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The Cambridge Companion to <I>Piers Plowman</I>
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Book description

Piers Plowman has long been considered one of the greatest poems of medieval England. Current scholarship on this alliterative masterpiece looks very different from that available even a decade ago. New information about the manuscripts of the poem, new historical discoveries, and new investigations of its literary, cultural and theoretical scope have fundamentally altered the very meaning of Langland's art. This Companion thus critically surveys traditional scholarship, with the aim of recuperating its best insights, and it ventures forth into newer areas of inquiry attuned to questions of social setting, institutional context, intellectual and literary history, theory, and the revitalized fields of codicology and paleography. By proceeding through chapters that offer cumulatively wider views as well as stand-alone analyses of topics most crucial to understanding Piers Plowman, this Companion gives serious students and seasoned scholars alike up-to-date knowledge of this intricate and beautiful poem.

Reviews

‘This collection distils expansive critical inquiry on an equally expansive medieval text into twelve readable essays, providing a definitive snapshot of a developing field of study. Beginning and advanced students will turn to this guide to Langland’s poem for many years to come.’

Eric Weiskott Source: Speculum

'The Cambridge Companion to Piers Plowman is an excellent and necessary collection of essays by top-notch scholars. … The collection … [offers] new readers a solid introduction to this most difficult of medieval poems and more seasoned scholars an overview of where we are now, with tantalizing signposts suggesting where new work might lead us.'

Jennifer Sisk Source: Journal of English and Germanic Philology

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Contents

Guide to further reading

Introduction: studying Piers Plowman in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

Aers, D., Piers Plowman and Christian Allegory, London, Edward Arnold, 1975.
Alford, J. A. (ed.), A Companion to Piers Plowman, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988.
Barney, S. A., “Langland's Prosody: The State of Study,” in The Endless Knot: Essays on Old and Middle English in Honor of Marie Borroff, ed. M. Teresa Tavormina and R. F. Yeager, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1995, 65–85.
Blanch, R. J. (ed.), Style and Symbolism in Piers Plowman: A Modern Critical Anthology, Memphis, University of Tennessee Press, 1969.
Brewer, C., Editing Piers Plowman: The Evolution of the Text, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Cole, A., The Birth of Theory, University of Chicago Press, 2014.
Duggan, H. N., “Notes on the Metre of Piers Plowman: Twenty Years On,” in The Metres of Alliterative Verse, ed. J. Jefferson and A. Putter, Leeds Texts and Monographs, ns 17, 2009, 159–86.
Gellrich, J., “Allegory and Materiality: Medieval Foundations of the Modern Debate,” Germanic Review, 77 (2002), 146–59.
Grady, F. and A. Galloway (eds.), Answerable Style: The Idea of the Literary in Medieval England, Columbus, Ohio State University Press, 2013.
Hanna, R., William Langland, Authors of the Middle Ages: English Writers of the Late Middle Ages 3, Aldershot, Variorum, 1993.
Hanna, R., London Literature, 1300–1380, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Holsinger, B., The Premodern Condition: Medievalism and the Making of Theory, University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Horobin, S., “‘In London and opelond’: The Dialect and Circulation of the C Version of Piers Plowman,” Medium Ævum, 74 (2005), 248–69.
Hussey, S. S. (ed.), Piers Plowman: Critical Approaches, New York, Barnes and Noble, 1969.
The International Piers Plowman Society [www.piersplowman.org] [includes information on the Yearbook of Langland Studies, plus a searchable annotated bibliography from the annual bibliographies printed in that journal, 1987–].
Justice, S., “Who Stole Robertson?PMLA, 124 (2009), 609–15.
Kane, G., Piers Plowman: The Evidence for Authorship, London, Athlone Press, 1965.
Manly, J., “The Lost Leaf of Piers the Plowman,” Modern Philology, 3 (1906), 359–66.
Middleton, A., “Acts of Vagrancy: The C Version ‘Autobiography’ and the Statute of 1388,” in Written Work: Langland, Labor and Authorship, ed. S. Justice and K. Kerby-Fulton, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997, 208–317.
Middleton, A., “William Langland's ‘Kynde Name’: Authorial Signature and Social Identity in Late-Fourteenth-Century England,” in Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380–1530, ed. L. Patterson, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990, 15–82.
Patterson, L., Negotiating the Past: The Historical Understanding of Medieval Literature, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
Rigg, A. G. and C. Brewer (eds.), William Langland: Piers Plowman: The Z Version, Studies and Texts 59, Toronto, Pontifical Institute, 1983.
Robertson, D. W., Jr., A Preface to Chaucer: Studies in Medieval Perspectives, Princeton University Press, 1962.
Robertson, D. W., Jr. and B. F. Huppé, Piers Plowman and Scriptural Tradition, Princeton University Press, 1951.
Vasta, E. (ed.), Interpretations of Piers Plowman, University of Notre Dame Press, 1968.
Vaughan, M. F. (ed.), Piers Plowman: The A Version, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Wallace, D., Premodern Places: Calais to Surinam, Chaucer to Aphra Behn, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.
Warner, L., The Lost History of Piers Plowman: The Earliest Transmission of Langland's Work, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
Wood, S., Conscience and the Composition of Piers Plowman, Oxford University Press, 2012.

The poem and its traditions

1 Major episodes and moments in Piers Plowman B

Adams, R., “Langland's Theology,” in A Companion to Piers Plowman, ed. J. A. Alford, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988, pp. 87–114.
Aers, D., Chaucer, Langland and the Creative Imagination, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
Aers, D. and L. Staley, The Powers of the Holy: Religion, Politics, and Gender in Late Medieval English Culture, University Park, PA, Penn State Press, 2004.
Baker, D., “The Pardons of Piers Plowman,” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 85 (1984), 462–72.
Baldwin, A., The Theme of Government in Piers Plowman, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1981.
Barney, S. A., The Penn Commentary on Piers Plowman, Volume 5: C Passūs 20–22; B Passūs 18–20, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Barnie, J., War in Medieval English Society: Social Values and the Hundred Years’ War, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1974.
Birnes, W., “Christ as Advocate: The Legal Metaphor in Piers Plowman,” Annuale Mediaevale, 16 (1975), 71–93.
Burrow, J., “The Action of Langland's Second Vision,” Essays in Criticism, 15 (1965), 247–68.
Cole, A., Literature and Heresy in the Age of Chaucer,Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Crane, S., “The Writing Lesson of 1381,” in Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context, ed. B. Hanawalt, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1992, 201–21.
Frank, R. W., Piers Plowman and the Scheme of Salvation, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1957.
Galloway, A., The Penn Commentary on Piers Plowman, Volume 1: C Prologue–Passus 4; B Prologue–Passus 4; A Prologue–Passus 4, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Harbert, B., “Langland's Easter,” in Langland, the Mystics and the Medieval English Religious Tradition: Essays in Honour of S. S. Hussey, ed. H. Phillips, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1990, 57–70.
Hudson, A., “Piers Plowman and the Peasant's Revolt: A Problem Revisited,YLS, 8 (1994), 85–106.
Justice, S., Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1994.
Kerby-Fulton, K., Reformist Apocalypticism and Piers Plowman, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Lawton, D., “Piers Plowman: On Tearing – or Not Tearing – the Pardon,” Philological Quarterly, 60 (1981), 414–22.
Lees, C., “Gender and Exchange in Piers Plowman,” in Class and Gender in Early English Literature, ed. B. Harwood and G. Overing, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1994, 112–90.
Middleton, A., “Narration and the Invention of Experience: Episodic Form in Piers Plowman,” in The Wisdom of Poetry: Essays in Early English Literature in Honor of Morton W. Bloomfield, ed. L. Benson and S. Wenzel, Kalamazoo, MI, Medieval Institute Publications, 1982, 91–122.
Middleton, A., “The Audience and Public of Piers Plowman,” in Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background: Seven Essays, ed. D. Lawton, Cambridge University Press, 1982, 101–23.
Pearsall, D., “Poverty and Poor People in Piers Plowman,” in Piers Plowman: Medieval English Studies Presented to George Kane, ed. E. Kennedyet al., Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1988, 185–207.
Schmidt, A. V. C., The Clerkly Maker, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1987.
Schmidt, A. V. C., “The Inner Dreams in Piers Plowman,” Medium Ævum, 55 (1986), 24–40.
Simpson, J., “From Reason to Affective Knowledge: Modes of Thought and Poetic Form in Piers Plowman,” Medium Ævum, 55 (1986), 1–23.
Simpson, J., “Grace Abounding: Evangelical Centralisation and the End of Piers Plowman,” YLS, 14 (2001), 49–73.
Simpson, J., Piers Plowman: An Introduction, 2nd rev. edn., Exeter University Press, 2007.
Smith, D. V., The Book of the Incipit: Beginnings in the Fourteenth Century, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
Steiner, E., Documentary Culture and the Making of English Literature, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Stokes, M., Justice and Mercy in Piers Plowman, London, Croom Helm, 1984.
Szittya, P., The Antifraternal Tradition in Medieval England, Princeton University Press, 1986.
Tavormina, M. T., Kindly Similitude: Marriage and Family in Piers Plowman, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1995.
Trigg, S., “The Traffic in Medieval Women: Alice Perrers, Feminist Criticism and Piers Plowman,”YLS, 12 (1998), 5–29.
Waldron, R., “Langland's Originality: The Christ-Knight and the Harrowing of Hell,” in Medieval English Religious and Ethical Literature: Essays in Honor of G. H. Russell, ed. G. Kratzmann and J. Simpson, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1986, 66–81.
Woolf, R., “The Theme of Christ the Lover-Knight in Medieval English Literature,” Review of English Studies, 13 (1962), 1–16.
Woolf, R., “The Tearing of the Pardon,” in Piers Plowman: Critical Approaches, ed. S. S. Hussey, London, Methuen, 1969, 50–75.

2 The versions and revisions of Piers Plowman

Manuscript facsimiles

Benson, C. D. and L. S. Blanchfield, The Manuscripts of Piers Plowman: The B-Version, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1997 [reduced images of a side from each copy; the accompanying text should be approached with caution].
Duggan, H. W. (gen. ed.), The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive, various publishers, 1999– [an ongoing project of digitized facsimiles of full manuscripts, on CD-ROM with extensive annotation; to date, limited to B Version copies, F W O L M Hm R = vols. 1–7, respectively].
Matsushita, T., Piers Plowman: The A Version: Facsimiles of the Twenty Manuscripts with their Diplomatic Texts, 3 vols., Tokyo, Senshu University, 2008 [full facsimiles of varying quality and scaling].
Piers Plowman: A Facsimile of the Z-Text in Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Bodley 851, ed. C. Brewer and A. G. Rigg, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1994.
Piers Plowman: Facsimile: Bodleian Library Oxford, MS. Douce 104, ed. D. Pearsall and K. Scott, Woodbridge, D. S. Brewer, 1992.
Piers Plowman: The Huntington Library Manuscript (HM 143) reproduced in Photostat, ed. R. W. Chamberset al., San Marino, Huntington Library, 1936.

Editions (for the Athlone and Schmidt editions, see list of abbreviations)

Knott, T. A. and D. C. Fowler (eds.), Piers the Plowman: A Critical Edition of the A Version, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952.
Pearsall, D. (ed.), William Langland Piers Plowman: A New Annotated Edition of the C-Text, 2nd edn., Exeter University Press, 2008.
Rigg, A. G. and C. Brewer (eds.), William Langland: Piers Plowman: The Z Version, Studies and Texts 59, Toronto, Pontifical Institute, 1983.
Skeat, Walter W. (ed.), The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman in Three Parallel Texts…, 2 vols., Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1886 [reformulating work previously published as EETS os 28, 38, 54, 67, and 81].
Vaughan, M. F. (ed.), Piers Plowman: The A Version, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Wynnere and Wastour, in Alliterative Poetry of the Later Middle Ages: An Anthology, ed. T. Turville-Petre, London, Routledge, 1989, 38–66.

Discussions

Adams, R., “Editing Piers Plowman B: The Imperative of an Intermittently Critical Edition,” Studies in Bibliography, 45 (1992), 31–68.
Adams, R., “The R/F MSS of Piers Plowman and the Pattern of Alpha/Beta Complementary Omissions: Implications for Critical Editing,” TEXT, 14 (2002), 109–37.
Adams, R. and T. Turville-Petre, “The London Book-Trade and the Lost History of Piers Plowman,” RES, 64 (2013).
Alford, J. A. (ed.), A Companion to Piers Plowman, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988.
Brewer, C., Editing Piers Plowman: The Evolution of the Text, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Davis, B. P., “The Rationale for a Copy of a Text: Constructing the Exemplar for British Library Additional MS 10574,” YLS, 11 (1997), 141–55.
Donaldson, E. T., Piers Plowman: The C-Text and its Poet, New Haven, Yale Studies in English 113, 1949.
Doyle, A. I., “Remarks on Surviving Manuscripts of Piers Plowman,” in Medieval English Religious and Ethical Literature: Essays in Honour of G. H. Russell, ed. G. Kratzmann and J. Simpson, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1986, 35–48.
Doyle, A. I. and M. B. Parkes, “The Production of Copies of the Canterbury Tales and the Confessio Amantis in the Early Fifteenth Century,” in Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts, and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker, ed. M. B. Parkes and A. G. Watson, London, Scolar, 1973, 163–210.
Fowler, D. C., “A New Edition of the B Text of Piers Plowman,” YES, 7 (1977), 23–42.
Galloway, A., The Penn Commentary on Piers Plowman, Volume 1, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006 [the only other published volume, the fifth, by Stephen A. Barney, deals with the lightly revised conclusion to the text, extant in only the two later versions].
Hanna, R., Pursuing History: Middle English Manuscripts and their Texts, Figurae: Reading Medieval Culture, Stanford University Press, 1996, 195–243, 312–19.
Hanna, R., William Langland, Authors of the Middle Ages: English Writers of the Late Middle Ages 3, Aldershot, Variorum, 1993, with supplements, YLS, 14 (2000), 185–98; 16 (2002), 169–77.
Horobin, S., “Harley 3954 and the Audience of Piers Plowman,” in Medieval Texts in Context, ed. G. D. Caie and D. Renevey, London, Routledge, 2008, 68–84.
Horobin, S., “‘In London and opeland’: The Dialect and Circulation of the C Version of Piers Plowman,” Medium Ævum 74 (2005), 248–69.
Horobin, S. and L. R. Mooney, “A Piers Plowman Manuscript by the Hengwrt/Ellesmere Scribe and its Implications for London Standard English,” SAC, 26 (2004), 65–112.
Justice, S., Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1994.
Kane, G., Piers Plowman: The Evidence for Authorship, London, Athlone Press, 1965.
Kane, G., “The Text,” in Alford, 175–200.
Kane, G., “The ‘Z Version’ of Piers Plowman,” Speculum, 60 (1985), 910–30.
Lawler, T., “A Reply to Jill Mann: Reaffirming the Traditional Relation between the A and B Versions of Piers Plowman,” YLS, 10 (1996), 145–80.
Manly, J. M., “Piers Plowman and its Sequence,” in The Cambridge History of English Literaturevol. 2:The End of the Middle Ages, ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller, Cambridge University Press, 1908, 1–42.
Mann, J., “The Power of the Alphabet: A Reassessment of the Relationship between the A and B Versions of Piers Plowman,” YLS, 8 (1995), 21–50.
Middleton, A., “Acts of Vagrancy: The C Version ‘Autobiography’ and the Statute of 1388,” in Written Work: Langland, Labor, and Authorship, ed. S. Justice and K. Kerby-Fulton, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997, 208–317.
Middleton, A., “Making a Good End: John But as a Reader of Piers Plowman,” in Medieval English Studies Presented to George Kane, ed. E. D. Kennedyet al., Woodbridge, D. S. Brewer, 1988, 243–66.
Russell, G. H., “Some Aspects of the Process of Revision in Piers Plowman,” in Piers Plowman: Critical Approaches, ed. S. S. Hussey, London, Methuen, 1969, 27–49.
Samuels, M. L., “Dialect and Grammar,” in Alford, 201–21.
Turville-Petre, T., “Putting It Right: The Corrections of Huntington Library MS Hm 128 and BL Additional MS 35287,” YLS, 16 (2002), 41–65.
Warner, L., “The Ending and End of Piers Plowman B: The C-Version Origins of the Final Two Passus,” Medium Ævum 76 (2007), 225–50.
Weldon, J., “Ordinatio and Genre in MS ccc 201,” Florilegium 12 (1993), 159–75.
Wood, S., Conscience and the Composition of Piers Plowman, Oxford University Press, 2012.

3 Literary history and Piers Plowman

Bloomfield, M., Piers Plowman as a Fourteenth-Century Apocalypse, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, [1962].
Bourquin, G., Piers Plowman: études sur la génèse littéraire des trois versions, 2 vols., Paris, Librairie Honoré Champion, 1978.
de Deguileville, G., Le pèlerinage de vie humaine, ed. J. J. Stürzinger, London, The Roxburghe Club, 1893.
Hamilton, A. C., “Spenser and Langland,” Studies in Philology, 55 (1958), 533–48.
Hanna, R., “Langland's Ymaginatif: Images and the Limits of Poetry,” in Images, Idolatry, and Iconoclasm in Late Medieval England: Textuality and the Visual Image, ed. J. Dimmick, J. Simpson, and N. Zeeman, Oxford University Press, 2002, 81–94.
Hanna, R., “William Langland,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Literature, 1100–1500, ed. L. Scanlon, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 125–38.
Hardwick, P., “‘Biddeth Peres Ploughman go to his werk’: Appropriation of Piers Plowman in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries,” in Film and Fiction: Reviewing the Middle Ages, ed. T. Shippey and M. Arnold, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 2002, 171–95.
Justice, S., “The Genres of Piers Plowman,” Viator, 19 (1988), 291–306.
Justice, S., “Literary History,” in Chaucer: Contemporary Approaches, ed. D. Raybin and S. Fein, University Park, Penn State University Press, 2010, 199–214.
Kelen, S., Langland's Early Modern Identities, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Middleton, A., “Introduction: The Critical Heritage,” in A Companion to Piers Plowman, ed. J. A. Alford, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988, 1–25.
Middleton, A., “Narration and the Invention of Experience: Episodic Form in Piers Plowman,” in The Wisdom of Poetry: Essays in Early English Literature in Honor of Morton W. Bloomfield, ed. L. Benson and S. Wenzel, Kalamazoo, Medieval Institute Publications, 1982, 91–122.
Salter, E.Piers Plowman and The Simonie,” Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, 203 (1967), 241–54.
Smith, D. V., The Book of the Incipit: Beginnings in the Fourteenth Century, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
Steiner, E., Documentary Culture and the Making of Medieval English Literature, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

4 Allegory and Piers Plowman

Aers, D., Piers Plowman and Christian Allegory, London, Edward Arnold, 1975.
Auerbach, E., “Figura,” in Scenes from the Drama of European Literature, New York, Meridian Books, 1959, 11–76.
Barney, S. A., Allegories of History, Allegories of Love, Hamden, CT, Archon Books, 1979.
Barney, S. A., “Allegorical Visions,” in A Companion to Piers Plowman, ed. J. A. Alford, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988, 117–33.
Bloomfield, M., “A Grammatical Approach to Personification Allegory,” in Bloomfield, Essays and Explorations: Studies in Ideas, Language and Literature, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1970, 243–60.
Cervone, C. M., Poetics of the Incarnation: Middle English Writing and the Leap of Love, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.
Charity, A. C., Events and their Afterlife: The Dialectics of Christian Typology in the Bible and Dante, Cambridge University Press, 1966.
Dronke, P., “Arbor Caritatis,” in Medieval Studies for J. A. W. Bennett Aetatis Suae LXX, ed. P. L. Heyworth, Oxford University Press, 1981, 207–53.
Frank, R. W., Jr., “The Art of Reading Medieval Personification-Allegory,” ELH, 20 (1953), 237–50; repr. in Vasta (see below).
Gombrich, E. H., Symbolic Images, London, Phaidon Press, 1972 (esp. pp. 123–91).
Gradon, P., Form and Style in Early English Literature, London, Methuen, 1971 (chs. 1 and 6).
Griffiths, L., Personification in Piers Plowman, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1985.
Hollander, R., Allegory in Dante's Commedia, Princeton University Press, 1969.
Jauss, H., “Form und Auffassung der Allegorie in der Tradition der Psychomachia,” in Medium Ævum Vivum: Festschrift für Walther Bulst, ed. H. R. Jauss and D. Schaller, Heidelberg, Winter, 1960, 179–206; slightly expanded version published as “La transformation de la forme allégorique entre 1180 et 1240: d’Alain de Lille à Guillaume de Lorris,” in L’humanisme médiéval dans les littératures romanes du XIIe au XIVe siècle, ed. Anthime Fourrier, Paris, Librairie Klincksieck, 1964, 107–46.
Katzenellenbogen, A., Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in Mediaeval Art, London, Warburg Institute, 1939; repr. New York, Norton, 1964.
Mann, J., “Eating and Drinking in Piers Plowman,” Essays and Studies, 32 (1979), 26–43.
Mann, J., Langland and Allegory, The Morton W. Bloomfield Lectures II, Kalamazoo, MI, Medieval Institute Publications, 1992; reprinted in The Morton W. Bloomfield Lectures, 1989–2005, ed. D. Donoghue, J. Simpson, and N. Watson, Kalamazoo, MI, Medieval Institute Publications, 2010, 20–41.
Paxson, J., The Poetics of Personification, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Quilligan, M., The Language of Allegory: Defining the Genre, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1979.
Raabe, P., Imitating God: The Allegory of Faith in Piers Plowman B, Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1990.
Salter, E., “Medieval Poetry and the Figural View of Reality,” Proceedings of the British Academy, 54 (1968), 73–92.
Schless, H., “The Backgrounds of Allegory: Langland and Dante,” YLS, 5 (1991), 129–42.
Singleton, C. S., Dante's Commedia: Elements of Structure, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977 [originally 1954].
Singleton, C. S., Journey to Beatrice, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977 [originally 1958].
Smith, M., Prudentius’ Psychomachia; A Reexamination, Princeton University Press, 1976.
Spearing, A. C., “Piers Plowman: Allegory and Verbal Practice,” in Readings in Medieval Poetry, CambridgeUniversity Press, 1987, 216–45, 261–4.
Steiner, E., Documentary Culture and the Making of Medieval English Literature, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Tuve, R., Allegorical Imagery: Some Medieval Books and their Posterity, Princeton University Press, 1966.
Vasta, E. (ed.), Interpretations of Piers Plowman, University of Notre Dame Press, 1968 (essays by Frank Donaldson).

Historical and Intellectual Contexts

5 The Rokeles: an index for a “Langland” family history

Adams, R., Langland and the Rokele Family: The Gentry Background to Piers Plowman, Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2013.
Barron, C., “William Langland: A London Poet,” in Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context, ed. Barbara Hanawalt, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1992, 91–109.
Bennett, M., “William called Long Will,” YLS, 26 (2012), 1–25.
Hanna, R., William Langland, Authors of the Middle Ages: English Writers of the Late Middle Ages 3, Aldershot, Variorum, 1993.
Hanna, R., “Emendations to a 1993 ‘Vita de Ne'erdowel,’YLS, 14 (2000), 185–98.
Kane, G., Piers Plowman: The Evidence for Authorship, London, Athlone Press, 1965.
Matheson, L., review of Ralph Hanna, William Langland, YLS, 8 (1994), 192–4.
Middleton, A., “William Langland's ‘Kynde Name’: Authorial Signature and Social Identity in Late Fourteenth-Century England,” in Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380–1530, ed. L. Patterson, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1990, 15–82.

6 Religious forms and institutions in Piers Plowman

Aers, D., Sanctifying Signs: Making Christian Tradition in Late Medieval England, University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
Cole, A., Literature and Heresy in the Age of Chaucer, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Duffy, E., The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c.1400–c.1580, 2nd edn., New Haven, Yale University Press, 2005.
Gwynn, A., The English Austin Friars in the Time of Wyclif, Oxford University Press, 1940.
Helmholz, R., The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. 1: Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640s, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Knowles, D., The Religious Orders in England, 3 vols., Cambridge University Press, 1961–2.
Pantin, W. A., The English Church in the Fourteenth Century, University of Toronto Press, 1980.
Platt, C., The Parish Churches of Medieval England, London, Secker and Warburg, 1981.
Scase, W., Piers Plowman and the New Anticlericalism, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Simpson, J., Piers Plowman: An Introduction to the B-Text, 2nd, rev. edn., Exeter University Press, 2007.
Southern, R. W., Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1970.
Swanson, R. N., Catholic England: Faith, Religion, and Observance before the Reformation, Manchester University Press, 1992.
Swanson, R. N., Church and Society in Late Medieval England, Oxford, Blackwell, 1989.
Warren, A. K., Anchorites and their Patrons in Medieval England, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1985.

7 Political forms and institutions in Piers Plowman

Alford, J., Piers Plowman: A Glossary of Legal Diction, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1988.
Baldwin, A. P., The Theme of Government in Piers Plowman, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1981.
Benson, C. D., Public Piers Plowman: Modern Scholarship and Late Medieval English Culture, Philadelphia, Penn State University Press, 2004.
Dodd, G., “A Parliament Full of Rats? Piers Plowman and the Good Parliament of 1376,” Bulletin of the Institute for Historical Research, 79 (2006), 21–49.
Giancarlo, M., Parliament and Literature in Late Medieval England, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Harding, A., Medieval Law and the Foundations of the State, Oxford University Press, 2002.
Harriss, G., Shaping the Nation: England, 1360–1461, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Justice, S., Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1994.
Kennedy, K., Maintenance, Meed, and Marriage in Medieval English Literature, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Stokes, M., Justice and Mercy in Piers Plowman, London, Croom Helm, 1984.

8 Christian philosophy in Piers Plowman

Aers, D., Sanctifying Signs: Making Christian Tradition in Late Medieval England, University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
Alford, J. A., Piers Plowman: A Glossary of Legal Diction, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1988.
Alford, J. A., “Langland's Learning,” YLS, 9 (1995), 1–8.
Bowers, J., The Crisis of Will in Piers Plowman, Washington, DC, Catholic University of America Press, 1986.
The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Disintegration of Scholasticism, 1100–1600, ed. N. Kretzmann, A. Kenny, and J. Pinborg, Cambridge University Press, 1982, 1988.
The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 2: The Middle Ages, ed. Alastair Minnis and Ian Johnson, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Carruthers, M., The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Coleman, J., Piers Plowman and the Moderni, Rome, Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1981.
Courtney, W. J., Schools and Scholars in Fourteenth-Century England, Princeton University Press, 1987.
Galloway, A., “Piers Plowman and the Schools,”YLS, 6 (1992), 89–107.
Galloway, A., “The Rhetoric of Riddling in Late-Medieval England: The ‘Oxford’ Riddles, the Secretum philosophorum, and the Riddles in Piers Plowman,” Speculum, 70 (1995), 68–105.
Gwynn, A., The English Austin Friars in the Time of Wyclif, Oxford University Press, 1940.
Hanna, R., “Literacy, Schooling, Universities,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Culture, ed. A. Galloway, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 179–84.
Harwood, B. J., Piers Plowman and the Problem of Belief, University of Toronto Press, 1992.
A History of the University of Cambridge, gen. ed. C. N. L. Brooke, Cambridge University Press, 1988–2004; esp. vol. 1, D. Riehl Leader, “The University to 1546.”
The History of the University of Oxford, gen. ed. T. H. Aston, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1984–2000; esp. vol. 1, The Early Oxford Schools, ed. J. I. Catto (1984); and vol. 2, Late Medieval Oxford, ed. J. I. Catto and R. Evans (1992).
Karnes, M., Imagination, Meditation, and Cognition in the Middle Ages, University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Lawler, T., “Langland Versificator,” YLS, 25 (2011), 37–76.
Leff, G., Bradwardine and the Pelagians: A Study of his “De causa Dei” and its Opponents, Cambridge University Press, 1957.
Mann, J., “‘He Knew Nat Catoun’: Medieval School-Texts and Middle English Literature,” in The Text in the Community: Essays on Medieval Works, Manuscripts, Authors, and Readers, ed. J. Mann and M. Nolan, University of Notre Dame Press, 2006, 41–74.
Schmidt, A. V. C., “Langland and Scholastic Philosophy,” Medium Ævum, 38 (1969), 134–56.
Schmidt, A. V. C., “Langland's Visions and Revisions,” YLS, 14 (2000), 5–28.
Smith, D. V., The Book of the Incipit: Beginnings in the Fourteenth Century, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
Smith, D. V., “Negative Langland,” YLS, 23 (2009), 33–59.
Wittig, J., “Piers Plowman B, Passus ix–xii: Elements in the Design of the Inward Journey,” Traditio, 28 (1972), 211–80.
Zeeman, N., Piers Plowman and the Medieval Discourse of Desire, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

9 The non-Christians of Piers Plowman

Aers, D., Salvation and Sin: Augustine, Langland, and Fourteenth-Century Theology, University of Notre Dame Press, 2009.
Akbari, S. C., Idols in the East: European Representations of Islam and the Orient, 1100–1450, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2009.
Akbari, S. C., Seeing through the Veil: Optical Theory and Medieval Allegory, University of Toronto Press, 2004.
Akbari, S. C., “The Rhetoric of Antichrist in Western Lives of Muhammad,” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 8 (1997), 297–307.
Colish, M., “The Virtuous Pagan: Dante and the Christian Tradition,” in The Unbounded Community: Papers in Christian Ecumenism in Honor of Jaroslav Pelikan, ed. W. Caferro and D. G. Fisher, New York, Garland, 1996, 43–77.
Daniel, N., Islam and the West: The Making of an Image, rev. edn., Oxford, Oneworld, 1993.
Grady, F., Representing Righteous Heathens in Late Medieval England, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Iannucci, A. A., “Limbo: The Emptiness of Time,” Studi danteschi, 52 (1979–80), 69–128.
Iogna-Prat, D., Order and Exclusion: Cluny and Christendom Face Heresy, Judaism, and Islam, 1998; trans. G. R. Edwards, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2001.
Kinoshita, S., Medieval Boundaries: Rethinking Difference in Old French Literature, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Metlitzki, D., The Matter of Araby in Medieval England, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1979.
Narin van Court, E., “Hermeneutics of Supersession: The Revision of the Jews from the B to the C text of Piers Plowman,” YLS, 10 (1996), 43–87.
Rogers, W. E., “The C-Revisions and the Crusades in Piers Plowman,” in The Medieval Crusade, ed. S. J. Ridyard, Woodbridge, Boydell, 2004, 145–56.
Southern, R. W., Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1962.
Tolan, J., Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination, New York, Columbia University Press, 2002.
Vitto, C. L., The Virtuous Pagan in Middle English Literature, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 79, part 5, Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1989.
Watson, N., “Visions of Inclusion: Universal Salvation and Vernacular Theology in Pre-Reformation England,” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 27 (1997), 145–87.

Readers and responses

10 Manuscripts and readers of Piers Plowman

Benson, C. D., Public Piers Plowman: Modern Scholarship and Late Medieval English Culture, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.
Benson, C. D. and L. S. Blanchfield, The Manuscripts of Piers Plowman: The B-Version, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1997.
Bowers, J. M., Chaucer and Langland: The Antagonistic Tradition, University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.
Doyle, A. I., “Remarks on Surviving Manuscripts of Piers Plowman,” in Medieval English Religious and Ethical Literature: Essays in Honour of G. H. Russell, ed. G. Kratzmann and J. Simpson, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1986, 35–48.
Hanna, R., William Langland, Aldershot, Variorum, 1993.
Kelen, S., Langland's Early Modern Identities, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2007.
Kerby-Fulton, K. and D. L. Despres, Iconography and the Professional Reader: The Politics of Book Production in the Douce Piers Plowman, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Middleton, A., “The Audience and Public of ‘Piers Plowman,’” in Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background, ed. D. Lawton, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1982, 101–23.
Samuels, M. L., “Langland's Dialect,” Medium Ævum, 54 (1985), 232–47; repr. in The English of Chaucer and His Contemporaries, ed. J. J. Smith, Aberdeen University Press, 1988, 70–85.
Scase, W., Piers Plowman and the New Anticlericalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Turville-Petre, T., “Sir Adrian Fortescue and his Copy of Piers Plowman,” YLS, 14 (2000), 29–48.

11 Plowman traditions in late medieval and early modern writing

Aston, M., “Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasants’ Revolt,” Past and Present, 143 (1994), 3–47.
Barney, S. A., “The Plowshare of the Tongue: The Progress of a Symbol from the Bible to Piers Plowman,” Mediaeval Studies, 35 (1973), 261–93.
Barr, H. (ed.), The Piers Plowman Tradition: A Critical Edition of “Pierce the Ploughman's Crede,” “Richard the Redeless,” “Mum and the Sothsegger” and “The Crowned King”, London, J. M. Dent, 1993.
Bowers, J. M., Chaucer and Langland: The Antagonistic Tradition, University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.
Chaudhuri, S., “Ploughman and Shepherd: Langland's Legacy to Tudor Pastoral,” Journal of the Department of English [University of Calcultta], 22 (1986–7), 50–71.
Freedman, P., Images of the Medieval Peasant, Stanford University Press, 1999.
Hardwick, P., “Chaucer: The Poet as Ploughman,” Chaucer Review, 33 (1998), 146–56.
Horobin, S., “Stephan Batman and his Manuscripts of Piers Plowman,” Review of English Studies, 62 (2011), 358–72.
Hudson, A., “The Legacy of Piers Plowman,” in A Companion to Piers Plowman, ed. J. A. Alford, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988, 251–66.
Jones, M. R., Radical Pastoral, 1381–1594: Appropriation and the Writing of Religious Controversy, Farnham, Ashgate, 2011.
Kelen, S., Langland's Early Modern Identities, New York, Palgrave, 2007.
King, J. N., English Reformation Literature: The Tudor Origins of the Protestant Tradition, Princeton University Press, 1982.
Kirk, E. D., “Langland's Plowman and the Recreation of Fourteenth-Century Religious Metaphor,” YLS, 2 (1988), 1–21.
Lawton, D., “Lollardy and the Piers Plowman Tradition,” Modern Language Review, 76 (1981), 780–93.
Little, K. C., “The ‘Other’ Past of Pastoral: Langland's Piers Plowman and Spenser's Shepheardes Calendar,” Exemplaria 21.2 (2009), 160–78.
Little, K. C., Transforming Work: Early Modern Pastoral and Late Medieval Poetry, University of Notre Dame Press, 2013.
McCarl, M. R. (ed.), The Plowman's Tale: The c. 1532 and 1606 Editions of a Spurious Canterbury Tale, New York, Garland, 1997.
McRae, A., God Speed the Plough: The Representation of Agrarian England, 1500–1660, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Warner, L., The Myth of Piers Plowman: Constructing a Medieval Literary Archive, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Wheatley, E., “A Selfless Ploughman and the Christ/Piers Conjunction in Langland's Piers Plowman,” Notes and Queries, ns 40 (1993), 135–42.
Wilson, E. (ed.), The Winchester Anthology: A Facsimile of British Library Additional Manuscript 60577 with an Introduction and List of Contents by Edward Wilson and an Account of the Music by Iain Fenlon, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 1981.