Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: August 2018

31 - The Acquisition of Second Language Spanish Morphosyntax

from Part V - The Acquisition of Spanish

Summary

This chapter provides an overview of relevant research on the acquisition of Spanish morphosyntax in the context of second language (L2) acquisition (SLA). We cover a variety of topics in both the verbal and nominal domains in an attempt to give the reader a well-rounded view of what is known regarding L2 morphosyntactic acquisition of Spanish, the broader impact Spanish has had on SLA research as well as its impact on linguistic theory more generally. In so doing, we present a wealth of research from multiple theoretical perspectives and covering an impressive array of experimental methods—e.g. comprehension, production and processing from, for example, formal (i.e., generative) and usage-based approaches. The chapter’s aim is to be both a window into the variety and depth of the literature, as well as an analytical tool that offers a broader perspective on what the available data tell us overall about the acquisition of Spanish in non-native contexts, the role various L1s play differentially as regards effects on L2 Spanish acquisition as well as the relative weights of variable such age, input and environment play in SLA.
Alarcón, I. (2009). The Processing of Gender Agreement in L1 and L2 Spanish: Evidence from Reaction Time Data. Hispania, 92 (4), 814828.
Alarcón, I. (2011). Spanish Grammatical Gender under Complete and Incomplete Acquisition: Early and Late Bilinguals’ Linguistic Behavior within the Noun Phrase. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14 (3), 332350.
Alarcón, I. (2014). Grammatical Gender in Second Language Spanish. In Geeslin, K. L. (ed.), The Handbook of Spanish Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 202218.
Alemán Bañón, J., Fiorentino, R., and Gabriele, A. (2014). Morphosyntactic Processing in Advanced Second Language (L2) Learners: An Event-Related Potential Investigation of the Effects of L1–L2 Similarity and Structural Distance. Second Language Research, 30 (3), 275306.
Alemán Bañón, J., Miller, D., and Rothman, J. (2017). Examining Morphological Variability in the Online Comprehension and Production of Number and Gender Agreement in L2 Spanish: An ERP Study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 43 (10), 15091536. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000394.
Alemán Bañón, J. and Rothman, J. (2016). The role of Morphological Markedness in the Processing of Number and Gender Agreement in Spanish: An Event-Related Potential Investigation. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31 (10), 12721298. doi: 10.1080/23273798.2016.1218032. Published online August 12, 2016.
Alexiadou, A. and Anagnostopoulou, E. (1998). Parameterizing Agr: Word Order, V-Movement and EPP-Checking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 16 (3), 491539.
Andersen, R. (1986). El desarrollo de la morfología verbal en el español como segundo idioma. In Meisel, J. M. (ed.), Adquisición de lenguaje/Aquisição da linguagem. Frankfurt: Vervuert, pp. 115138.
Andersen, R. W. and Shirai, Y. (1994). Discourse Motivations for Some Cognitive Acquisition Principles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16 (2), 133156.
Bardovi‐Harlig, K. (1999). Exploring the Interlanguage of Interlanguage Pragmatics: A Research Agenda for Acquisitional Pragmatics. Language Learning, 49 (4), 677713.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2000). Tense and Aspect in Second Language Acquisition: Form, Meaning, and Use. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. and Comajoan, L. (2008). Order of Acquisition and Developmental Readiness. In Spolsky, B. and Hult, F. M. (eds.), The Handbook of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 383397.
Borgonovo, C., Bruhn de Garavito, J., and Prévost, P. (2005). Acquisition of Mood Distinctions in L2 Spanish. In Brugos, A., Clark-Cotton, M. R., and Ha, S. (eds.), BUCLD 29: Proceedings of the 29th Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 97108.
Bowles, M. and Montrul, S. (2009). Instructed L2 Acquisition of Differential Object Marking in Spanish. In Leow, R., Campos, H., and Lardiere, D. (eds.), Little Words. Their History, Phonology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Acquisition. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 199210.
Brown, R. (1973). A First Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brown, E. and Cortés-Torres, M. (2012). Syntactic and Pragmatic Usage of the [estar + adjective] Construction in Puerto Rican Spanish: ¡Está brutal! In Geeslin, K. L. and Díaz-Campos, M. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 14th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 6174.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. (2009). Eventive and Stative Passives: The Role of Transfer in the Acquisition of ser and estar by German and English L1 Speakers. In Collentine, J., García, M., Lafford, B. A., and Marcos Marín, F. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 11th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 2738.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. and Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2002). L2 Acquisition of Indefinite Object Drop. In Costa, J. and Freitas, M. J. (eds.), GALA 2001 Proceedings. Lisbon, Portugal: Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, pp. 6067.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. and Montrul, S. (1996). Verb Movement and Clitic Placement in French and Spanish as a Second Language. In Stringfellow, A., Cahana-Amitay, D., Hughes, E., and Zukowski, A. (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Vol. 1. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 111122.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. and Valenzuela, E. (2008). Eventive and Stative Passives in Spanish L2 Acquisition: A Matter of Aspect. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (3), 323336.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. and White, L. (2002). L2 Acquisition of Spanish DPs: The Status of Grammatical Features. In Pérez-Leroux, A. T. and Liceras, J. M. (eds.), The Acquisition of Spanish Morphosyntax: The L1/L2 Connection. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 153178.
Bybee, J. (1985). Morphology. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Cadierno, T. (2000). The Acquisition of Spanish Grammatical Aspect by Danish Advanced Language Learners. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 4 (1), 153.
Camacho, J. (2012). Ser and Estar: The Individual/Stage-level Distinction and Aspectual Predication. In Hualde, J. I., Olarrea, A., and O’Rourke, E. (eds.), The Handbook of Hispanic Linguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 453475.
Camps, J. (2002). Aspectual Distinctions in Spanish as a Foreign Language: The Early Stages of Oral Production. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 40 (3), 179210.
Collentine, J. and Asención‐Delaney, Y. (2010). A Corpus‐Based Analysis of the Discourse Functions of Ser/Estar + Adjective in Three Levels of Spanish as FL Learners. Language Learning, 60 (2), 409445.
Comajoan, L. (2014). Tense and Aspect in Second Language Spanish. In Geeslin, K. L. (ed.), The Handbook of Spanish Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 235252.
Comajoan, L. and Pérez Saldanya, M. (2005). Grammaticalization and Language Acquisition: Interaction of Lexical Aspect and Discourse. In Eddington, D. (ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 4455.
Cuza, A., Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Pires, A., and Rothman, J. (2013a). The Syntax-Semantics of Bare and Definite Plural Subjects in the L2 Spanish of English Natives. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17 (5), 634652.
Cuza, A., Pérez-Leroux, A. T., and Sánchez, L. (2013b). The Role of Semantic Transfer in Clitic-Drop among Chinese L1–Spanish L2 Bilinguals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (1), 93125.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2000). The Robustness of Critical Period Effects in Second Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22 (4), 499533.
Demonte, V. (1999). A Minimal Account of Spanish Adjective Position and Interpretation. In Franco, J., Landa, A., and Martín, J. (eds.), Grammatical Analyses in Basque and Romance Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Mario Saltarelli. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, pp. 4576.
Demonte, V. (2008). Meaning-Form Correlations and Adjective Position in Spanish. In Kennedy, C. and McNally, L. (eds.), The Semantics of Adjectives and Adverbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 71100.
Dietrich, R., Klein, W., and Noyau, C. (1995). The Acquisition of Temporality in a Second Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Domínguez, L., Tracy-Ventura, N., Arche, M. J., Mitchell, R., and Myles, F. (2013). The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16 (3), 558577.
Dorado, D. (2011). Second Language Variation of Ser and Estar: A Comparative Analysis of Advanced Second Language Learners (Doctoral dissertation). University of Florida.
Dussias, P. E., Valdés Kroff, J. R., Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E., and Gerfen, C. (2013). When Gender and Looking Go Hand in Hand. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (2), 353387.
Eubank, L. (1993). On the Transfer of Parametric Values in L2 Development. Language Acquisition, 3 (3), 182208.
Ellis, N. C., Römer, U., and O’Donnell, M. B. (2016). Usage-Based Approaches to Language Acquisition and Processing: Cognitive and Corpus Investigations of Construction Grammar. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Farley, A. P. and McCollam, K. (2004). Learner Readiness and L2 Production in Spanish: Processability Theory on Trial. Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada, 22, 4769.
Fernández-García, M. (1999). Patterns of Gender Agreement in the Speech of Second Language Learners. In Gutiérrez-Rexach, J. and Martínez-Gil, F. (eds.), Advances in Hispanic Linguistics: Papers from the 2nd Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, pp. 315.
Franceschina, F. (2002). Case and Φ-Feature Agreement in Advanced L2 Spanish Grammars. EUROSLA Yearbook, 2, 7186.
Franceschina, F. (2005). Fossilized Second Language Grammars: The Acquisition of Grammatical Gender. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Gabriele, A., Fiorentino, R., and Alemán Bañón, J. (2013). Examining Second Language Development Using Event-Related Potentials: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Processing of Gender and Number Agreement. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3 (2), 213232.
Gass, S. M. (1996). Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory: The Role of Language Transfer. In Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. London: Academic Press, pp. 317348.
Geeslin, K. L. (2003). A Comparison of Copula Choice: Native Spanish Speakers and Advanced Learners. Language Learning, 53 (4), 703764.
Geeslin, K. L. (ed.) (2014a). The Handbook of Spanish Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Geeslin, K. L. (2014b). The Acquisition of the Copula Contrast in Second Language Spanish. In Geeslin, K. L. (ed.), The Handbook of Spanish Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 219234.
Geeslin, K. L., García-Amaya, L. J., Hasler-Barker, M., Henriksen, N., and Killam, J. (2010). The SLA of Direct Object Pronouns in a Study Abroad Immersion Environment where Use is Variable. In Borgonovo, C., Español-Echevarría, M., and Prévost, P. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 12th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 246259.
Geeslin, K. L., García-Amaya, L. J., Hasler-Barker, M., Henriksen, N., and Killam, J. (2012). The L2 Acquisition of Variable Perfective Past Time Reference in Spanish in an Overseas Immersion Setting. In Geeslin, K. L. and Díaz-Campos, M. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 14th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 197213.
Geeslin, K. L. and Gudmestad, A. (2008). Variable Subject Expression in Second-Language Spanish: A Comparison of Native and Non-Native Speakers. In Bowles, M., Foote, R., Perpiñán, S., and Bhatt, R., Selected Proceedings of the 2007 Second Language Research Forum. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 6985.
Geeslin, K. L. and Gudmestad, A. (2011). Using Sociolinguistic Analyses of Discourse-Level Features to Expand Research on L2 Variation in Forms of Spanish Subject Expression. In Plonsky, L. and Schierloh, M. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 2009 Second Language Research Forum: Diverse Contributions to SLA. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 1630.
Geeslin, K. L. and Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2006). A Longitudinal Study of Copula Choice: Following Development in Variable Structures. In Sagarra, N. and Toribio, A. J. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 9th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 144156.
Geeslin, K. L. and Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2008). Variation in Contemporary Spanish: Linguistic Predictors of estar in Four Cases of Language Contact. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (3), 365380.
Gillon Dowens, M., Guo, T., Guo, J., Barber, H. A., and Carreiras, M. (2011). Gender and Number Processing in Chinese Learners of Spanish – Evidence from Event Related Potentials. Neuropsychologia, 49 (7), 16511659.
Gillon Dowens, M., Vergara, M., Barber, H. A., and Carreiras, M. (2010). Morphosyntactic Processing in Late Second-Language Learners. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22 (8), 18701887.
Grice, P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In Cole, P. and Morgan, J. L. (eds.), Syntax and Semantics III: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, pp. 4158.
Grüter, T., Lew-Williams, C., and Fernald, A. (2012). Grammatical Gender in L2: A Production or a Real-Time Processing Problem? Second Language Research, 28 (2), 191215.
Guasti, M., Chierchia, G., Crain, S., Foppolo, F., Gualmini, A., and Meroni, L. (2005). Why Children and Adults Sometimes (but not Always) Compute Implicatures. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20 (5), 667696.
Gudmestad, A. (2012). Acquiring a Variable Structure: An Interlanguage Analysis of Second-Language Mood Use in Spanish. Language Learning, 62 (2), 373402.
Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2012). The Acquisition of Interpretable Features in L2 Spanish: Personal a. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15 (4), 701720.
Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2014). Adjectival Modification in L2 Spanish Noun Phrases. EUROSLA Yearbook, 14, 143172.
Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Judy, T., and Rothman, J. (2009). On Transfer, Proficiency and Cross-Individual/Aggregate SLA Differences: Examining Adjectival Semantics in L2 Spanish. In Benati, A. (ed.), Issues in Second Language Proficiency. London: Continuum, pp. 233253.
Guijarro-Fuentes, P. and Marinis, T. (2007). Acquiring Phenomena at the Syntax/Semantics Interface in L2 Spanish. EUROSLA Yearbook, 7, 6787.
Gutiérrez-Rexach, J. (2001). The Semantics of Spanish Plural Existential Determiners and the Dynamics of Judgment Types. Probus, 13 (1), 113154.
Halloran, B. and Rothman, J. (2015). The Acquisition of Clitics in L2 Spanish. In Smith, J. and Ihsane, T. (eds.), Romance Linguistics 2012: Selected Papers from the 42nd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 316.
Hasbún, L. M. (1995). The Role of Lexical Aspect in the Acquisition of the Tense/Aspect System in L2 Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University.
Hawkins, R. and Chan, C. Y.-H. (1997). The Partial Availability of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition: The “Failed Functional Features Hypothesis.” Second Language Research, 13, 187226.
Hawkins, R. and Franceschina, F. (2004). Explaining the Acquisition and Non-Acquisition of Determiner–Noun Gender Concord in French and Spanish. In Prévost, P. and Paradis, J. (eds.), The Acquisition of French in Different Contexts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 175205.
Hengeveld, K. (2004). Illocution, Mood and Modality. In Booij, G., Lehmann, C., and Mugdan, J. (eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, Vol. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 11901201.
Herschensohn, J. and Young-Scholten, M. (eds.) (2013). The Cambridge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Horn, L. R. (1972). On the Semantic Properties of Logical Operators in English (Doctoral dissertation). UCLA.
Ionin, T., Montrul, S., and Crivos, M. (2013). A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34 (3), 483518.
Iverson, M. (2009). N-Drop at the Initial State of L3 Portuguese: Comparing Simultaneous and Additive Bilinguals of English/Spanish. In Pires, A. and Rothman, J. (eds.), Minimalist Inquiries into Child and Adult Language Acquisition: Case Studies across Portuguese. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 221244.
Iverson, M. (2010). Informing the Age of Acquisition Debate: L3 as a Litmus Test. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 48 (2–3), 221243.
Iverson, M. and Rothman, J. (2015). Object Drop in L2 Spanish, (Complex) Feature Reassembly and L1 Pre-emption: Comparing English, Chinese, European and Brazilian Portuguese Learners. In Judy, T. and Perpiñán, S. (eds.), The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 255280.
Judy, T., Guijarro-Fuentes, P., and Rothman, J. (2008). Adult Accessibility to L2 Representational Features: Evidence from the Spanish DP. In Bowles, M., Foote, R., Perpiñán, S., and Bhatt, R. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Language Research Forum 2007. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 121.
Judy, T. and Perpiñán, S. (eds.) (2015). The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Keating, G. D. (2009). Sensitivity to Violation of Gender Agreement in Native and Nonnative Spanish. Language Learning, 59 (3), 503535.
Keating, G. D. (2010). The Effects of Linear Distance and Working Memory on the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish. In VanPatten, B. and Jegersky, J. (eds.), Research in Second Language Processing and Parsing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 113134.
Lardiere, D. (2009). Some Thoughts on the Contrastive Analysis of Features in Second Language Acquisition. Second Language Research, 25 (2), 173227.
Lee, F. (2003). Anaphoric R-Expressions as Bound Variables. Syntax, 6 (1), 84114.
Lew-Williams, C. and Fernald, A. (2007). Young Children Learning Spanish Make Rapid Use of Grammatical Gender in Spoken Word Recognition. Psychological Science, 18 (3), 193198.
Lew-Williams, C. and Fernald, A. (2010). Real-Time Processing of Gender-Marked Articles by Native and Non-Native Spanish Speakers. Journal of Memory and Language, 63 (4), 447464.
Liceras, J. M. (1985). The Value of Clitics in Non-Native Spanish. Second Language Research, 1 (2), 151168.
Liceras, J. M. (1989). On Some Properties of the “Pro-Drop” Parameter: Looking for Missing Subjects in Non-Native Spanish. In Gass, S. and Schachter, J. (eds.), Linguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 109133.
Liceras, J. M. and Díaz, L. (1999). Topic-Drop versus Pro-Drop: Null Subjects and Pronominal Subjects in the Spanish L2 of Chinese, English, French, German and Japanese Speakers. Second Language Research, 15 (1), 140.
Liceras, J. M., Díaz, L., and Mongeon, C. (2000). N-Drop and Determiners in Native and Non-Native Spanish: More on the Role of Morphology in the Acquisition of Syntactic Knowledge. In Leow, R. P. and Sanz, C. (eds.), Spanish Applied Linguistics at the Turn of the Millennium: Papers from the 1999 Conference on the L1 and L2 Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 6796.
Liceras, J. M., Fernández-Fuertes, R., Perales, S., Pérez-Tattam, R., and Spradlin, K. T. (2008). Gender and Gender Agreement in Bilingual Native and Non-Native Grammars: A View from Child and Adult Functional-Lexical Mixings. Lingua, 118 (6), 827851.
Liceras, J. M., Maxwell, D., Laguardia, B., Fernández, Z., Fernández, R., and Díaz, L. (1997). A Longitudinal Study of Spanish Non-Native Grammars: Beyond Parameters. In Pérez-Leroux, A. T. and Glass, W. R. (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on the Acquisition of Spanish, Vol. 1. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 99132.
Liskin-Gasparro, J. (2000). The Use of Tense-Aspect Morphology in Spanish Oral Narratives: Exploring the Perceptions of Advanced Learners. Hispania, 83 (4), 830844.
Long, D. and Rothman, J. (2013). Generative Approaches and the Competing Systems Hypothesis: Formal Acquisition to Practical Application. In. Schweiter, J. (ed.), Theoretical and Pedagogical Innovations in SLA and Bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 6383.
Long, M. (2007). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lopez, L. (2012). Indefinite Objects. Scrambling, Choice Functions and Differential Marking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lozano, C. (2002a). Knowledge of Expletive and Pronominal Subjects by Learners of Spanish. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics, 135, 3760.
Lozano, C. (2002b). The Interpretation of Overt and Null Pronouns in Non-Native Spanish. Durham Working Papers in Linguistics, 8, 5366.
Malovrh, P. A. (2008). A Multifaceted Analysis of the Interlanguage Development of Spanish Direct-Object Clitic Pronouns Observed in L2-Learner Production (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University.
Malovrh, P. A. and Lee, J. F. (2010). Connections between Processing, Production and Placement. In VanPatten, B. and Jegersky, J. (eds.), Research in Second Language Processing and Parsing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 231256.
McCarthy, C. (2008). Morphological Variability in the Comprehension of Agreement: An Argument for Representation over Computation. Second Language Research, 24 (4), 459486.
Miller, D., Giancaspro, D., Iverson, M., Rothman, J., and Slabakova, R. (2016). Not Just algunos, but indeed unos L2ers Can Acquire Scalar Implicatures in L2 Spanish. In Alba de la Fuente, A., Valenzuela, E., and Martínez-Sanz, C. (eds.), Language Acquisition beyond Parameters: Studies in Honour of Juana M. Liceras. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 125145.
Montrul, S. (2002). Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Spanish Tense/Aspect Distinctions in Adult Bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5 (1), 3968.
Montrul, S. (2004). Psycholinguistic Evidence for Split Intransitivity in Spanish L2. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25 (2), 239267.
Montrul, S. (2010a). How Similar are L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31 (1), 167207.
Montrul, S. (2010b). Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers. Second Language Research, 26 (3), 293327.
Montrul, S. (2011). Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33 (2), 155161.
Montrul, S. and Bruhn de Garavito, J. (1999). The L2 Acquisition of Spanish: Generative Perspectives. Second Language Research, 15 (2), 111114.
Montrul, S., de la Fuente, I., Davidson, J., and Foote, R. (2013). The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers. Second Language Research, 29, (1), 87118.
Montrul, S., Foote, R., and Perpiñán, S. (2008). Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition. Language Learning, 58 (3), 503553.
Montrul, S. and Gürel, A. (2015). The Acquisition of Differential Object Marking in Spanish by Turkish speakers. In Judy, T. and Perpiñán, S. (eds.), The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 281308.
Montrul, S. and Ionin, T. (2012). Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and L2 Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles. The Modern Language Journal, 96 (1), 7094.
Montrul, S. and Rodríguez Louro, C. (2006). Beyond the Syntax of the Null Subject Parameter. In Torrens, V. and Escobar, L. (eds.), The Acquisition of Syntax in Romance Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 401418.
Montrul, S. and Slabakova, R. (2003). Competence Similarities between Native and Nearnative Speakers: An Investigation of the Preterite/Imperfect Contrast in Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25 (3), 351398.
Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. London: Hodder.
Ortega, L. (2013). SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn. Language Learning, 63 (Supplement 1), 124.
Papafragou, A., and Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar Implicatures: Experiments at the Semantics–Pragmatics Interface. Cognition, 86, 253282.
Perales, S. and Liceras, J. M. (2010). Looking for Universals in the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Object Clitics. In Guijarro-Fuertes, P. and Domínguez, L. (eds.), New Directions in Language Acquisition: Romance Languages in the Generative Perspective. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 323355.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T. and Glass, W. R. (1997). OPC Effects on the L2 Acquisition of Spanish. In Pérez-Leroux, A. T. and Glass, W. R. (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on the Acquisition of Spanish, Vol. 1. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 149165.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T. and Glass, W. R. (1999). Null Anaphora in Spanish Second Language Acquisition: Probabilistic versus Generative Approaches. Second Language Research, 15 (2), 220249.
Prévost, P. and White, L. (2000). Accounting for Morphological Variation in L2 Acquisition: Truncation or Missing Inflection? In Friedemann, M. A. and Rizzi, L. (eds.), The Acquisition of Syntax: Issues in Comparative Developmental Linguistics. London: Longman, pp. 232235.
Ramsay, V. (1990). Developmental Stages in the Acquisition of the Perfective and the Imperfective Aspects by Classroom L2 Learners of Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). University of Oregon.
Roby, D. B. (2009). Aspect and the Categorization of States: The Case of ser and estar in Spanish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Rosch, E. H. (1973). Natural Categories. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 328350.
Rothman, J. (2007). Pragmatic Solutions for Syntactic Problems: Understanding Some L2 Syntactic Errors in Terms of Pragmatic Deficits. In Baauw, S., Dirjkoningen, F., and Pinto, M. (eds.), Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2005. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 299320.
Rothman, J. (2008). Aspect Selection in Adult L2 Spanish and the Competing Systems Hypothesis: When Pedagogical and Linguistic Rules Conflict. Languages in Contrast, 8 (1), 74106.
Rothman, J. (2009). Pragmatic Deficits with Syntactic Consequences?: L2 Pronominal Subjects and the Syntax–Pragmatics Interface. Journal of Pragmatics, 41 (5), 951973.
Rothman, J., Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Iverson, M., and Judy, T. (2009). Noun-Raising and Adjectival Interpretative Reflexes in the L2 Spanish of Germanic and Italian Learners. In Chandlee, J., Franchini, M., Lord, S., and Rheiner, G.-M. (eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 444455.
Rothman, J. and Iverson, M. (2013). Islands and Objects in L2 Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (4), 589618.
Rothman, J., Judy, T., Guijarro-Fuentes, P., and Pires, A. (2010). On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Interpretations in L2 Spanish: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 4777.
Sagarra, N. and Herschensohn, J. (2010). The Role of Proficiency and Working Memory in Gender and Number Agreement Processing in L1 and L2 Spanish. Lingua, 120 (8), 20222039.
Sagarra, N. and Herschensohn, J. (2011). Proficiency and Animacy Effects on L2 Gender Agreement Processes during Comprehension. Language Learning, 61 (1), 80116.
Sagarra, N. and Herschensohn, J. (2013). Processing of Gender and Number Agreement in Late Spanish Bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17 (5), 607627.
Salaberry, R. (1999). The Development of Past Tense Verbal Morphology in Classroom L2 Spanish. Applied Linguistics, 20 (2), 151178.
Salaberry, R. (2003). Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology. Hispania, 86 (3), 559573.
Salaberry, R. (2005). Evidence for Transfer of Knowledge about Aspect from L2 Spanish to L3 Portuguese. In Ayoun, D. and Salaberry, M. R. (eds.), Tense and Aspect in the Romance Languages: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, pp. 179210.
Salaberry, R. (2008). Marking Past Tense in Second Language Acquisition: A Theoretical Model. London: Continuum.
Salaberry, R. (2011). Assessing the Effect of Lexical Aspect and Grounding on the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Past Tense Morphology among L1 English Speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14 (2), 184202.
Sánchez-Alonso, S., Deo, A., and Piñango, M. (2016). Copular Variation in Spanish: Implications for the Study of Heritage Speaker Spanish. Paper presented at the Workshop on Heritage Language Acquisition, UiT–The Arctic University of Norway.
Schwartz, B. and Sprouse, R. (1996). L2 Cognitive States and the Full Transfer/Full Access Model. Second Language Research, 12 (1), 4072.
Slabakova, R. (2006). Learnability in the Second Language Acquisition of Semantics: A Bidirectional Study of a Semantic Parameter. Second Language Research, 22 (4), 498523.
Slabakova, R. (2010). Scalar Implicatures in Second Language Acquisition. Lingua, 120 (10), 24442462.
Slabakova, R. and Montrul, S. (2003). Genericity and Aspect in L2 Acquisition. Language Acquisition, 11 (3), 165196.
Slabakova, R. and Montrul, S. (2007). L2 Acquisition at the Grammar–Discourse Interface: Aspectual Shifts in L2 Spanish. In Liceras, J., Zobl, H., and Goodluck, H. (eds.), The Role of Formal Features in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 452483.
Snyder, W., Senghas, A., and Inman, K. (2001). Agreement Morphology and the Acquisition of N-Drop in Spanish. Language Acquisition, 9, 157173.
Torrego, E. (1998). The Dependencies of Objects. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tsimpli, I. M. and Dimitrakopoulou, M. (2007). The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition. Second Language Research, 23 (2), 215242.
VanPatten, B. (1985). The Acquisition of ser and estar by Adult Learners of Spanish: A Preliminary Investigation of Transitional Stages Of Competence. Hispania, 68 (2), 399406.
VanPatten, B. (1987). Classroom Learners’ Acquisition of ser and estar: Accounting for Developmental Patterns. In VanPatten, B., Dvorak, T., and Lee, J. F. (eds.), Foreign Language Learning: A Research Perspective. Cambridge. MA: Newbury House, pp. 6175.
VanPatten, B. (1990). Attending to Form and Content in the Input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12 (3), 287301.
Wexler, K. (1994). Optional Infinitives, Head Movement and the Economy of Derivations. In Lightfoot, D. and Hornstein, N. (eds.), Verb Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 305350.
White, L., Valenzuela, E., Kozlowska-Macgregor, M., and Leung, Y. K.-I. (2004). Gender and Number Agreement in Nonnative Spanish. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25 (1), 105133.
Woolsey, D. (2008). From Theory to Research: Contextual Predictors of “estar + adjective” and the Study of the SLA of Spanish Copula Choice. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (3), 277295.
Wulff, S., Ellis, N. C., Römer, U., Bardovi-Harlig, K., and LeBlanc, C. J. (2009). The Acquisition of Tense-Aspect: Converging Evidence from Corpora and Telicity Ratings. The Modern Language Journal, 93 (3), 354369.
Zyzik, E. (2004). Encoding Meaning with Polyfunctional Forms: The Acquisition of Clitics in L2 Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). University of California at Davis.
Zyzik, E. (2006). Learners’ Overgeneralization of Dative Clitics to Accusative Contexts: Evidence for Prototype Effects in SLA. In Klee, C. A. and Face, T. L. (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla, pp. 122134.
Zyzik, E. (2008). Null Objects in Second Language Acquisition: Grammatical vs. Performance Models. Second Language Research, 24 (1), 65110.
Zyzik, E. and Gass, S. (2008). Epilogue: A Tale of Two Copulas. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (3), 383385.