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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: October 2019

References

  • AmE06 = The American English 2006 Corpus. Compiled by Paul Baker (Lancaster University).

  • American Dialect Society Listserve Archive. Available at: http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/.

  • ARCHER 3.2 = A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers version 3.2. 1990–1993/2002/2007/2010/2013/2016. Originally compiled under the supervision of Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan at Northern Arizona University and University of Southern California; modified and expanded by subsequent members of a consortium of universities. Current member universities are Bamberg, Freiburg, Heidelberg, Helsinki, Lancaster, Leicester, Manchester, Michigan, Northern Arizona, Santiago de Compostela, Southern California, Trier, Uppsala, Zurich. Examples of usage taken from ARCHER were obtained under the terms of the ARCHER User Agreement. Available at: www.projects.alc.manchester.ac.uk/archer/.

  • B-Brown = The B-Brown-1931 Corpus. Compiled by Marianne Hundt (Zürich University).

  • BE06 = The British English 2006 Corpus. Compiled by Paul Baker (Lancaster University).

  • B-LOB = The BLOB-1931 Corpus. Compiled by Geoffrey Leech (Lancaster University), Paul Rayson (Lancaster University), and Nick Smith (University of Leicester).

  • BNC = BNCweb (CQP-Edition). Developed by Sebastian Hoffmann (Trier University) and Stefan Evert (Erlangen University). Available at: http://bncweb.lancs.ac.uk/.

  • Bosworth, Joseph and T. Northcote Toller (eds.) 1882–1898. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. T. Northcote Toller (ed.) 1908–1921. Supplement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Brown Corpus = A Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital Computers (Brown). 1964, 1971, 1979. Compiled by W. N. Francis and H. Kučera. Brown University. Providence, Rhode Island.

  • BYU-BNC = Davies, Mark (2004–). Based on the British National Corpus from Oxford University Press. Available at www.english-corpora.org/bnc/.

  • BYU-EEBO = Davies, Mark (2017–). Early English Books Online. SAMUELS project. Available at: www.english-corpora.org/eebo/.

  • Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Entry for if you ask me. Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/if-you-ask-me.

  • CED = A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560–1760. 2006. Compiled under the supervision of Merja Kytö (Uppsala University) and Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University). www.engelska.uu.se/forskning/engelska-spraket/elektroniska-resurser/a-corpus.

  • CEECS = Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler. 1998. Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi, and Minna Palander-Collin at the Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki. www.helsinki.fi/varieng/CoRD/corpora/CEEC/index.html.

  • CEN = The Corpus of English Novels. Compiled by Hendrik De Smet (KU Leuven). Available at: https://perswww.kuleuven.be/~u0044428/cen.htm.

  • CLMET3.0 = The Corpus of Late Modern English Texts, Version 3.0. Compiled by Hendrik De Smet, Hans-Jürgen Diller, and Jukka Tyrkkö. Available at: https://perswww.kuleuven.be/~u0044428/clmet3_0.htm.

  • CLMETEV = The Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (Extended Version). 2006. Compiled by Hendrik De Smet. Department of Linguistics, University of Leuven. Available at: https://perswww.kuleuven.be/~u0044428/clmetev.htm.

  • CME = Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse. Available at: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/.

  • CMU Pronouncing Dictionary. Available at: www.speech.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/cmudict.

  • CNNE = The Corpus of Nineteenth-Century Newspaper English. Compiled by Erik Smitterberg (Uppsala University).

  • COCA = Davies, Mark (2008–). The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 520 million words, 1990–present. Available at: www.english-corpora.org/coca/.

  • COHA = Davies, Mark (2010–). The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810–2009. Available at: www.english-corpora.org/coha/.

  • CORDE = Real Academia Española – Corpus Diacrónico del Español. Available at: http://corpus.rae.es/cordenet.html.

  • Corpus del Español = Davies, Mark (2001–). Corpus del Español: 100 million words, 1200s–1900s. Available at: www.corpusdelespanol.org.

  • CREA = Real Academia Española – Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. Available at: http://corpus.rae.es/creanet.html.

  • DOE = Dictionary of Old English: A to H Online, ed. Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, Antonette diPaolo Healey, et al. Toronto: Dictionary of Old English Project, 2016.

  • DOEC = Dictionary of Old English Web Corpus. 2009. Compiled by Antonette diPaolo Healey with John Price Wilkin and Xin Xiang. Toronto: Dictionary of Old English Project. Available at: http://tapor.library.utoronto.ca/doecorpus/.

  • ENCOW16A = Full version ‘A’ (web access) of ENCOW16. Available at: http://corporafromtheweb.org/encow16/.

  • F-LOB = The Freiburg–LOB Corpus of British English. The Freiburg-LOB Corpus (original version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. The Freiburg-LOB Corpus (POS-tagged version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, and Geoffrey Leech, University of Lancaster.

  • Frown Corpus = The Freiburg-Brown Corpus of American English. The Freiburg-Brown Corpus (original version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. The Freiburg-Brown Corpus (POS-tagged version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, and Geoffrey Leech, University of Lancaster.

  • Google Books = Davies, Mark (2011–). Google Books (American English) Corpus (155 billion words, 1810–2009). Available at: https://googlebooks.byu.edu/.

  • Google Books, Advanced Search. Available at: www.google.ca/advanced_book_search.

  • Google Books Ngram Viewer. Available at: https://books.google.com/ngrams.

  • ICE = International Corpus of English. Available at: http://ice-corpora.net/ice/.

  • IcePaHC = Wallenberg, Joel C., Anton Karl Ingason, Einar Freyr Sigurðsson, and Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson 2011. Icelandic Parsed Historical Corpus, University of Iceland. Version 0.9. Available at: www.linguist.is/icelandic_treebank.

  • InternetSlang.com. Entry for if you ask me. Available at: www.internetslang.com/IYAM-meaning-definition.asp.

  • LOB Corpus = The Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus. The LOB Corpus, original version (1970–1978), compiled by Geoffrey Leech, Lancaster University, Stig Johansson, University of Oslo (project leaders), and Knut Hofland, University of Bergen (head of computing). The LOB Corpus, POS-tagged version (1981–1986), compiled by Geoffrey Leech, Lancaster University, Stig Johansson, University of Oslo (project leaders), Roger Garside, Lancaster University, and Knut Hofland, University of Bergen (heads of computing).

  • MED = The Middle English Dictionary. 1952–2001. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Available at: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/med/.

  • MicroConcord Corpus 1993. Created by Tim Johns to accompany the concordancing programme MicroConcord. Oxford: Oxford University Press. www2.fgw.vu.nl/resources/corpora/doc/misc/DocumentationMicroConcordCorpus.pdf.

  • Moreno Fernández, Francisco, Ana María Cestero Mancera, Isabel Molina Martos, and Florentino Paredes García 2002–2007. La Lengua Hablada en Alcalá de Henares: Corpus PRESEEA-Alcalá, 3 vols. Alcalá de Henares: Universidad de Alcalá.

  • OBC = Huber, Magnus, Magnus Nissel, Patrick Maiwald, and Bianca Widlitzki 2012. The Old Bailey Corpus: Spoken English in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Available at: www1.uni-giessen.de/oldbaileycorpus. Version 1.0 (extended version).

  • OBPO = Hitchcock, Tim, Robert Shoemaker, Clive Emsley, Sharon Howard, and Jamie McLaughlin, et al., The Old Bailey Proceedings Online, 1674–1913 (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 7.0, 24 March 2012).

  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edn. (2000–), online. Available at: www.oed.com.

  • OSS = OpenSource Shakespeare, An Experiment in Literary Technology. George Mason University. Available at: www.opensourceshakespeare.org.

  • Oxford Dictionaries. Entry for if you ask me. Available at: www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/if-you-ask-me.

  • PhraseMix. Entry for if you ask me. Available at: www.phrasemix.com/phrases/if-you-ask-me.

  • PPCME2 = Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, 2nd edition. 2000. Compiled by Anthony Kroch and Ann Taylor. www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCME2-RELEASE-4/index.html.

  • Strathy Corpus = Strathy Corpus of Canadian English. Available at: www.english-corpora.org/can/. Project website at: www.queensu.ca/strathy/corpus.

  • UofV = The Modern English Collection, University of Virginia Electronic Text Center. Defunct website at: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/modeng/modeng0.browse.html.

  • YCOE = Taylor, Ann, Anthony Warner, Susan Pintzuk, and Frank Beths 2003. The York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose. Department of Linguistics, University of York. Oxford Text Archive, first edition. www-users.york.ac.uk/~lang22/YCOE/YcoeHome.htm.

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