Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

11 - The rabbinic response to Christianity

Summary

The rabbinic sources of the mishnaic era provide very little information on the subject and what information is supplied is almost always subject to dispute as to its exact meaning and historical value. Despite the variety of halachic practices found in the Jewish community in the first century, Christians threatened the Torah principle more seriously than other organized groups in Judaism. The missionary impulse of Christians was bound to antagonize whenever the central symbols of Jewish identity were challenged. Central to a consideration of rabbinic responses to early Christianity is the so-called Birkat ha-Minim. Christianity was of urgent concern to the rabbinic sages between the fall of Jerusalem and the defeat of Bar Kochba. Jewish and other Christians certainly separated themselves for purposes of worship and teaching and social support from the synagogue at an early date, but this was a free choice based on internal Christian needs and wants.
Abrahams, I., Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels, 2nd series (Cambridge, 1924).
Alexander, P. S., “The Parting of the Ways from the Perspective of Rabbinic Judaism,” in Dunn, J. D. G. (ed.), Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways AD 70 to 135 (Grand Rapids, 1992).
Alon, G., Toledot ha-yehudim be-Eretz Yisrael bi-Tequfat ha-Mishnah ve-ha-Talmud (Tel-Aviv, 1952).
Aptowitzer, V., “Bemerkungen zur Liturgie und Geshichte der Liturgie,” Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des 74 (1930), 109 n. 3
Barnard, L., Justin Martyr (Cambridge, 1967)
Baron, S. W., A Social and Religious History of the Jews, 2nd ed., II (New York, 1952).
Barrett, C. K., The Gospel of John and Judaism (London, 1975).
Bauckham, R., “The Apocalypse of Peter: A Jewish Christian Apocalypse from the Time of Bar Kochba,” Apocrypha 5 (1994)
Betz, H.-D., Galatians: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Churches in Galatia (Philadelphia, 1979).
Bihler, J., Die Stephanusgeschichte im Zusammenhang der Apostelgeschichte (Munich, 1963).
Blanchetière, F. and Pritz, R., “La Migration des ‘Nazaréens’ Pella,” in Blanchetière, F. and Herr, M. D. (eds.), Les Origines juives du Christianisme (Jerusalem and Paris, 1994)
Bloch, J., “Outside Books,” in Mordecai M. Kaplan Jubilee Volume, English section (New York, 1953).
Brandon, S. G. F., Jesus and the Zealots (Manchester, 1967).
Brandon, S. G. F., The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church (London, 1968).
Brown, R. E., The Gospel According to St. John I–XII (Garden City, 1966)
Büchler, A., “The Minim of Sepphoris and Tiberias in the Second and Third Centuries,” in idem, Studies in Jewish History, ed. Brodie, I. and Rabbinowitz, J. (London, 1956).
Bultmann, R., The Gospel of John: A Commentary (Oxford, 1964)
Chwolson, D., Das letzte Passamahl Christi und der Tag seines Todes (St. Petersburg, 1892)
Davies, W. D., The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount (Cambridge, 1964).
Davies, A. (ed.), Anti-Semitism and the Foundations of Christianity (New York, 1979).
De Boer, M. C., “The Nazareans: Living at the Boundary of Judaism and Christianity,” in Stanton, G. N. and Stroumsa, G. G. (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (Cambridge, 1998).
Dunn, J. D. G., Christology in the Making (London, 1980).
Dunn, J. D. G., “ ‘Righteousness from the Law’ and ‘Righteousness from Faith’: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture in Romans 10.1–10,” in Hawthorne, G. F. (ed.), Tradition and Interpretation in the New Testament: Essays in Honor of E. Earle Ellis (Grand Rapids, 1988)
Elbogen, I., Der jüdische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 2nd ed. (Frankfurt, 1924).
Finkelstein, L., “The Development of the Amidah,” Jewish Quarterly Review 16 (19251926).
Fitzmyer, J. A., Luke the Theologian: Aspects of His Teaching (New York, 1989).
Flusser, D., “Jerusalem in the Literature of the Second Temple Period,” in Veim be-Gevuroth: Jubilee Volume for the 80th Anniversary of Rubin and Hanna Mass (Jerusalem, 1974) (Hebrew).
Flusser, D., “The Jewish Religion in the Second Temple Period,” in Avi-Yonah, M. and Baras, Z. (eds.), The World History of the Jewish People (Jerusalem, 1977), VIII.
Forkman, C., The Limits of Religious Community (Lund, 1972).
Frend, W. H. C., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (New York, 1967).
Friedlander, M., Der vorchristliche jüdische Gnosticismus (Göttingen, 1898).
Gaston, L., No Stone on Another: Studies in the Significance of the Fall of Jerusalem in the Synoptic Gospels (Leiden, 1976).
Ginzberg, L., “Some Observations on the Attitude of the Synagogue toward Apocalyptic Writings,” Journal of Biblical Literature 41 (1922) repr. in Canon and Masorah.
Goodman, M., “Sacred Scripture and Defiling the Hands,” Journal of Theological Studies 41 (1990).
Goshen Gottstein, A., The Sinner and the Amnesiac: The Rabbinic Invention of Elisha ben Abuyah and Eleazar ben Arach (Stanford, 2000).
Grasser, E., “Die antijü dische Polemik im Johannesevangelium,” New Testament Studies II (1964).
Haenchen, E., The Acts of the Apostles (Oxford, 1971).
Hare, D. R. A., The Theme of Jewish Persecution of Christians in the Gospel According to St. Matthew (Cambridge, 1967).
Harnack, A., The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries (London, 1904).
Heinemann, J., Prayer in the Talmud (Berlin, 1977).
Hengel, M., The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish-Hellenistic Religion (London, 1976).
Herr, M. D., “The Participation of the Galilee in the ‘War of Qitos’ (Quietus) or in the ‘BenKosba Revolt,’Cathedra 4 (1977), (Hebrew).
Horbury, W., “Jewish–Christian Relations in Barnabas and Justin Martyr,” in Dunn, J. D. G. (ed.), Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, AD 70 to 135 (Grand Rapids, 1992).
Horbury, W., Jews and Christians in Contact and Controversy (Edinburgh, 1998).
Instone Brewer, D., “Jewish Women Divorcing their Husbands in Early Judaism: The Background to Papyrus Seelim 13,” Harvard Theological Review 92 (1999).
Isaac, I., and Oppenheimer, A., “The Revolt of Bar Kochba: Ideology and Modern Scholarship,” Journal of Jewish Studies 36 (1985).
Jervell, J., Luke and the People of God (Minneapolis, 1972).
Käsemann, E., “The Righteousness of God in Paul,” in his collected essays, New Testament Questions Today (Philadelphia, 1969)
Kelly, J. N. D., Early Christian Doctrines, 2nd ed. (London, 1960).
Killgallen, J. J., The Stephen Speech: A Literary and Redactional Study of Acts (Rome, 1976).
Kimelman, R., “Birkat ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Late Antiquity,” in Sanders, E. P. et al. (eds.), Jewish and Christian Self- Definition (Philadelphia, 1981), II.
Klijn, A. F. J., and Reinink, G. J., Patristic Evidence for Jewish-Christian Sects (Leiden, 1973).
Koester, H., History and Literature of Early Christianity, 2nd ed. (New York, 2000).
Kohler, K., The Origins of the Synagogue and the Church (New York, 1929).
Krauss, S., “The Jews in the Works of the Church Fathers,” Jewish Quarterly Review o.s. 5 (18921893), o.s. 6 (18931894),.
Krauss, S., Das Leben Jesu nach jüdischen quellen (Berlin, 1902).
Krauss, S., The Jewish–Christian Controversy from the Earliest Times to 1789, ed. and rev. Horbury, W. (Tübingen, 1995).
Kuhn, K. G., “Gilyonim und Sifre minim,” in Eltester, W. (ed.), Judentum-Urchristentum-Kirche: Festschrift für J. Jeremias (Beiheft zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 26), 2nd ed. (1964).
Kuhn, K. G., Achtzehngebet und Vaterunser und der Reim (Tübingen, 1950).
Kümmel, W., Römer 7 und die Bekehrung des Paulus (Leipzig, 1929).
Lange, N., Origen and the Jews (Cambridge, 1976).
Lerle, E., “Liturgische Reformen des Synagogen-gottesdienstes als Antwort auf die judenchristliche Mission des ersten Jahrhunderts,” Novum Testamentum 10 (1968)
Lieberman, S., Tosefta Ki-Fshutah, 9 vols. (New York, 19551973).
Lieu, J., “History and Theology in Christian Views of Judaism,” in idem, The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London, 1992).
Lieu, J., Image and Reality: The Jews in the World of Christians in the Second Century (Edinburgh, 1996).
Lindars, B., “The Persecution of Christians in John 15.18—16.4,” in Horbury, W. and McNeil, B. (eds.), Martyrdom in the New Testament (Cambridge, 1981).
Lüdemann, G., “The Successors of Pre-70 Jerusalem Christianity: A Critical Evaluation of the Pella- Tradition,” in Sanders, E. P. et al. (eds.), Jewish and Christian Self-Definition (Philadelphia, 1980),.
Lüdemann, G., Opposition to Paul in Jewish Christianity (Minneapolis, 1989).
Mann, J., “Genizah Fragments of the Palestinian Order of Service,” Hebrew Union College Annual 2 (1925).
Marmorstein, A., “Judaism and Christianity in the Middle of the Third Century,” Hebrew Union College Annual 10 (1935).
Meeks, Wayne, “‘Am I a Jew?’ Johannine Christianity and Judaism,” in Neusner, J. (ed.), Christianity, Judaism, and Other Greco-Roman Cults (Leiden, 1975), I.
Meeks, Wayne, “Breaking Away: Three New Testament Pictures of Christianity’s Separation from the Jewish Communities,” in Neusner, J. and Frerich, E. (eds.), To See Ourselves as Others See Us: Christians, Jews, “Others” in Late Antiquity (Chico, 1985).
Moore, G. F., “The Definition of the Jewish Canon and the Repudiation of Christian Scriptures,” in idem, Essays in Modern Theology (New York, 1911); repr. in Leiman, S. (ed.), The Canon and Masorah of the Hebrew Bible (New York, 1974).
Moore, G. F., Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era (Cambridge, MA, 1980).
Neusner, J., The Memorized Torah: The Mnemonic System of the Mishnah (Chico, 1985).
Neusner, J., The Modern Study of Mishnah (Leiden, 1973).
Neusner, J. (ed.), The Modern Study of the Mishnah (Leiden, 1975).
O’Neill, J. C., The Theology of Luke-Acts in Its Historical Setting, 2nd ed. (London, 1970), 84.
Parkes, J., The Conflict of Church and Synagogue (London, 1934).
Räisänen, H., Jesus, Paul and Torah: Collected Essays (Sheffield, 1990).
Räisänen, H., Paul and the Law (Tübingen, 1983).
Reinhold, M., Diaspora: The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (Saesata, 1983).
Rokeah, D., Jews, Pagans and Christians in Conflict (Jerusalem, 1982).
Sallustius, , On the Gods and the World, ed. and trans. Nock, A. D. (Hildesheim, 1966).
Sanders, E. P., “Who Is a Jew and Who Is a Gentile in the Book of Acts,” New Testament Studies 37/3 (July 1991),.
Sanders, E. P., Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People (Philadelphia, 1983).
Sanders, E. P., Schismatics, Sectarians, Dissidents, Deviants: The First One Hundred Years of Jewish–Christian Relations (Valley Forge, 1993).
Sanders, J. A., From Sacred Story to Sacred Text (Philadelphia, 1987; repr. Eugene, 2000).
Sanders, J. T., Schismatics, Sectarians, Dissidents, Deviants: The First One Hundred Years of Jewish–Christian Relations (Valley Forge, 1993).
Sanders, J. T., The Jews in Luke-Acts (Philadelphia, 1987).
Sanders, E. P., Baumgarten, A., and Mendelson, A. (eds.), Jewish and Christian Self- Definition, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 19801985).
Schäfer, P., “Die sogenannte Synode von Jabne: Zur Trennung von Juden und Christen im ½. Jh. n. Chr.Judaica 31 (1975), repr. in idem, Studien zur Geschichte und Theologie des Rabbinischen Judentums (Leiden, 1978).
Schäfer, P., Der Bar Kochba Aufstand (Tübingen, 1981).
Schechter, S., “Genizah Specimens,” Jewish Quarterly Review o.s. 10 (1898).
Schiffman, L., “At the Crossroads: Tannaitic Perspectives on the Jewish–Christian Schism,” in Sanders, E. P. et al. (eds.), Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, (Philadelphia, 1981), II.
Schiffman, L., Who Was a Jew? Rabbinic and Halakhic Perspectives on the Jewish–Christian Schism (Hoboken, 1985).
Schlatter, A., Die kirche Jerusalem vom Jahre 70–130 (Gütersloh, 1898).
Schonfield, H. J., According to the Hebrews (London, 1937).
Scroggs, R., Christology in Paul and John (Philadelphia, 1988).
Segal, A. F., Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism (Leiden, 1977).
Setzer, C., Jewish Responses to Early Christians: History and Polemics, 30–150 CE (Minneapolis, 1994).
Simon, M., Verus Israel: A Study of the Relations between Christians and Jews in the Roman Empire (135–425), trans. McKeating, H. (Oxford, 1986).
Smith, M., Jesus the Magician (New York, 1978).
Stanton, G., “Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho: Group Boundaries, ‘Proselytes,’ and ‘Godfearers,’” in Stanton, G. M. and Stroumsa, G. G. (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (Cambridge, 1998).
Stanton, G. N., and Stroumsa, G. G. (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (Cambridge, 1998).
Stemberger, G., “Die sogenannte ‘Synode von Jabne’ und das frühe Christentum,” Kairos 19 (1977).
Strack, H. L., Jesus, die Häretiker (Leipzig, 1910).
Strecker, G., Der Weg der Gerechtigkeit (Göttingen, 1962)
Taylor, M. S., Anti-Judaism and Early Christian Identity (Leiden, 1995).
Townsend, J. T., “The Gospel of John and the Jews,” in Davies, A. (ed.), Antisemitism and the Foundations of Christianity (New York, 1979).
Tyson, J. B. (ed.), Luke-Acts and the Jewish People: Eight Critical Perspectives (Minneapolis, 1988).
Urbach, E. E., The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs, trans. Abrahams, I. (Jerusalem, 1979).
Urbach, E., “Self-Isolation or Self-Affirmation in Judaism in the First Three Centuries: Theory and Practice,” in Sanders, E. P. et al. (eds.), Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, (Philadelphia, 1981), II.
Verheyden, J., “The Flight of the Christians to Pella,” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 66 (1990)
Visotsky, B., “Prolegomenon to the Study of Jewish Christianities in Rabbinic Literature,” AJS Review 14 (1989).
Wagner, G., “Pour comprendre l’apôtre Paul,” Lumière et vie 27 (1978)
Wehnert, J., “Die Auswanderung der Jerusalmer Christen nach Pella-historische Faktum oder theologische Konstruction,” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 102 (1991)
Wilde, R., The Treatment of the Jews in the Greek Christian Writers (Washington, DC, 1949).
Wilken, R., John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century (Berkeley, 1983).
Wilson, S. G., Related Strangers: Jews and Christians CE (Minneapolis, 1995).
Ziegler, I., Die Königsgleichnisse des Midrasch, beleuchtet durch die römanische Kaiserzeit (Breslau, 1903).
Ziesler, J., The Meaning of Righteousness in Paul (Cambridge, 1972).
Zunz, L., Die Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters (Frankfurt, 1920).