517–32.
Histoire générale de Languedoc. Ed. Devic, C. and Vaissete, J., vol. 2 (Toulouse: Privat, 1875).
,. Chronicon Venetum, ed. Pertz, G.H., in MGH, SS VII (Hanover: Hahn, 1846), pp. 438.
Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa. Ein Paderborner Epos vom Jahre 799, ed. Beumann, H., Brunhölz, F., and Winkelmann, W., Studien und Quellen zur westfälischen Geschichte VIII (Paderborn: Bonifacius-Druckerei, 1966).
Partial trans. in Godman, P., The Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London: Duckworth, 1985), pp. 197207.
Das Konzil von Aachen, 809. Ed. Willjung, H., MGH, LL III, vol. II, supplementum II (Hanover: Hahn, 1998).
Lendi, W. Untersuchungen zur frühalemannischen Annalistik. Die Murbacher Annalen mit Edition, Scrinium Friburgense I (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag, 1971).
Lex Ribuaria. Ed. Beyerle, F. and Buchner, R., MGH, LL I, Leges Nationum Germanicarum III.II (Hanover: Hahn, 1954).
Lex Salica. Ed. Eckhardt, K.A., MGH, LL I, Leges Nationum Germanicarum IV.II (Hanover: Hahn, 1969).
Trans. in The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. Drew, K.F. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).
Le Liber Pontificalis. Ed. Duchesne, L., Bibliothèque des Écoles francaises d'Athènes et de Rome 2nd series, III, 3 vols., vol. 3, ed. Vogel, C. (Paris: Thorin, 1886–92, reprinted 1955–7).
Trans. in The Lives of the Eighth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of Nine Popes from AD 715 to AD 817, trans. Davis, R., Translated Texts for Historians XIII (Liverpool University Press, 1992; 2nd edition 2007).
Memorie e documenti per servire all'istoria del ducato di Lucca. Ed. Bertini, D., vol. IV, part I (Lucca: Francesco Bertini, 1818).
Memorie e documenti per servire all'istoria del ducato di Lucca. Ed. Barsocchini, D., vol. V, part II (Lucca: Francesco Bertini, 1837).
Mordek, H. Bibliotheca capitularium regum Francorum manuscripta: Überlieferung und Traditionszusammenhang der fränkischen Herrschererlasse, MGH Hilfsmittel XV (Munich: MGH, 1995).
Nithard, . De dissensionibus filiorum Ludowici Pii, ed. and French trans. Lauer, P. as Histoire des fils de Louis le Pieux, Les classiques de l'histoire de France au moyen âge (Paris: Champion, 1926).
Trans. in Carolingian Chronicles, ed. and trans. Scholz, B.W. with Rogers, B. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970), reprinted in Carolingian Civilization: A Reader, ed. P.E. Dutton, 2nd edition, Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures I (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2004), pp. 297–331.
Notitia Arnonis. Ed. Lošek, F., in Quellen zur Salzburger Frühgeschichte, ed. Wolfram, H., VIOG XLIV=Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde Ergänzungsband XXII (Vienna and Munich: Oldenbourg, 2006).
Notker Balbulus. Gesta Karoli Magni Imperatoris, ed. Haefele, H.F., MGH, SRG, nova series XII (Berlin: Weidmann, 1962).
Trans. in Einhard and Notker the Stammerer: Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. Ganz, D. (London: Penguin Books, 2008); and Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. T.F.X. Noble (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009).
Opus Caroli Regis contra synodum. Ed. Freeman, A. with Meyvaert, P., MGH, LL III, vol. II, supplementum I (Hanover: Hahn, 1998).
Ordines de celebrando concilio. Ed. Schneider, H., MGH, Die Konzilordines des Früh- und Hochmittelalters (Hanover: Hahn, 1996).
Pactus legis Salicae. Ed. Eckhardt, K.A., MGH, LL I, Leges Nationum Germanicarum IV.I (Hanover: Hahn, 1962).
Trans. in The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. Drew, K.F. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).
Radbertus, Paschasius. Vita sancti Adalhardi, ed. Migne, J.-P., in PL CXX (Paris, 1844–64), cols. 1507–56.
Trans. in Charlemagne's Cousins: Contemporary Lives of Adalhard and Wala, trans. Cabaniss, A. (Syracuse University Press, 1967).
Patrologiae cursus completus … series … ecclesiae latinae. Ed. Migne, J.-P., 221 vols. (Paris: Garniere, 1844–64).
Paulinus of Aquileia. Liber exhortationis ad Hericum Comitem, ed. Migne, J.-P., in PL XCIX (Paris: Garniere, 1844–64), cols. 197282.
I Placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’. Ed. Manaresi, C., Fonti per la storia d'Italia XCII, vol. 1 (Rome: Istituto storico italiano per il medioevo, 1955).
Plea of Rižana. “Il placito del Risano,” ed. Petranović, A. and Margetić, A., Atti del centro di ricerche storiche Rovigno, 14 (1983–4), 5575.
Poetae. Ed. Dümmler, E., MGH, Poetae I, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini I (Berlin: Weidmann, 1881).
Partial trans. in Godman, P., Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London: Duckworth, 1985).
Pokorny, R.Eine Brief-Instruktion aus dem Hofkreis Karls des Großen an einen geistlichen Missus,DA, 52 (1996), 5783.
Pokorny, R.Ein unbekannter Synodalsermo Arns von Salzburg,DA, 39 (1983), 379–94.
Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. Ed. Prou, M. and Vidier, A., Documents publiès par la société historique et archéologique du Gatinais V, 2 vols. (Paris: Picard, 1907).
Il Regesto di Farfa. Ed. Giorgi, I. and Balzani, U., 5 vols. (Rome: Società romana di storia patria, 1879–1914).
Salzburger Urkundenbuch. Ed. Hauthaler, W. and Martin, F., 4 vols. (Salzburg: Selbstverlag der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde, 1910–33, vol. 1 reprinted Aalen: Scientia, 1987).
Schriften zur Komputistik im Frankenreich von 721–818. Ed. Borst, A., MGH, Quellen zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters XXI, 3 vols. (Hanover: Hahn, 2006).
Suetonius, . De vita caesarum, ed. Ihm, M., vol. 1 (Leipzig: Teubner, 1907).
Trans. in The Twelve Caesars, trans. Graves, R. (London: Penguin Books, 1957, and subsequent editions); and others.
Thegan. Gesta Hludowici Imperatoris, ed. and German trans. Tremp, E., in Thegan, Die Taten Kaiser Ludwigs und Astronomus, Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs, MGH, SRG LXIV (Hanover: Hahn, 1995).
Trans. in Charlemagne and Louis the Pious: The Lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. Noble, T.F.X. (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009).
Theodemar, abbot of Montecassino. Letter to Charlemagne, ed. Semmler, J., in Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum, ed. Hallinger, K., vol. 1: Initia consuetudinis Benedictinae, Consuetudines saeculi octavi et noni (Siegburg: Francis Schmidt, 1963), pp. 157–75; the text is also available in E. Dümmler, ed., MGH, EP IV, Epistolae Karolini Aevi II (Berlin: Weidmann, 1895), pp. 510–14.
Theophanes. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284–813, trans. Mango, C. and Scott, R. with Greatrex, G. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997).
Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Freising, vol. 1 (744–926). Ed. Bitterauf, T., Quellen und Erörterungen zur bayerischen und deutschen Geschichte, neue Folge IV (Munich: Rieger, 1905).
Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Passau. Ed. Heuwieser, M., Quellen und Erörterungen zur bayerischen Geschichte, neue Folge VI (Munich: Verlag der Kommission für bayerische Landesgeschichte, 1930).
Traditiones Wizenburgenses. Die Urkunden des Klosters Weissenburg 661–864. Ed. Doll, A., based on Glöckner, K., Arbeiten der hessischen historischen Kommission (Darmstadt: Hessische Historische Kommission, 1979).
Die Urkunden der Arnulfinger. Ed. Heidrich, I., MGH, Diplomata maiorum domus regiae e stirpe Arnulforum (Hanover: Hahn, 2011).
Die Urkunden Pippins, Karlmanns und Karls des Grossen. Ed. Mühlbacher, E. with Dopsch, A., Lechner, J., and Tangl, M., MGH, Diplomata Karolinorum I (Hanover: Hahn, 1906).
Partial trans. in The Reign of Charlemagne: Documents on Carolingian Government and Administration, trans. Loyn, H.R. and Percival, J., Documents of Medieval History II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975), pp. 137–54.
Die Urkunden Lothars I. und Lothars II. Ed. Schieffer, T., MGH, Diplomatum Karolinorum III (Berlin and Zurich: Weidmann, 1966).
Die Urkunden Zwentibolds und Ludwigs des Kindes. Ed. Schieffer, T., MGH, Diplomata regum Germaniae ex stirpe Karolinorum IV: Die Urkunden der deutschen Karolinger (Berlin: Weidmann, 1960).
Urkundenbuch der Abtei Sanct Gallen. Ed. Wartmann, H., 2 vols. (Zurich: Bürkli, 1863).
Urkundenbuch des Klosters Fulda. Ed. Stengel, E.E., vol. 1, Veröffentlichungen der historischen Kommission für Hessen und Waldeck X.I (Marburg: Elwert, 1958).
Urkundenbuch der Reichsabtei Hersfeld. Ed. Weirich, H. based on the work of Hörgers, K., Veröffentlichungen der historischen Kommission für Hessen und Waldeck XIX, vol. 1, part 1 (Marburg: Elwert, 1936).
Visio Wettini. Edited before the poems of Walahfrid Strabo: Ed. Dümmler, E., in MGH, Poetae II, Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, vol. II (Berlin: Weidmann, 1884), pp. 267–75; also in: Walahfrid Strabo's Visio Wettini: Text, Translation, and Commentary, trans. D.A. Traill, Lateinische Sprache und Literatur des Mittelalters II (Frankfurt: Lang, 1974).
Vita Hadriani. Le Liber Pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, L., Bibliothèque des Écoles francaises d'Athènes et de Rome 2nd series, III, 3 vols., vol. 3, ed. Vogel, C. (Paris: Thorin, 1886–92, reprinted 1955–7), vol. 1, pp. 486–514.
Trans. in The Lives of the Eighth Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of Nine Popes from AD 715 to AD 817, trans. Davis, R., Translated Texts for Historians XIII (Liverpool University Press, 1992; 2nd edition 2007).
Vita Leoni III. Le Liber Pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, L., Bibliothèque des Écoles francaises d'Athènes et de Rome 2nd series, III, 3 vols., vol. 3, ed. Vogel, C. (Paris: Thorin, 1886–92, reprinted 1955–7), vol. 2, pp. 1–34.
Trans. in The Lives of the Ninth Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of Nine Popes from AD 715 to AD 817, trans. Davis, R., Translated Texts for Historians XIII (Liverpool University Press, 1992, 2nd edition 2007).
Volpini, R.Placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’ (secc. IX–XI): Primi contributi per un nuovo censimento” in Contributi dell'istituto di storia medioevale, ed. Zerbi, P., vol. III, Scienza storiche XII (Milan: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1975), pp. 245520.
Walahfrid Strabo, . Walahfrid Strabo's Libellus de exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum: A Translation and Liturgical Commentary, ed. Harting-Correa, A.L., Mittellateinische Studien und Texte XIX (Leiden: Brill, 1996).
d'Abadal I de Vinyals, R.La Catalogne sous l'empire de Louis de Pieux,Études Roussillonnaises: Revue d'histoire et d'archéologie méditerranéennes, 4 (1954–5), 239–72; 5 (1956), 31–50 and 147–77; 6 (1957), 67–95.
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Airlie, S.Bonds of Power and Bonds of Association in the Court Circle of Louis the Pious” in Godman, P. and Collins, R. (eds.), Charlemagne's Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (814–840) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 191204, now reprinted in his Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter 6 with original pagination.
Airlie, S.Charlemagne and the Aristocracy: Captains and Kings” in Story, J. (ed.), Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester University Press, 2005), pp. 90102, now reprinted in his Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter 4 with original pagination.
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Airlie, S.Talking Heads: Assemblies in Early Medieval Germany” in Barnwell, P.S. and Mostert, M. (eds.), Political Assemblies in the Earlier Middle Ages, Studies in the Early Middle Ages VII (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003), pp. 2946.
Airlie, S.Towards a Carolingian Aristocracy” in Becher, M. and Jarnut, J. (eds.), Der Dynastiewechsel von 751. Vorgeschichte, Legitimationsstrategien und Erinnerung (Münster: Scriptorium, 2004), pp. 109–27, now reprinted in his Power and its Problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), chapter 2 with original pagination.
Airlie, S.True Teachers and Pious Kings: Salzburg, Louis the German, and Christian Order” in Gameson, R. and Leyser, H. (eds.), Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages. Studies Presented to Henry Mayr-Harting (Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 89105.
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