Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T13:39:02.827Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 8 - Patterns of Treatment and Barriers to Care in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

from Section 3 - Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2018

Evelyn J. Bromet
Affiliation:
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Elie G. Karam
Affiliation:
St George Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon
Karestan C. Koenen
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Dan J. Stein
Affiliation:
University of Cape Town
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
, pp. 137 - 152
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alegria, M., Bijl, R. V., Lin, E., Walters, E. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Income differences in persons seeking outpatient treatment for mental disorders: a comparison of the United States with Ontario and the Netherlands. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 383–91.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (2006). American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Compendium 2006. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Andrade, L. H., Viana, M. C., Tofoli, L. F., & Wang, Y. P. (2008). Influence of psychiatric morbidity and sociodemographic determinants on use of service in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 4553.Google Scholar
Andrade, L. H., Alonso, J., Mneimneh, Z., et al. (2014). Barriers to mental health treatment: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 44, 1303–17.Google Scholar
Andreoli, S. B., Almeida-Filho, N., Martin, D., Mateus, M. D., & Mari Jde, J. (2007). Is psychiatric reform a strategy for reducing the mental health budget? The case of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 29, 43–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Bisson, J. I., Roberts, N. P., Andrew, M., Cooper, R., & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12. CD003388.Google Scholar
Becker, S. J., & Midoun, M. M. (2016). Effects of direct-to-consumer advertising on patient prescription requests and physician prescribing: a systematic review of psychiatry-relevant studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77, e1293e1300.Google Scholar
Brohan, E., Slade, M., Clement, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2010). Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buttorff, C., Hock, R. S., Weiss, H. A., et al. (2012). Economic evaluation of a task-shifting intervention for common mental disorders in India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 813–21.Google Scholar
Caldas de Almeida, J. M., & Horvitz-Lennon, M. (2010). Mental health care reforms in Latin America: an overview of mental health care reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean. Psychiatric Services, 61, 218–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., et al. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45, 1127.Google Scholar
Cukor, J., Olden, M., Lee, F., & Difede, J. (2010). Evidence-based treatments for PTSD, new directions, and special challenges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208, 8289.Google Scholar
Depression Guideline Panel. (1993). Depression in primary care: detection, diagnosis and treatment. Clinical practice guideline, number 5. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. AHCPR publication no. 93-0552.Google Scholar
Gureje, O., Lasebikan, V. O., Kola, L., & Makanjuola, V. A. (2006). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 465–71.Google Scholar
Holdeman, T. C. (2009). Invisible wounds of war: psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Psychiatric Services, 60, 272273.Google Scholar
Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., Schneider, M. E., & Joiner, T. E. Jr. (2017). A systematic review of help-seeking and mental health service utilization among military service members. Clinical Psychology Review, 53, 5978.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacob, K. S., Sharan, P., Mirza, I., et al. (2007). Mental health systems in countries: where are we now? Lancet, 370, 1061–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jagdeo, A., Cox, B. J., Stein, M. B., & Sareen, J. (2009). Negative attitudes toward help seeking for mental illness in 2 population-based surveys from the United States and Canada. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. La Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 54, 757–66.Google Scholar
Jordan, K. (2003). A trauma and recovery model for victims and their families after a catastrophic school shooting: focusing on behavioral, cognitive, and psychological effects and needs. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3, 397411.Google Scholar
Jorm, A. F. (2000). Mental health literacy. Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 396401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kantor, V., Knefel, M., & Lueger-Schuster, B. (2017). Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 5268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Frank, R. G., Edlund, M., et al. (1997). Differences in the use of psychiatric outpatient services between the United States and Ontario. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 551–7.Google Scholar
Khandelwal, S., Avode, G., Baingana, F., et al. (2010). Mental and neurological health research priorities setting in developing countries. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 487–95.Google Scholar
Lasalvia, A., Zoppei, S., Van Bortel, T., et al. (2013). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet, 381, 5562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehman, A. F., & Steinwachs, D. M. (1998). Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 110.Google Scholar
Leon, A. C., Olfson, M., Portera, L., Farber, L., & Sheehan, D. V. (1997). Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 93105.Google Scholar
Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. F. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In Baum, A., Taylor, S. E., & Singer, J. E., eds., A Handbook of Psychology and Health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 219–52.Google Scholar
Levin, C., & Chisholm, D. (2015). Cost-effectiveness and affordability of interventions, policies, and platforms for the prevention and treatment of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders. In Patel, V., Chisholm, D., Dua, T., Laxminarayan, R., & Medina-Mora, M. E., eds., Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders: Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 4). Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/the World Bank, pp. 219–36.Google Scholar
Lewer, D., O'Reilly, C., Mojtabai, R., & Evans-Lacko, S. (2015). Antidepressant use in 27 European countries: associations with sociodemographic, cultural and economic factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 207, 221–6.Google Scholar
Maulik, P. K., Devarapalli, S., Kallakuri, S., et al. (2017). Evaluation of an anti-stigma campaign related to common mental disorders in rural India: a mixed methods approach. Psychological Medicine, 47, 565–75.Google Scholar
McCrone, P., & Knapp, M. (2007). Economic evaluation of early intervention services. British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement 51, s19s22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meadows, G. N., & Burgess, P. M. (2009). Perceived need for mental health care: findings from the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 624–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mechanic, D. (2002). Removing barriers to care among persons with psychiatric symptoms. Health Affairs, 21, 137–47.Google Scholar
Mehta, N., Kassam, A., Leese, M., Butler, G., & Thornicroft, G. (2009). Public attitudes towards people with mental illness in England and Scotland, 1994–2003. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 278–84.Google Scholar
Mittal, D., Drummond, K. L., Blevins, D., et al. (2013). Stigma associated with PTSD: perceptions of treatment seeking combat veterans. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 36, 8692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mojtabai, R., Olfson, M., & Mechanic, D. (2002). Perceived need and help-seeking in adults with mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 7784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mojtabai, R. (2010). Mental illness stigma and willingness to seek mental health care in the European Union. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 705–12.Google Scholar
Mollica, R. F., Cardozo, B. L., Osofsky, H. J., et al. (2004). Mental health in complex emergencies. Lancet, 364, 2058–67.Google Scholar
Prins, M. A., Verhaak, P. F., Bensing, J. M., & van der Meer, K. (2008). Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression–the patients' perspective explored. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1038–58.Google Scholar
Rhodes, A. E., & Fung, K. (2004). Self-reported use of mental health services versus administrative records: care to recall? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 165–75.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Gilman, S. E., Breslau, J., Breslau, N., & Koenen, K. C. (2011). Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychological Medicine, 41, 7183.Google Scholar
Rodriguez, J. J., & Kohn, R. (2008). Use of mental health services among disaster survivors. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21, 370–8.Google Scholar
Romero-Gonzalez, M., Gonzalez, G., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2003). Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 6, 189–94.Google Scholar
Sareen, J., Jagdeo, A., Cox, B. J., et al. (2007). Perceived barriers to mental health service utilization in the United States, Ontario, and the Netherlands. Psychiatric Services, 58, 357–64.Google Scholar
Saxena, S., Thornicroft, G., Knapp, M., & Whiteford, H. (2007). Resources for mental health: scarcity, inequity, and inefficiency. Lancet, 370, 878–89.Google Scholar
Schomerus, G., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2008). Stigma and its impact on help-seeking for mental disorders: what do we know? Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 17, 31–7.Google Scholar
Seedat, S., Stein, D. J., Herman, A., et al. (2008). Twelve-month treatment of psychiatric disorders in the South African Stress and Health Study (World Mental Health Survey Initiative). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 889–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheerin, C., Berenz, E. C., Knudsen, G. P., et al. (2016). A population-based study of help seeking and self-medication among trauma-exposed individuals. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30, 771–7.Google Scholar
ten Have, M., de Graaf, R., Ormel, J., et al. (2010). Are attitudes towards mental health help-seeking associated with service use? Results from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 153–63.Google Scholar
Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Rose, D., Sartorius, N., & Leese, M. (2009). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet, 373, 408–15.Google Scholar
Thornicroft, G., Mehta, N., Clement, S., et al. (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. Lancet, 387, 1123–32.Google Scholar
Thornicroft, G., Chatterji, S., Evans-Lacko, S., et al. (2017). Undertreatment of people with major depressive disorder in 21 countries. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210, 119–24.Google Scholar
van Beljouw, I., Verhaak, P., Prins, M., et al. (2010). Reasons and determinants for not receiving treatment for common mental disorders. Psychiatric Services, 61, 250–7.Google Scholar
Ventola, C. L. (2011). Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: therapeutic or toxic? Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 36, 669–84.Google Scholar
Vernberg, E. M., Steinberg, A. M., Jacobs, A. K., et al. (2008). Innovations in disaster mental health: psychological first aid. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 381–8.Google Scholar
Wang, P. S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., et al. (2007a). Use of mental health services for anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in 17 countries in the WHO world mental health surveys. Lancet, 370, 841–50.Google Scholar
Wang, P. S., Angermeyer, M., Borges, G., et al. (2007b). Delay and failure in treatment seeking after first onset of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry, 6, 177–85.Google Scholar
Wells, J. E., Robins, L. N., Bushnell, J. A., Jarosz, D., & Oakley-Browne, M. A. (1994). Perceived barriers to care in St. Louis (USA) and Christchurch (NZ): reasons for not seeking professional help for psychological distress. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 29, 155–64.Google Scholar
Wheat, K., Brohan, E., Henderson, C., & Thornicroft, G. (2010). Mental illness and the workplace: conceal or reveal? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103, 83–6.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×