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The Cambridge Companion to Newton
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Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) was one of the greatest scientists of all time, a thinker of extraordinary range and creativity who has left enduring legacies in mathematics and physics. While most famous for his Principia, his work on light and colour, and his discovery of the calculus, Newton devoted much more time to research in chemistry and alchemy, and to studying prophecy, church history and ancient chronology. This new edition of The Cambridge Companion to Newton provides authoritative introductions to these further dimensions of his endeavours as well as to many aspects of his physics. It includes a revised bibliography, a new introduction and six new chapters: three updating previous chapters on Newton's mathematics, his chemistry and alchemy and the reception of his religious views; and three entirely new, on his religion, his ancient chronology and the treatment of continuous and discontinuous forces in his second law of motion.


'Taken as a whole this companion contains high-quality and up-to-date scholarship which will give the reader access to the different disciplines in which Newton was active in a representative way. This companion contains Newton scholarship at its best. In comparison with the first edition, Newton’s so-called extra-scientific work now receives more attention. Even those who already possess a copy of the first edition should seriously consider purchasing the second edition in view of the plethora of new material which the second edition contains.'

Steffen Ducheyne Source: Metascience

'After an excellent introduction, chapters by 15 authors cover Newton's works on physics, mathematics, alchemy, religion, ancient chronology, and more. In each chapter, the authors write from a depth of expertise apparent in the detailed expositions and arguments'.

M. Dickinson Source: Choice

'Libraries catering for academic work in the history and philosophy of science will most certainly want this book.'

Martin Guha Source: Reference Reviews

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Part 1

All of Newton's papers on light and colors, all the printed editions of the Principia, and most of Newton's writings on mathematics are published on the Newton Project website.

“A Letter of Mr. Isaac Newton, Professor of the Mathematics in the University of Cambridge; containing his New Theory about Light and Colors,” Phil. Trans. 80 (February 1671/2), 3075–87.
“An account of a New Catadioptrical Telescope invented by Mr. Newton,” Phil. Trans. 81 (March 1672), 4004–10.
“Mr. Newton’s Letter to the Publisher of March 26, 1672, containing some more suggestions about his New Telescope,” Phil. Trans. 82 (April 1672), 4032–4.
“An extract of another Letter of the same to the Publisher, dated March 30, 1672, by way of Answer to some Objections, made by an Ingenious French Philosopher [A. Auzout] to the New Reflecting telescope,” Phil. Trans. 82 (April 1672), 4034–5.
“Mr. Isaac Newton’s Considerations upon part of a Letter of Monsieur de Bercé printed in the Eighth French Mémoire, containing the Catadioptrical Telescope, pretended to be improv’d and refined by Mr. Cassegrain,” Phil. Trans. 83 (May 1672), 4056–9.
“Some experiments proposed in relation to Mr. Newton's Theory of light, printed in Numb. 80; together with the Observations made thereupon by the Author of that Theory,” Phil Trans. 83 (May 1672), 4059–62.
“Mr. Newton’s Letter of April 13, 1672 … being an Answer to the foregoing Letter of P. Pardies,” Phil. Trans. 84 (June 1672), pp. 4087–93.
“A Series of Quere’s propounded by Mr. Isaac Newton, to be determined by Experiments, positively and directly concluding his new Theory of Light and Colours,” Phil. Trans. 85 (July 1672), pp. 5004–7.
“Mr. Newton’s Answer to the foregoing [second] Letter [of P. Pardies],” Phil. Trans. 85 (July 1672), pp. 5012–18.
“Mr. Isaac Newton’s Answer to some Considerations [of Robert Hooke] upon his Doctrine of Light and Colors,” Phil. Trans. 88 (November 1672), 5084–103.
“Mr Newton’s Answer to the foregoing Letter [of Christiaan Huygens] further explaining his Theory of Light and Colors, and particularly that of Whiteness; together with his continued hopes of perfecting Telescopes by Reflections rather than Refractions,” Phil. Trans. 96 (July 1673), 6087–92.
“An Extract of Mr. Isaac Newton’s Letter, written to the Publisher from Cambridge April 3, 1673, concerning the Number of Colors, and the Necessity of mixing them all for the Production of White, [in further response to Huygens],” Phil. Trans. 97 (October 1673), 6108–11.
“An Answer to this Letter [of Franc. Linus],” Phil. Trans. 110 (January 1674/5), 150.
“Mr. Isaac Newton’s Considerations on the former Reply [to Linus]; together with further Directions, how to make Experiments controverted aright,” Phil. Trans. 121 (January 1675/6), 500–2.
“A Extract of another Letter of Mr. Newton, written to the Publisher the 10th of January 1675/6, relating to the same Argument,” Phil. Trans. 121 (January 1675/6), 503–4.
“A particular Answer of Mr. Isaak Newton to Mr. Linus his Letter, printed in Numb. 121, p.499, about an Experiment relating to the New Doctrine of Light and Colours,” Phil. Trans. 123 (March 1676), 556–61.
“Mr. Newton’s Answer to the precedent Letter [of Anthony Lucas], sent to the Publisher” Phil. Trans. 128 (September 1676), 698–705.
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (London, 1687; 2nd edition, Cambridge, 1713; 3rd edition, London, 1726). The second edition was reprinted in Amsterdam in 1714 and again in 1723. The third edition was reprinted in Geneva in 1739–42 (with an extensive commentary) and again in 1760, as well as in Prague in 1780–5 (Books 1 and 2 only); the third edition was also reprinted in Samuel Horsley’s edition of Newton’s Opera (London, 1779–85), 5 vols. Bibliographical details of these, the several Excerpta in Latin and in English, and translations into other languages are given in the Variorum edition of Koyré and Cohen, listed below, Appendix VIII, pp. 851–83.
Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, the Third Edition with Variant Readings, ed. A. Koyré and I. B. Cohen, with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).
The Principia, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: A New Translation, trans. I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, with the assistance of Julia Budenz, preceded by “A Guide to Newton’s Principia” by I. B. Cohen (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999).
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light (London, 1704; Latin edition, London, 1706; second English edition, London, 1717/18).
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light. Based on the Fourth Edition London, 1730, with a preface by I. B. Cohen, a forward by Albert Einstein, an introduction by E. T. Whittaker, and an analytical table of contents by Duane H. D. Roller (New York: Dover, 1952).
Bernhardi Vareni Med. D. Geographia generalis, In qua affections generalis Telluris explicantur, Summa cura quam plurimis in locis emendata etc. … Ab Isaaco Newton Math. Prof. Lucasiano Apud Cantabrigienses (Cambridge, 1672).
[Anonymously] “Epistola missa ad praenobilem virum D. Carolum Montague Armigerum, Scaccarii Regii apud Anglos Cancellarium, & Societatis Regiae Praesidium, in qua solvuntur duo problemata mathematica à Johanne Bernoullo Mathematico celeberrimo proposita,” Phil. Trans. 224 (January 1696/7), 348–9. Reports Newton’s solution to the problem of the curve of the fastest descent. (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 8.)
“Scala graduum Caloris,” Phil. Trans. 270 (March and April 1701), 824–9.
“Theoria Lunae,” an Appendix to David Gregory, Astronomiae Physicae & Geometricae Elementa (Latin edition, Oxford, 1702; English edition, London, 1715); English version published as a pamphlet in 1702 and reprinted in facsimile in Isaac Newton's Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702), introduction by I. B. Cohen (Folkestone, 1975).
“Tractatus de quadratura curvarum” and “Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis,” published as appendices to the first edition of the Opticks, 1704; English translations of the “Tractatus” and “Enumeratio” (under the heading “Curves”) appeared in John Harris, Lexicon Technicum in 1710. (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vols. 7 and 8.)
Arithmetica Universalis, ed. William Whiston (Cambridge, 1707; first English translation, 1720; second Latin edition, edited by John Machin, 1722). (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 5.)
“De natura acidorum” and “Some Thoughts about the Nature of Acids,” in John Harris, Lexicon Technicum: Or, An Universal English Dictionary of ARTS and SCIENCES: explaining Not only the TERMS of ART, but the ARTS Themselves, vol. 2, Introduction (London, 1710).
“De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas,” in William Jones, Analysis per Quantitatum Series Fluxiones ac Differentias: Cum Enumeratione Linearum Tertii Ordinis (London, 1711). (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 2.)
“Methodis differentialis,” in William Jones, Analysis per Quantitatum Series Fluxiones ac Differentias: Cum Enumeratione Linearum Tertii Ordinis (London, 1711). (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 4.)
[Anonymously]Problematis mathematicis anglis nuper propositi Solutio Generalis,” Phil. Trans. 347 (January–March 1716), 399400. (Reprinted in Whiteside [ed.], The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 8.)
[Anonymously]An Account of the Book entituled Commercium Epistolicum Collinii & aliorum, De Analysi Promota; published by order of the Royal Society, in relation to the Dispute between Mr. Leibnitz and Dr. Keill, about the Right Invention of the Method of Fluxions, by some call'd the Differential Method,” Phil. Trans. 342 (1715), 173224.
Tabula refractorum,” Phil. Trans. 368 (1721), 172.
[Anonymously]Ad lectorem,” in Commercium Epistolicum Collinii & aliorum, De Analysi Promota, 2nd edition, ed. Keill, John (London, 1722).
[Anonymously]Remarks upon the Observations made upon a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton, Translated into French by the Observator, and Publish'd at ParisPhil. Trans. 389 (1725), 31521.
The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, edited by John Conduitt (London, 1728).
A Treatise of the System of the World, a translation of “De motu corporum liber secundus,” the second of Newton’s original two-book conception of the Principia, retitled by the translator (London, 1728).
De Mundi Systemate Liber, retitled publication of “De motu corporum liber secundus,” (London, 1728).
A Short Chronicle from the First Memory of Things in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, first published in a French translation in 1725 and then in English, edited by John Conduitt (London, 1728).
Optical Lectures read in the Public Schools of the University of Cambridge, Anno Domini, 1669, translated from the Latin (London, for Francis Fayram, 1728).
Lectiones Opticae, annis MDCLXIX, MDCLXX, MDCLXXI (London, 1729).
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, translated into English by Andrew Motte; to which are added, The Laws of the Moon's Motion, according to Gravity, by John Machin (London, 1729).
Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John, edited by Benjamin Smith (London and Dublin, 1733). (Edited by W. Whitla as Sir Isaac Newton's Daniel and the Apocalypse with an Introductory Study … of Unbelief, Miracles and Prophecy [London, 1922]).
The Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series; with its Application to the Geometry of Curve-Lines, translated from the Latin (London, 1736).
A Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews, edited by Thomas Birch in Works of John Greaves, vol. 2 (London, 1737), pp. 405–33.
A Description of an Instrument for Observing the Moon's Distance from the fixt Stars at Sea,” Phil. Trans. 465 (October 1742), 1556.
Newton’s letter to Robert Boyle of 28 February 1678/9, reproduced in T. Birch (ed.), The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, 5 vols. (London, 1744), vol. 1, pp. 70–73.
Two letters of Sir Isaac Newton to Mr. LeClerc : the former containing a dissertation upon the reading of the Greek text, I John, v. 7 : the latter upon that of I Timothy, iii 16 / published from authentick MSS in the Library of the Remonstrants in Holland. (London : Printed for J. Payne, 1754).
Four Letters from Sir Isaac Newton to Doctor Bentley concerning Some Arguments in Proof of a Deity (London, 1756).
“An Hypothesis Explaining the Properties of Light,” read to the Royal Society in December 1675/6, printed in Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London, 4 vols. (London, 1756–7), vol. 3, pp. 247–305.
Cohen, I. B and Schofield, Robert E. (eds.), Isaac Newton’s Letters and Papers on Natural Philosophy, revised edition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978).
Edleston, J., Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, including letters of other eminent men, now first published from the originals in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge; together with an appendix, containing other unpublished letters and papers by Newton (London and Cambridge, 1850).
Hall, A. Rupert and Hall, Marie Boas (eds.), Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Papers in the University Library, Cambridge (Cambridge University Press, 1962).
Herivel, John, The Background to Newton’s Principia: A Study of Newton’s Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664-84 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).
McGuire, J. E. and Tamny, Martin (eds.), Certain Philosophical Questions: Newton’s Trinity Notebook (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
Newton, Isaac, Philosophical Writings, ed. Janiak, Andrew (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Newton, Isaac, The Preliminary Manuscripts for Isaac Newton’s 1687 Principia, 1684–1685, introduction by Derek T. Whiteside (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Rigaud, Stephen Peter, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Eighteenth Century … in the Collection of … the Earl of Macclesfield, 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1841).
Shapiro, Alan E. (ed.), The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton, Volume 1: The Optical Lectures 1670–1672 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
The Correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. Turnbull, Herbert. W., Scott, John F., Hall, A. Rupert, and Tilling, Laura, 7 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959–77).
Whiteside, Derek T. (ed.), The Mathematical Works of Isaac Newton, 2 vols. (New York, 1964, 1967).
Whiteside, Derek T. (ed.), The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, 8 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967–81).
Part 2
Hall, A. Rupert (ed.), Isaac Newton, Eighteenth-Century Perspectives, a collection of early biographical memoirs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de, The Elogium of Sir Isaac Newton: by Monsieur Fontenelle, perpetual Secretary of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris (London, 1728).
Stukeley, William, Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life, 1752: Being some account of his family and chiefly of the junior part of his life, edited by White, A. Hastings (London, 1936).
Brewster, Sir David, Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1855).
More, Louis Trenchard, Isaac Newton: A Biography (New York and London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934).
Keynes, John Maynard, “Newton, the Man,” inEssays in Biography (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1963), pp. 31023.
Manuel, Frank E., A Portrait of Isaac Newton (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1968).
Bernard, Cohen I., “Newton, Isaac,” Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 10 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974), pp. 41103.
Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
Christianson, Gale E., In The Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton and His Times (New York: Free Press, 1984).
Gjertsen, Derek, The Newton Handbook (London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986).
Hall, A. Rupert, Isaac Newton: Adventurer in Thought (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992).
Hall, A. Rupert, Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives(Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Gleick, James, Isaac Newton (New York: Vintage, 2003).
Higgitt, Rebekah, Iliffe, Rob, and Keynes, Milo (eds.), Early Biographies of Isaac Newton 1660–1885, 2 vols. (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2006).
Iliffe, Rob, A Very Short Introduction to Newton (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Bechler, Zev (ed.), Contemporary Newtonian Scholarship (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1982).
Beiner, Zvi and Schliesser, Eric (eds.) Newton and Empiricism (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).
Bricker, Phillip and Hughes, R. I. G. (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990).
Buchwald, Jed and Cohen, I. Bernard (eds.), Isaac Newton’s Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001).
Cohen, I. Bernard and Westfall, Richard S. (eds.), Newton: Texts, Backgrounds, and Commentaries, A Norton Critical Edition (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995).
Dalitz, Richard H. and Nauenberg, Michael (eds.), The Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship (Singapore: World Scientific, 2000).
Durham, Frank and Purrington, Robert D. (eds.), Some Truer Method: Reflections on the Heritage of Newton (New York; Oxford: Columbia University Press, 1990).
Fauvel, John, Flood, Raymond, Shortland, Michael, and Wilson, Robin (eds.), Let Newton Be! A New Perspective on his Life and Works (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).
Force, James E. and Popkin, Richard H. (eds.), The Books of Nature and Scripture : Recent Essays on Natural Philosophy, Theology, and Biblical Criticism in the Netherlands of Spinoza’s time and the British Isles of Newton’s time (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1994).
Force, James E. and Popkin, Richard H. (eds.), Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1998).
Force, James E. and Hutton, Sarah (eds.), Newton and Newtonianism (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 2004).
Greenstreet, W. J. (ed.), Isaac Newton, 1642–1727: A Memorial Volume Edited for the Mathematical Association (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1927).
Harman, Peter M. and Shapiro, Alan E. (eds.) The Investigation of Difficult Things: Essays on Newton and the History of the Exact Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Janiak, Andrew and Schliesser, Eric, (eds.), Interpreting Newton: Critical Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
King-Hele, D. G. and Hall, A. R. (eds.), Newton’s Principia and its Legacy: Proceedings of a Royal Society Discussion Meeting of 30 June 1987 (London: The Royal Society, 1988).
Palter, Robert (ed.), The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970).
Theerman, Paul and Seef, Adele F., Action and Reaction: Proceedings of a Symposium to Commemorate the Tercentenary of Newton’s Principia (Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1993).
Thrower, Norman J. W. (ed.), Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley: Essays commemorating the tercentenary of Newton’s Principia and the 1985-1986 return of Comet Halley (Berkeley; Los Angeles, CA; London: University of California Press, 1990).
Sir Isaac Newton, 1727–1927: A Bicentenary Evaluation of His Work, a series of papers prepared under the auspices of the History of Science Society (Baltimore, MD: The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1928).
Newton Tercentenary Celebrations, the Royal Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1947).
Blay, Michel, Reasoning with the Infinite: From the Closed World to the Mathematical Universe, trans. M. B. DeBevoise (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1998).
Blay, Michel, “Force, Continuity and the Mathematization of Motion at the End of the Seventeenth Century,” in Buchwald and Cohen (eds.), Isaac Newton’s Natural Philosophy, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 225–48.
Cohen, I. B., The Newtonian Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
Cohen, I. B., The Birth of a New Physics, revised and updated edition (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1985).
Coles, Elisha, An English Dictionary, explaining the difficult terms that are used in divinity, husbandry, physic etc. (London, 1684).
Dobbs, Betty Jo Teeter and Jacob, Margaret C., Newton and the Culture of Newtonianism (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995).
Dry, Sarah, The Newton Papers: The Strange and true Odyssey of Newton’s Manuscripts, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).
Feingold, Mordechai, The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
Gabbey, Alan, “Force and Inertia in Seventeenth-Century Dynamics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 2 (1971), 167.
Guerlac, Henry, Essays and Papers in the History of Modern Science (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).
Guerlac, Henry, Newton on the Continent (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981).
Harper, William and Smith, George E., “Newton's New Way of Inquiry,” in Leplin, Jarrett (ed.), The Creation of Ideas in Physics: Studies for Methodology of Theory Construction (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1995).
Hesse, Mary B., Forces and Fields: The Concept of Action at a Distance in the History of Physics (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1961).
Koyré, Alexandre, “An Experiment in Measurement,” in Metaphysics and Measurement (London: Chapman and Hall, 1968), pp. 89117.
Koyré, Alexandre and Cohen, I. B., “Newton & the Leibniz–Clarke Correspondence with Notes on Newton, Conti, & Des Maizeaux,” Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences 15 (1962), 63126.
Koyré, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: Chapman & Hall, 1965).
Lagrange, Joseph-Louis, Analytical Mechanics (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997).
Mach, Ernst, The Science of Mechanics (Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1960).
McMullin, Ernan, Newton on Matter and Activity (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1978).
Robinson, Abraham, Non-Standard Analysis (Amsterdam, 1966).
Shank, J. B., The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2008).
Truesdell, Clifford, Essays in the History of Mechanics (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1968).
Westfall, Richard S., Force in Newton’s Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century (London: Macdonald; New York: American Elsevier, 1971).
Westfall, Richard S., The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).
Wilson, Curtis, “From Kepler's Laws, so-called, to Universal Gravitation,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 6 (1970), 89170.
Yoder, Joella, Unrolling Time: Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematization of Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
Ball, W. W. Rouse, An Essay on Newton’s Principia (London and New York: Macmillan and Co., 1893).
Bertoloni Meli, Domenico, “The Relativization of Centrifugal Force,” Isis 81 (1990), 2343.
Brackenridge, J. Bruce, “The Critical Role of Curvature in Newton's Developing Dynamics,” in Harman, and Shapiro, (eds.), The Investigation of Difficult Things, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 231–60.
Brackenridge, J. Bruce, The Key to Newton’s Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia, with English translations from the Latin by Mary Ann Rossi (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995).
Chandrasekhar, S., Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).
Cohen, I. B., “Hypotheses in Newton's Philosophy,” Physis 8 (1966), 16384.
Cohen, I. B., Introduction to Newton’s “Principia” (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).
De Gandt, François, Force and Geometry in Newton’s Principia, trans. Curtis Wilson (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,1995).
Densmore, Dana, Newton’s Principia: The Central Argument, with translations and illustrations by William Donahue (Santa Fe, NM: Green Lion Press, 1995).
DiSalle, Robert, “Space–Time Theory as Physical Geometry,” Erkenntnis 42 (1995), 31737.
DiSalle, Robert, Understanding Space–Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics from Newton to Einstein (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Dobson, Geoffrey J., “Newton's Problems with Rigid Body Dynamics in the Light of his Treatment of the Precession of Equinoxes,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 53 (1998), 12545.
Ducheyne, Steffen, The Main Business of Natural Philosophy: Isaac Newton’s Natural-Philosophical Methodology (New York: Springer, 2012).
Earman, John, World Enough and Space–Time: Absolute versus Relational Theories of Space and Time (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989).
Earman, John and Friedman, Michael, “The Meaning and Status of Newton's Law of Inertia and the Nature of Gravitational Forces,” Philosophy of Science 40 (1973), 32959.
Ehrlichson, Herman, “The Visualization of Quadratures in the Mystery of Corollary 3 to Proposition 41 of Newton's Principia,” Historia Mathematica 21 (1994), 14551.
Guicciardini, Niccolò, Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Harper, William L., “Isaac Newton on Empirical Success and Scientific Method,” in Earman, John and Norton, John D. (eds.), The Cosmos of Science: Essays of Exploration (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997), pp. 5586.
Harper, William L., Isaac Newton’s Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Herivel, John, The Background to Newton’s Principia: A Study of Newton’s Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664-84 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).
Janiak, Andrew, Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Kollerstrom, Nicholas, Newton’s Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Santa Fe, NM: Green Lion Press, 2000).
Lakatos, Imre, “Newton's Effect on Scientific Standards,” in The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, Philosophical Papers, vol. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), pp. 193222.
Maclaurin, Colin, An Account of Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophical Discoveries (London, 1748).
Nauenberg, Michael, “Newton's Early Computational Method for Dynamics,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 46 (1994), 22152.
Nauenberg, Michael, “Newton's Portsmouth Perturbation Method and its Application to Lunar Motion,” in Dalitz, and Nauenberg, (eds.), The Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 167–94.
Nauenberg, Michael, “Kepler's area law in the Principia: filling in some details in Newton's proof of Proposition I,” Historia Mathematica, 30 (2003), 44156.
Pourciau, Bruce, “Newton's Argument for Proposition 1 of the Principia,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 57 (2003), 267311.
Pourciau, Bruce, “Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 60 (2006), 157207.
Rigaud, Stephen Peter, Historical Essay on the First Publication of Sir Isaac Newton’s Principia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1838).
Rynasiewicz, Robert, “By Their Properties, Causes and Effects: Newton's Scholium on Time, Space, Place and Motion,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26 (1995), 13353; 295321.
Smith, George E., “The Newtonian Style in Book II of the Principia,” in Buchwald, and Cohen, (eds.), Isaac Newton’s Natural Philosophy, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 249–313.
Smith, George E., “Was Wrong Newton Bad Newton?” in Buchwald, Jed Z. and Allan, Franklin (eds.), Wrong for the Right Reasons (Dordrecht: Springer, 2005).
Smith, George E., “From the Phenomenon of the Ellipse to an Inverse-Square Force: Why Not?” in Malament, David (ed.), Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics to Honor Howard Stein on his 70th Birthday (La Salle, IL: Open Court, 2002).
Smith, George E., “How Newton's Principia Changed Physics,” in Janiak, and Schliesser, (eds.), Interpreting Newton, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 360–395.
Smith, George E., “Closing the Loop: Testing Newtonian Gravity, Then and Now,” in Biener, and Schliesser, (eds.), Newton and Empiricism, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 262–351.
Stein, Howard, “Newtonian Space–Time,” Texas Quarterly 10 (1967), 174200.
Taton, René and Wilson, Curtis (eds.), Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics, Tycho Brahe to Newton, vol. 2, part A of The General History of Astronomy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Weinstock, Robert, “Inverse-Square Orbits in Newton's Principia and Twentieth-Century Commentary Thereon,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 55 (2000), 13762.
Whiteside, D. T., “The Mathematical Principles Underlying Newton's Principia,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 1 (1970), 11638.
Whiteside, D. T., “The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664–1686,” Notes and Records of The Royal Society 45 (1991), 1161.
Whiteside, D. T., (ed.), The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 6, listed in Section (ii) above.
Wilson, Curtis, Astronomy from Kepler to Newton: Historical Studies (London: Variorum Reprints, 1989).
Guicciardini, Niccolò, The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain 1700–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Guicciardini, Niccolò, Isaac Newton on Mathematical Certainty and Method (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011).
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Pourciau, Bruce, “Radical Principia,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences, 44 (1992), 33163.
Pourciau, Bruce, “The Preliminary Mathematical Lemmas of Newton's Principia,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 52 (1998), 27995.
Pourciau, Bruce, “The Integrability of Ovals: Newton's Lemma 28 and its Counterexamples,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 55 (2001), 47999.
Pourciau, Bruce, “The Importance of Being Equivalent: Newton's Two Models of One-Body Motion,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences, 60 (2006), 157207.
Pourciau, Bruce, “From Centripetal Forces to Conic Orbits: A Path Through the Early Sections of Newton's Principia,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 38 (2007), 5683.
Pourciau, Bruce, “Proposition II (Book 1) of Newton's Principia,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 63 (2009), 12967.
Turnbull, Herbert Westren, The Mathematical Discoveries of Newton (London and Glasgow: Blackie & Son, 1945).
Whiteside, D. T., “Patterns of Mathematical Thought in the Later Seventeenth Century,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1 (1961), 179388.
Whiteside, D. T., (ed.), The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, 8 vols., listed in Section (ii) above.
Aiton, Eric, Leibniz, a Biography (Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1985).
Alexander, H. G. (ed.), The Leibniz–Clarke Correspondence (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1956).
Bertoloni Meli, Domenico, Equivalence and Priority: Newton versus Leibniz (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), including Leibniz’s unpublished manuscript notes on the Principia.
Hall, A. Rupert, Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Leibniz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
Vailati, Ezio, Leibniz and Clarke: A Study of Their Correspondence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Whiteside, D. T. (ed.), The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, vol. 8., listed in Section (ii) above.
Rupert, Hall A., And All Was Light: An Introduction to Newton’s Opticks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).
Laymon, Ronald, “Newton's Experimentum Crucis and the Logic of Idealization and Theory Refutation,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 9 (1978), 5177.
Sabra, A. I., Theories of Light from Descartes to Newton, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
Schaffer, Simon, “Glass Works: Newton's Prisms and the Use of Experiment,” in Gooding, D., Pinch, T., and Schaffer, S. (eds.), The Use of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 67104.
Sepper, Dennis L., Newton’s Optical Writings: A Guided Study (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994).
Shapiro, Alan E., “The Evolving Structure of Newton's Theory of White Light and Color: 1670–1704,” Isis 71 (1980), 21135.
Shapiro, Alan E., Fits, Passions, and Paroxysms: Physics, Method, and Chemistry and Newton’s Theories of Colored Bodies and Fits of Easy Reflection (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Shapiro, Alan E., “The Gradual Acceptance of Newton's Theory of Light and Color,” Perspectives on Science 4 (1996), 59104.
Steffens, Henry John, The Development of Newtonian Optics in England (New York: Science History Publications, 1977).
Dobbs, Betty Jo Teeter, The Foundations of Newton’s Alchemy, or “The Hunting of the Greene Lyon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975).
Dobbs, Betty Jo Teeter, The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton’s Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Figala, Karin, “Newton as Alchemist,” History of Science 15 (1977), 10237.
Figala, Karin, “Die exakte Alchemie von Isaac Newton,” Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Basel 94 (1984), 155228.
Golinski, Jan, “The Secret Life of an Alchemist,” in John Fauvel et al. (eds.), Let Newton Be!, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 146–67.
McGuire, J. E., “The Origin of Newton's Doctrine of Essential Qualities,” Centaurus 12 (1968), 23360.
McGuire, J. E., “Force, Active Principles, and Newton's Invisible Realm,” Ambix 15 (1968), 154208.
McGuire, J. E.Atoms and the ‘Analogy of Nature’: Newton's Third Rule of Philosophizing,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 1 (1970), 358.
Newman, William R., Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Priesner, Claus and Figala, Karin (eds.), Alchemie: Lexicon einer hermetischen Wissenschaft (Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck München, 1998).
Principe, Lawrence, “The Alchemies of Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton: Alternate Approaches and Divergent Deployments,” in Osler, M., Rethinking the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 20120.
Taylor, F. S., “An Alchemical Work of Sir Isaac Newton,” Ambix 5 (1956), 5984.
Thackray, Arnold, Atoms and Powers: An Essay on Newtonian Matter-Theory and the Development of Chemistry (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970).
Westfall, Richard S., “The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Career,” in Bonelli, Maria Luisa Righini and Shea, William R. (eds.), Reason, Experiment and Mysticism in the Scientific Revolution (New York: Science History Publications, 1975), pp. 189232.
Buchwald, Jed Z. and Feingold, Mordechai, Newton and the Origin of Civilization (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012).
Castillejo, David, The Expanding Force in Newton’s Cosmos as shown in his Unpublished Papers (Madrid: Ediciones de Arte y Bibliofilia, 1981).
Cohen, I. B., “Isaac Newton's Principia, the Scriptures, and the Divine Providence,” in Morgenbesser, S., Suppes, P. and White, M. (eds.), Philosophy, Science, and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest Nagel (New York: St Martin's Press, 1969), pp. 52348.
Copenhaver, Brian P., “Jewish Theologies of Space in the Scientific Revolution: Henry More, Joseph Raphson, Isaac Newton and their Predecessors,” Annals of Science 37 (1980), 489548.
Delgado-Moreira, Raquel, “Newton's Treatise on Revelation: The use of a Mathematical Discourse,” Historical Research 79 (2006), 22446.
Figala, Karin, “Ein Exemplar der Chronologie von Newton aus dem Besitz von Pierre des Maizeaux in der bibliothèque de la ville de Colmar,” Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 84 (1974), 64697.
Force, James E. and Popkin, Richard H., Essays on the context, nature and influence of Isaac Newton’s theology (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990).
Force, James E., “Newton's ‘Sleeping Argument’ and the Newtonian Synthesis of Science and Religion,” in Thrower, N. (ed.), Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1990), pp. 10927.
Gascoigne, John, “‘The Wisdom of the Egyptians’ and the Secularisation of History in the Age of Newton,” in Gaukroger, S. (ed.), The Uses of Antiquity: the Scientific Revolution and the Classical Tradition (Dordrecht and London: Kluwer, 1991), pp. 171212.
Goldish, M., Judaism in the Theology of Sir Isaac Newton, International Archives of the History of Ideas Archives internationales d’histoire des idées (Dordrecht; Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic, 2010).
Hiscock, W. G. (ed.), David Gregory, Isaac Newton and Their Circle: Extracts from David Gregory’s Memoranda (Oxford: printed for the editor, 1937).
Hutton, Sarah, “More, Newton, and the Language of Biblical prophecy,” in Force and Popkin (eds.), Books of Nature and Scripture, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 3953.
Iliffe, Rob, “‘Making a Shew’: Apocalyptic Hermeneutics and the Sociology of Christian Idolatry in the Work of Isaac Newton and Henry More,” in Force, and Popkin, (eds.), Books of Nature and Scripture, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 5588.
Iliffe, Rob, “Those ‘whose business it is to cavill’: Newton's anti-Catholicism,” in Force, and Popkin, (eds.), Newton and Religion, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 97119.
Iliffe, Rob, “Prosecuting Athanasius: Protestant Forensics and the Mirrors of Persecution,” in Force, and Hutton, , (eds.), Newton and Newtonianism, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 97119.
Iliffe, Rob, “The powers of demonstration: Simon, Newton, Locke and the Johannine comma,” in Hessayon, A. and Keene, N. (eds.), Scripture and Scholarship in Early Modern England (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), pp. 77110.
Jacob, Margaret C., The Newtonians and the English Revolution 1689–1720 (Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester Press; Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1976).
Kubrin, David C.Newton and the Cyclical Cosmos: Providence and the Mechanical Philosophy,” Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (1967), 32546.
McGuire, J. E. and Rattansi, P. M., “Newton and the ‘Pipes of Pan’,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 21 (1996), 11843.
McLachlan, Herbert, Sir Isaac Newton’s Theological Manuscripts (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1950).
Mandelbrote, Scott, “‘A Duty of the Greatest Moment’: Isaac Newton and the Writings of Biblical Criticism,” British Journal for the History of Science 26 (1993), pp. 281302.
Mandelbrote, Scott, “‘Then this Nothing can be Plainer’: Isaac Newton Reads the Fathers,” in Frank, G., Leinkauf, T. and Wriedt, M. (eds.), Die Patristik in der frühen Neuzeit (Stuttgart: Friedrich Fromm Verlag, 2006), pp. 27797.
Mandelbrote, Scott, “Isaac Newton and the Flood,” in Mulsow, M. and Assmann, J. (eds.), Sintflut und Gedächtnis (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2006), pp. 33753.
Mandelbrote, Scott, “Isaac Newton and the Exegesis of the Book of Daniel,” in Bracht, K. and du Toit, D. S. (eds.), Die Geschichte der Daniel-Auslegung in Judentum, Christentum und Islam (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007), pp. 35175.
Manuel, Frank, Isaac Newton, Historian (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963).
Manuel, Frank, The Religion of Isaac Newton (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973).
Pérez, Pablo Toribio, Isaac Newton: Historia Ecclesiastica: de Origine Schismatico Ecclesiae Papisticae Bicornis (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2011).
Schaffer, Simon, “Comets and Idols: Newton’s Cosmology and Political Theology,” in Theerman, and Seef, (eds.), Action and Reaction, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 206–31.
Schaffer, Simon, “Newtonian Angels,” in Raymond, J. (ed.), Conversations with Angels: Essays Towards a History of Spiritual Communication, 1100–1700 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp. 90–122.
Snobelen, Stephen, “Isaac Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite,” British Journal for the History of Science 32 (1999), 381419.
Snobelen, Stephen, “‘God of Gods, and Lord of Lords’: The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia,” Osiris 16 (2001), 169208.
Snobelen, StephenLust, Pride and Ambition: Isaac Newton and the Devil,” in Force, and Hutton, (eds.), Newton and Newtonianism, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 155–81.
Snobelen, Stephen, “Isaac Newton, Socinianism and ‘The One Supreme God’,” in Mulsow, M. and Rohls, J. (eds.), Socinianism and Arminianism: Antitrinitarians, Calvinists, and Cultural Exchange in Seventeenth-Century Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 24198.
Stewart, Larry, “Seeing Through the Scholium: Religion and Reading Newton in the Eighteenth Century,” History of Science 34 (1996), 12365.
Westfall, Richard S., “Newton's Theological Manuscripts,” in Bechler (ed.), Contemporary Newtonian Research, listed in Section (ii) above, pp. 12943.
Craig, John, Newton at the Mint (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946).
Craig, John, “Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 18 (1963), 13645.
Haynes, Hopton, Brief memoires relating to the silver & gold coins of England: with an account of the corruption of the hammerd monys, and of the reform by the late grand coynage, at the Tower, & the five Country Mints. In the years 1696, 1697, 1698, & 1699 (BL, Lansdowne Ms. DCCCI).
Levenson, Thomas, Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World’s Greatest Scientist (London: Faber and Faber, 2009).
Gray, George J., Sir Isaac Newton: A Bibliography, together with a list of Books Illustrating His Works (Cambridge: Bowes and Bowes, 1907).
Harrison, John, The Library of Isaac Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).
Wallis, Peter and Wallis, Ruth, Newton and Newtoniana 1672–1975: A Bibliography (London: Dawsons, 1977).


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