Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-75dct Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T18:40:23.124Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Section 6 - Conclusions and Future Directions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2018

Evelyn J. Bromet
Affiliation:
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Elie G. Karam
Affiliation:
St George Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon
Karestan C. Koenen
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Dan J. Stein
Affiliation:
University of Cape Town
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
, pp. 309 - 336
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Baca-Garcia, E., Perez-Rodriguez, M. M., Basurte-Villamor, I., et al. (2006). Using data mining to explore complex clinical decisions: a study of hospitalization after a suicide attempt. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 1124–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Berk, R. A. (2008). Statistical Learning from a Regression Perspective. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Breiman, L. (2001). Random forests. Machine Learning, 45, 532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breslau, N. (2002). Epidemiologic studies of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other psychiatric disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. La Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 47, 923–9.Google Scholar
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Connor, J. P., Symons, M., Feeney, G. F., Young, R. M., & Wiles, J. (2007). The application of machine learning techniques as an adjunct to clinical decision making in alcohol dependence treatment. Substance Use and Misuse, 42, 2193–206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiGangi, J. A., Gomez, D., Mendoza, L., et al. (2013). Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 728–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forneris, C. A., Gartlehner, G., Brownley, K. A., et al. (2013). Interventions to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44, 635–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, J., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2010). Regularization paths for generalized linear models via coordinate descent. Journal of Statistical Software, 33, 122.Google Scholar
Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Karstoft, K. I., Statnikov, A., & Shalev, A. Y. (2014). Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: a Machine Learning application. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 6876.Google Scholar
Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (2000). Memory for acute stress disorder symptoms: a two-year prospective study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 602–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heron-Delaney, M., Kenardy, J., Charlton, E., & Matsuoka, Y. (2013). A systematic review of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for adult road traffic crash survivors. Injury, 44, 1413–22.Google Scholar
Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. E., Meiser-Stedman, R., et al. (2018). Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the emergency department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. Molecular Psychiatry, 23, 674–82.Google Scholar
James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., et al. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation-update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26, 1201–15.Google Scholar
Karstoft, K. I., Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Statnikov, A., Li, Z., & Shalev, A. Y. (2015). Bridging a translational gap: using machine learning to improve the prediction of PTSD. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 30.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 412; discussion 13–4.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., et al. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13, 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kliem, S., & Kroger, C. (2013). Prevention of chronic PTSD with early cognitive behavioral therapy. A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 753–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liaw, A., & Wiener, M. (2002). Classification and regression by randomForest. R News, 2, 1822.Google Scholar
Ostrowski, S. A., & Delahanty, D. L. (2014). Prospects for the pharmacological prevention of post-traumatic stress in vulnerable individuals. CNS Drugs, 28, 195203.Google Scholar
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.Google Scholar
Polley, E. C., & van der Laan, M. J. (2011). SuperLearner: Super Learner Prediction, Package Version 2.0-4. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
Qi, W., Gevonden, M., & Shalev, A. (2016). Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder after trauma: current evidence and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18, 20.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Gilman, S. E., Breslau, J., Breslau, N., & Koenen, K. C. (2011). Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychological Medicine, 41, 7183.Google Scholar
Robin, N. (2012). Tetris shown to lessen PTSD and flashbacks (online). Available at: www.scientificamerican.com/article/tetris-shown-to-lessen-ptsd-and-flashbacks/ (Accessed April 30, 2017).Google Scholar
Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: the role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shalev, A. Y., Ankri, Y., Israeli-Shalev, Y., et al. (2012). Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 166–76.Google Scholar
Thernau, T., Atkinson, B., & Ripley, B. (2012). rpart: Recursive Partitioning. R Package 4.1-0.Google Scholar
Tolin, D. F., & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: a quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 959–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Laan, M. J., Polley, E. C., & Hubbard, A. E. (2007). Super learner. Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology, 6, Article 25.Google Scholar
van der Laan, M. J., & Rose, S. (2011). Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Zuiden, M., Kavelaars, A., Geuze, E., Olff, M., & Heijnen, C. J. (2013). Predicting PTSD: pre-existing vulnerabilities in glucocorticoid-signaling and implications for preventive interventions. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 30, 1221.Google Scholar
Zoellner, L. A., Foa, E. B., Brigidi, B. D., & Przeworski, A. (2000). Are trauma victims susceptible to “false memories”? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 517–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Atwoli, L., Stein, D. J., Koenen, K. C., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2015). Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28, 307–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, R., Dworkin, E., & Cabral, G. (2009). An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10, 225–46.Google Scholar
Daskalakis, N. P., Bagot, R. C., Parker, K. J., Vinkers, C. H., & de Kloet, E. R. (2013). The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 1858–73.Google Scholar
Goldmann, E., & Galea, S. (2014). Mental health consequences of disasters. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 169–83.Google Scholar
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.Google Scholar
Hatch, S. L., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES and age: a review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 313–32.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378–85.Google Scholar
Levy-Gigi, E., Richter-Levin, G., Okon-Singer, H., Keri, S., & Bonanno, G. A. (2016). The hidden price and possible benefit of repeated traumatic exposure. Stress, 19, 17.Google Scholar
Marques, J. K., Wiederanders, M., Day, D. M., Nelson, C., & van Ommeren, A. (2005). Effects of a relapse prevention program on sexual recidivism: final results from California's Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project (SOTEP). Sexual Abuse, 17, 79107.Google Scholar
McLafferty, M., Armour, C., McKenna, A., et al. (2015). Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 35, 42–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, P. G., Curtis, A., Sonderlund, A., Day, A., & Droste, N. (2015). Effectiveness of interventions for convicted DUI offenders in reducing recidivism: a systematic review of the peer-reviewed scientific literature. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 41, 1629.Google Scholar
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pirkola, S., Isometsa, E., Aro, H., et al. (2005). Childhood adversities as risk factors for adult mental disorders: results from the Health 2000 study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 769–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, K. T., Harris, W. W., & Putnam, F. W. (2013). Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 435–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, J., Carter, Y., Davidson, L., et al. (2009). Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience intimate partner abuse. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, Cd005043.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Adinew, Y. M., & Hagos, M. A. (2017). Sexual violence against female university students in Ethiopia. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 17, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition. DSM-III. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Amos, T., Stein, D. J., & Ipser, J. C. (2014). Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD006239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Archer, J., Bower, P., Gilbody, S., et al. (2012). Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD006525.Google Scholar
Atkinson, R. (2002). The life story interview. In Gubrium, J. F. & Holstein, J. A., eds., Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, pp. 121–40.Google Scholar
Averill, L. A., Smith, R. P., Katz, C. L., Charney, D. S., & Southwick, S. M. (2017). Neurobiology of disaster exposure. In Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., Weisaeth, L., & Raphael, B., eds., Textbook of Disaster Psychiatry. Cambridge, England; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 4459.Google Scholar
Baumeister, D., Lightman, S. L., & Pariante, C. M. (2014). The interface of stress and the HPA axis in behavioural phenotypes of mental illness. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 18, 1324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beristianos, M. H., Yaffe, K., Cohen, B., & Byers, A. L. (2016). PTSD and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in aging veterans. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 192200.Google Scholar
Berkowitz, S. J., Stover, C. S., & Marans, S. R. (2011). The child and family traumatic stress intervention: secondary prevention for youth at risk of developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52, 676–85.Google Scholar
Boscarino, J. A. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder and mortality among U.S. army veterans 30 years after military service. Annals of Epidemiology, 16, 248–56.Google Scholar
Boscarino, J. A. (2008). A prospective study of PTSD and early-age heart disease mortality among Vietnam veterans: implications for surveillance and prevention. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 668–76.Google Scholar
Boscarino, J. A., & Chang, J. (1999). Electrocardiogram abnormalities among men with stress-related psychiatric disorders: implications for coronary heart disease and clinical research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 227–34.Google Scholar
Bowes, L., & Jaffee, S. R. (2013). Biology, genes, and resilience: toward a multidisciplinary approach. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 14, 195208.Google Scholar
Boyko, E. J., Jacobson, I. G., Smith, B., et al. (2010). Risk of diabetes in U.S. military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health. Diabetes Care, 33, 1771–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bromet, E. J., Kotov, R., Fochtmann, L. J., et al. (2011). Diagnostic shifts during the decade following first admission for psychosis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 1186–94.Google Scholar
Buttorff, C., Hock, R. S., Weiss, H. A., et al. (2012). Economic evaluation of a task-shifting intervention for common mental disorders in India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 813–21.Google Scholar
Chen, M. H., Pan, T. L., Li, C. T., et al. (2015). Risk of stroke among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: nationwide longitudinal study. The British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science, 206, 302–7.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: resilient functioning in maltreated children – past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 54, 402–22.Google ScholarPubMed
Clouston, S. A. P., Kotov, R., Pietrzak, R. H., et al. (2016). Cognitive impairment among World Trade Center responders: long-term implications of re-experiencing the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 4, 6775.Google ScholarPubMed
Clouston, S. A. P., Guralnik, J., Kotov, R., Bromet, E. J., & Luft, B. J. (2017). Functional limitations in World Trade Center responders 14 years after the disaster: implications of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 30, 443–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Jankowski, K., et al. (2016). A randomized implementation study of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for adjudicated teens in residential treatment facilities. Child Maltreatment, 21, 156–67.Google Scholar
Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Fisher, B. S., et al. (2016). Multi-college bystander intervention evaluation for violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50, 295302.Google Scholar
Dieltjens, T., Moonens, I., Van Praet, K., De Buck, E., & Vandekerckhove, P. (2014). A systematic literature search on psychological first aid: lack of evidence to develop guidelines. PLoS One, 9, e114714.Google Scholar
Foa, E. B., Hearst-Ikeda, D., & Perry, K. J. (1995). Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioral program for the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 948–55.Google Scholar
Friedman, M. J. (2016). Deconstructing PTSD. In Bromet, E. J., ed., Long-Term Outcomes in Psychopathology Research: Rethinking the Scientific Agenda. Oxford, England; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Goldberg, D. (2003). Psychiatry and primary care. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association, 2, 153–7.Google Scholar
Goldman-Mellor, S., Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., et al. (2014). Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. Sleep, 37, 1767–75.Google Scholar
Goldmann, E., & Galea, S. (2014). Mental health consequences of disasters. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 169–83.Google Scholar
Gradus, J. L., Farkas, D. K., Svensson, E., et al. (2015). Associations between stress disorders and cardiovascular disease events in the Danish population. BMJ Open, 5, e009334.Google Scholar
Greene, T., Neria, Y., & Gross, R. (2016). Prevalence, detection and correlates of PTSD in the primary care setting: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 23, 160–80.Google Scholar
Hobfoll, S. E., Watson, P., Bell, C. C., et al. (2007). Five essential elements of immediate and mid-term mass trauma intervention: empirical evidence. Psychiatry, 70, 283315; discussion 316–69.Google Scholar
Jordan, H. T., Miller-Archie, S. A., Cone, J. E., Morabia, A., & Stellman, S. D. (2011). Heart disease among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster: results from the World Trade Center health registry. Preventive Medicine, 53, 370–6.Google Scholar
Joshi, R., Alim, M., Kengne, A. P., et al. (2014). Task shifting for non-communicable disease management in low and middle income countries – a systematic review. PLoS One, 9, e103754.Google Scholar
Kantor, V., Knefel, M., & Lueger-Schuster, B. (2017). Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 5268.Google Scholar
Katon, W., Russo, J., Lin, E. H., et al. (2012). Cost-effectiveness of a multicondition collaborative care intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 506–14.Google Scholar
Kearns, M. C., Ressler, K. J., Zatzick, D., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Early interventions for PTSD: a review. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 833–42.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (Suppl 5), 412; discussion 1314.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, B., Mitchell, J., Abbott, J., et al. (2010). A therapist-assisted cognitive behavior therapy internet intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder: pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up results from an open trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 635–44.Google Scholar
Kotov, R., Bromet, E. J., Schechter, C., et al. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the risk of respiratory problems in World Trade Center responders: longitudinal test of a pathway. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77, 438–48.Google Scholar
Kubzansky, L. D., Koenen, K. C., Jones, C., & Eaton, W. W. (2009). A prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and coronary heart disease in women. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 28, 125–30.Google Scholar
Kubzansky, L. D., Koenen, K. C., Spiro, A., III, Vokonas, P. S., & Sparrow, D. (2007). Prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and coronary heart disease in the normative aging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 109–16.Google Scholar
Lecrubier, Y. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care: a hidden diagnosis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65 (Suppl 1), 4954.Google Scholar
Lowe, S. R., Blachman-Forshay, J., & Koenen, K. C. (2015). Trauma as a public health issue: epidemiology of trauma and trauma-related disorders. In Schnyder, U. & Cloitre, M., eds., Evidence Based Treatments for Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, pp. 1140.Google Scholar
Malcoun, E., Houry, D., Arndt-Jordan, C., et al. (2010). Feasibility of identifying eligible trauma patients for posttraumatic stress disorder intervention. The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11, 274–8.Google Scholar
McFarlane, A. C., & Bryant, R. A. (2017). PTSD: the need to use emerging knowledge to improve systems of care and clinical practice in Australia. Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 25, 329–31.Google Scholar
Miller, M. W., Fogler, J. M., Wolf, E. J., Kaloupek, D. G., & Keane, T. M. (2008). The internalizing and externalizing structure of psychiatric comorbidity in combat veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 5865.Google Scholar
Miller, M. W., Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., et al. (2010). An evaluation of competing models for the structure of PTSD symptoms using external measures of comorbidity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 631–8.Google Scholar
National Institute of Mental Health (2016). NIMH-funded study to track the effects of trauma (online). Available at: www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2016/nimh-funded-study-to-track-the-effects-of-trauma.shtml (Accessed September 11, 2017).Google Scholar
Newman, M. G., Consoli, A. J., & Taylor, C. B. (1999). A palmtop computer program for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Modification, 23, 597619.Google Scholar
Niolon, P. H., Kearns, M., Dills, J., et al. (2017). Preventing Intimate Partner Violence across the Lifespan: A Technical Package of Programs, Policies, and Practices. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5273.Google Scholar
Posner, J., Eilenberg, J., Friedman, J. H., & Fullilove, M. J. (2008). Quality and use of trauma histories obtained from psychiatric outpatients: a ten-year follow-up. Psychiatric Services, 59, 318–21.Google Scholar
Possemato, K., Maisto, S. A., Wade, M., et al. (2015). Ecological momentary assessment of PTSD symptoms and alcohol use in combat veterans. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 29, 894905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qi, W., Gevonden, M., & Shalev, A. (2016). Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder after trauma: current evidence and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18, 20.Google Scholar
Regier, D. A., Goldberg, I. D., & Taube, C. A. (1978). The de facto US mental health services system: a public health perspective. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 685–93.Google Scholar
Regier, D. A., Hirschfeld, R. M., Goodwin, F. K., et al. (1988). The NIMH depression awareness, recognition, and treatment program: structure, aims, and scientific basis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1351–7.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Agnew-Blais, J. C., Spiegelman, D., et al. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a sample of women: a 22-year longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 203–10.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Austin, S. B., Corliss, H. L., Vandermorris, A. K., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). Pervasive trauma exposure among us sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2433–41.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Koenen, K. C., Chen, Q., et al. (2017). Posttraumatic stress disorder and accelerated aging: PTSD and leukocyte telomere length in a sample of civilian women. Depression and Anxiety, 34, 391400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roy-Byrne, P., Craske, M. G., Sullivan, G., et al. (2010). Delivery of evidence-based treatment for multiple anxiety disorders in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 303, 1921–8.Google Scholar
Roy, S. S., Foraker, R. E., Girton, R. A., & Mansfield, A. J. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder and incident heart failure among a community-based sample of US veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 757–63.Google Scholar
Scherrer, J. F., Chrusciel, T., Zeringue, A., et al. (2010). Anxiety disorders increase risk for incident myocardial infarction in depressed and nondepressed veterans administration patients. American Heart Journal, 159, 772–9.Google Scholar
Schnurr, P. P. (2016). Extending collaborative care for posttraumatic mental health. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176, 956–7.Google Scholar
Schwartz, J. E., Burg, M. M., Shimbo, D., et al. (2016). Clinic blood pressure underestimates ambulatory blood pressure in an untreated employer-based US population: results from the masked hypertension study. Circulation, 134, 17941807.Google Scholar
Shalev, A. Y., Ankri, Y., Israeli-Shalev, Y., et al. (2012). Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: results from the Jerusalem trauma outreach and prevention study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 166–76.Google Scholar
Shalev, A. Y., Ankri, Y. L., Peleg, T., Israeli-Shalev, Y., & Freedman, S. (2011). Barriers to receiving early care for PTSD: Results from the Jerusalem trauma outreach and prevention study. Psychiatric Services, 62, 765–73.Google Scholar
Shalev, I., Moffitt, T. E., Braithwaite, A. W., et al. (2014). Internalizing disorders and leukocyte telomere erosion: a prospective study of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 19, 1163–70.Google Scholar
Stein, D. J., Seedat, S., Iversen, A., & Wessely, S. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics. Lancet, 369, 139–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sumner, J. A., Hagan, K., Grodstein, F., et al. (2017). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and cognitive function in a large cohort of middle-aged women. Depression and Anxiety, 34, 356–66.Google Scholar
Sumner, J. A., Kubzansky, L. D., Elkind, M. S., et al. (2015). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms predict onset of cardiovascular events in women. Circulation, 132, 251–9.Google Scholar
Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., Weisaeth, L., & Raphael, B. (2017). Individual and community responses to disasters. In Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., Weisaeth, L., & Raphael, B., eds., Textbook of Disaster Psychiatry. Cambridge, England; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125.Google Scholar
Vaccarino, V., Goldberg, J., Magruder, K. M., et al. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder and incidence of type-2 diabetes: a prospective twin study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 56, 158–64.Google Scholar
Vaccarino, V., Goldberg, J., Rooks, C., et al. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder and incidence of coronary heart disease: a twin study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62, 970–8.Google Scholar
Wadsworth, M., Kuh, D., Richards, M., & Hardy, R. (2006). Cohort profile: the 1946 national birth cohort (MRC national survey of health and development). International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 4954.Google Scholar
Walsh, W. A., Dawson, J., & Mattingly, M. J. (2010). How are we measuring resilience following childhood maltreatment? Is the research adequate and consistent? What is the impact on research, practice, and policy? Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 11, 2741.Google Scholar
Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., et al. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–40.Google Scholar
Watts, B. V. (2016). Current evidence does not support the widespread use of collaborative care for PTSD, but it is limited by not evaluating context. Evidence Based Medicine, 21, 176.Google Scholar
Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Krueger, R. F., et al. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the genetic structure of comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 320–30.Google Scholar
Yaffe, K., Vittinghoff, E., Lindquist, K., et al. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 608–13.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×