Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-frvt8 Total loading time: 1.509 Render date: 2022-10-04T01:54:04.214Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true
Remote Compositional Analysis Remote Compositional Analysis
Techniques for Understanding Spectroscopy, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Planetary Surfaces
Buy print or eBook[Opens in a new window]

Book contents

19 - Spectral Analyses of Asteroids

from Part IV - Applications to Planetary Surfaces

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 November 2019

Janice L. Bishop
Affiliation:
SETI Institute, California
James F. Bell III
Affiliation:
Arizona State University
Jeffrey E. Moersch
Affiliation:
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Get access

Summary

Asteroids represent a time capsule, storing information about the composition of and conditions in the solar nebula as well as processes that have affected the Solar System. The asteroid population includes primitive bodies, partially melted material, and the result of full melting and differentiation of planetesimals. Asteroidal minerals, organic molecules, and ices that are relevant to uncovering the history of the Solar System are accessible spectroscopically. Reflection and thermal emission spectroscopy from ground-based telescopes, space telescopes, and spacecraft provide a rich view of asteroid surfaces. Analysis techniques, including taxonomic classification, direct comparisons to meteorites and pure materials, band parameter analysis, and physical models of light scattering, are customized to the specific science question under study. In recent years, spacecraft missions to asteroids have provided ground-truth to more remote spectral analyses, corroborating many inferences from ground-based observations, while enabling new discoveries and a richer, deeper view of asteroid surfaces. These compositional studies provide an important complement to and constraint on dynamical investigations of Solar System evolution. The future of asteroid science is bright, with advances expected in the areas of sample return, additional reconnaissance missions, improved wavelength coverage spectroscopy, and significant increases in the size of the database of asteroid spectra.

Type
Chapter
Information
Remote Compositional Analysis
Techniques for Understanding Spectroscopy, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Planetary Surfaces
, pp. 393 - 412
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abe, M., Takagi, Y., Kitazato, K., et al. (2006) Near-infrared spectral results of asteroid Itokawa from the Hayabusa spacecraft. Science, 312, 13341338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adams, J.B. (1974) Visible and near‐infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of pyroxenes as applied to remote sensing of solid objects in the Solar System. Journal of Geophysical Research, 79, 48294836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barucci, M., Fornasier, S., Dotto, E., et al. (2008) Asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia: Surface composition from far infrared observations with the Spitzer space telescope. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 477, 665670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barucci, M., Belskaya, I., Fornasier, S., et al. (2012) Overview of Lutetia’s surface composition. Planetary and Space Science, 66, 2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barucci, M.A., Fulchignoni, M., Ji, J., Marchi, S., & Thomas, N. (2015) The flybys of asteroids (2867) Šteins, (21) Lutetia, and (4179) Toutatis. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., DeMeo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 433450.Google Scholar
Bell, J. III, Izenberg, N., Lucey, P., et al. (2002) Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy of 433 Eros from the NIS instrument on the NEAR mission: I. Low phase angle observations. Icarus, 155, 119144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., & Bus, S.J. (1996) Groundbased reconnaissance of asteroid 253 Mathilde: Visible wavelength spectrum and meteorite comparison. Icarus, 119, 447449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Bus, S.J., Sunshine, J.M., & Burbine, T.H. (2001) MUSES‐C target asteroid (25143) 1998 SF36: A reddened ordinary chondrite. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 11671172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobrovnikoff, N.T. (1929) The spectra of minor planets. Lick Observatory Bulletin, 14, 1827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brucato, J.R., Strazzulla, G., Baratta, G., & Colangeli, L. (2004) Forsterite amorphisation by ion irradiation: Monitoring by infrared spectroscopy. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 413, 395401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunetto, R., Loeffler, M.J., Nesvorný, D., Sasaki, S., & Strazzulla, G. (2015) Asteroid surface alteration by space weathering processes. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., DeMeo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 597616.Google Scholar
Burbine, T.H. & Binzel, R.P. (2002) Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey in the near-infrared. Icarus, 159, 468499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burbine, T.H., Buchanan, P.C., Dolkar, T., & Binzel, R.P. (2009) Pyroxene mineralogies of near‐Earth vestoids. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44, 13311341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bus, S.J. & Binzel, R.P. (2002) Phase II of the small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: The observations. Icarus, 158, 106145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carvano, J.M., Hasselmann, P.H., Lazzaro, D., & Mothé-Diniz, T. (2010) SDSS-based taxonomic classification and orbital distribution of main belt asteroids. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 510, A43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, C.R., Morrison, D., & Zellner, B. (1975) Surface properties of asteroids: A synthesis of polarimetry, radiometry, and spectrophotometry. Icarus, 25, 104130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, B.E., Veverka, J., Helfenstein, P., et al. (1999) NEAR photometry of Asteroid 253 Mathilde. Icarus, 140, 5365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, B.E., Bus, S.J., Rivkin, A.S., et al. (2004) E‐type asteroid spectroscopy and compositional modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, DOI:10.1029/2003JE002200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, R.N. (2009) Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the Moon. Science, 326, 562564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cloutis, E.A., Gaffey, M.J., Jackowski, T.L., & Reed, K.L. (1986) Calibrations of phase abundance, composition, and particle size distribution for olivine‐orthopyroxene mixtures from reflectance spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 1164111653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cochran, A.L. & Vilas, F. (1997) The McDonald Observatory serendipitous UV/blue spectral survey of asteroids. Icarus, 127, 121129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, M., Witteborn, F.C., Roush, T., Bregman, J., & Wooden, D. (1998) Spectral irradiance calibration in the infrared. VIII. 5–14 micron spectroscopy of the asteroids Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas. The Astronomical Journal, 115, 16711679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Combe, J.-P., McCord, T.B., Tosi, F., et al. (2016) Detection of local H2O exposed at the surface of Ceres. Science, 353, aaf3010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delbó, M., Mueller, M., Emery, J.P., Rozitis, B., & Capria, M.T. (2015) Asteroid thermophysical modeling. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., DeMeo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F., eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 107128.Google Scholar
DeMeo, F.E. & Carry, B. (2013) The taxonomic distribution of asteroids from multi-filter all-sky photometric surveys. Icarus, 226, 723741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeMeo, F.E., Binzel, R.P., Slivan, S.M., & Bus, S.J. (2009) An extension of the Bus asteroid taxonomy into the near-infrared. Icarus, 202, 160180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeMeo, F.E., Alexander, C.M.O., Walsh, K.J., Chapman, C.R., & Binzel, R.P. (2015) The compositional structure of the asteroid belt. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., DeMeo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1341.Google Scholar
De Sanctis, M.C., Combe, J.-P., Ammannito, E., et al. (2012) Detection of widespread hydrated materials on Vesta by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board the Dawn mission. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 758, L36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Sanctis, M.C., Ammannito, E., Raponi, A., et al. (2015) Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres. Nature, 528, 241244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Sanctis, M.C., Ammannito, E., McSween, H.Y., et al. (2017) Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres. Science, 355, 719722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodson-Robinson, S.E., Willacy, K., Bodenheimer, P., Turner, N.J., & Beichman, C.A. (2009) Ice lines, planetesimal composition and solid surface density in the solar nebula. Icarus, 200, 672693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dotto, E., Müller, T., Barucci, M., et al. (2000) ISO results on bright Main Belt asteroids: PHT-S observations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 358, 11331141.Google Scholar
Dunn, T.L., McCoy, T.J., Sunshine, J., & McSween, H.Y. Jr. (2010) A coordinated spectral, mineralogical, and compositional study of ordinary chondrites. Icarus, 208, 789797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emery, J.P. & Brown, R.H. (2003) Constraints on the surface composition of Trojan asteroids from near-infrared (0.8–4.0 μm) spectroscopy. Icarus, 164, 104121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emery, J.P. & Brown, R.H. (2004) The surface composition of Trojan asteroids: Constraints set by scattering theory. Icarus, 170, 131152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., & Van Cleve, J. (2006) Thermal emission spectroscopy (5.2–38 μm) of three Trojan asteroids with the Spitzer Space Telescope: Detection of fine-grained silicates. Icarus, 182, 496512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emery, J.P., Burr, D.M., & Cruikshank, D.P. (2011) Near-infrared spectroscopy of Trojan asteroids: Evidence for two compositional groups. The Astronomical Journal, 141, 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Filippenko, A.V. (1982) The importance of atmospheric differential refraction in spectrophotometry. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 94, 715–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fornasier, S., Migliorini, A., Dotto, E., & Barucci, M. (2008) Visible and near infrared spectroscopic investigation of E-type asteroids, including 2867 Steins, a target of the Rosetta mission. Icarus, 196, 119134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fornasier, S., Clark, B., Dotto, E., Migliorini, A., Ockert-Bell, M., & Barucci, M. (2010) Spectroscopic survey of M-type asteroids. Icarus, 210, 655673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujiwara, A., Kawaguchi, J., Yeomans, D., et al. (2006) The rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa as observed by Hayabusa. Science, 312, 13301334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaffey, M.J., Bell, J.F., Brown, R.H., et al. (1993) Mineralogical variations within the S-type asteroid class. Icarus, 106, 573602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gladman, B.J., Davis, D.R., Neese, C., et al. (2009) On the asteroid belt’s orbital and size distribution. Icarus, 202, 104118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gradie, J. & Tedesco, E. (1982) Compositional structure of the asteroid belt. Science, 216, 14051407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossman, L. (1972) Condensation in the primitive solar nebula. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 36, 597619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groussin, O., Lamy, P., Fornasier, S., & Jorda, L. (2011) The properties of asteroid (2867) Steins from Spitzer Space Telescope observations and OSIRIS shape reconstruction. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 529, A73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilbert-Lepoutre, A. (2014) Survival of water ice in Jupiter Trojans. Icarus, 231, 232238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, V.E., Simon, A.A., Christensen, P.R., et al. (2019) Evidence for widespread hydrated minerals on asteroid (101955) Bennu. Nature Astronomy, 3, 332340.Google ScholarPubMed
Hapke, B. (2001) Space weathering from Mercury to the asteroid belt. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 10,03910,073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hapke, B. (2012) Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Hardersen, P.S., Cloutis, E.A., Reddy, V., Mothé-Diniz, T., & Emery, J.P. (2011) The M‐/X‐asteroid menagerie: Results of an NIR spectral survey of 45 main‐belt asteroids. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 46, 19101938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartmann, W.K., Tholen, D.J., & Cruikshank, D.P. (1987) The relationship of active comets, “extinct” comets, and dark asteroids. Icarus, 69, 3350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasegawa, S., Murakawa, K., Ishiguro, M., et al. (2003) Evidence of hydrated and/or hydroxylated minerals on the surface of asteroid 4 Vesta. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, DOI:10.1029/2003GL018627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendrix, A.R., Vilas, F., & Li, J.Y. (2016) Ceres: Sulfur deposits and graphitized carbon. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 89208927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henning, T. (2010) Cosmic silicates. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 48, 2146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ivezić, Ž., Axelrod, T., Brandt, W., et al. (2008) Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From science drivers to reference design. Serbian Astronomical Journal, 176, 113.CrossRef
Izenberg, N.R., Murchie, S.L., Bell, J.F. III, et al. (2003) Spectral properties and geologic processes on Eros from combined NEAR NIS and MSI data sets. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 38, 10531077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, T.D., Lebofsky, L.A., Lewis, J.S., & Marley, M.S. (1990) The composition and origin of the C, P, and D asteroids: Water as a tracer of thermal evolution in the outer belt. Icarus, 88, 172192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, M.S., Sanchez, J.A., & Reddy, V. (2017) Characterization of spacecraft targets: Ida and Gaspra. Conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Montevideo, Uruguay, poster 2.e.67.
King, T.V. & Ridley, W.I. (1987) Relation of the spectroscopic reflectance of olivine to mineral chemistry and some remote sensing implications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 11,45711,469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lantz, C., Brunetto, R., Barucci, M., et al. (2017) Ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites: A new view of space weathering on primitive asteroids. Icarus, 285, 4357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, S.J. & Lucey, P.G. (2007) Radiative transfer mixing models of meteoritic assemblages. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, DOI:10.1029/2006JE002765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazzaro, D., Angeli, C., Carvano, J., Mothé-Diniz, T., Duffard, R., & Florczak, M. (2004) S 3 OS 2: The visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids. Icarus, 172, 179220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levison, H.F., Bottke, W.F., Gounelle, M., Morbidelli, A., Nesvorný, D., & Tsiganis, K. (2009) Contamination of the asteroid belt by primordial trans-Neptunian objects. Nature, 460, 364366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, J.S. (1972) Low temperature condensation from the solar nebula. Icarus, 16, 241252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, J.-Y., Bodewits, D., Feaga, L.M., et al. (2011) Ultraviolet spectroscopy of asteroid (4) Vesta. Icarus, 216, 640649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lim, L.F., McConnochie, T.H., Bell, J.F. III, & Hayward, T.L. (2005) Thermal infrared (8–13 μm) spectra of 29 asteroids: The Cornell mid-infrared asteroid spectroscopy (MIDAS) survey. Icarus, 173, 385408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lim, L.F., Emery, J.P., & Moskovitz, N.A. (2011) Mineralogy and thermal properties of V-type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for diogenitic material from the Spitzer IRS (5–35 μm) spectrum. Icarus, 213, 510523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loeffler, M., Dukes, C., & Baragiola, R. (2009) Irradiation of olivine by 4 keV He+: Simulation of space weathering by the solar wind. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, DOI:10.1029/2008JE003249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lord, S.D. (1992) A new software tool for computing Earth’s atmospheric transmission of near- and far-infrared radiation. NASA TM-103957. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.Google Scholar
Mainzer, A., Masiero, J., Grav, T., et al. (2011a) NEOWISE studies of asteroids with Sloan photometry: Preliminary results. The Astrophysical Journal, 745, 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainzer, A., Bauer, J., Grav, T., et al. (2011b) Preliminary results from NEOWISE: An enhancement to the wide-field infrared survey explorer for Solar System science. The Astrophysical Journal, 731, 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchis, F., Enriquez, J., Emery, J., et al. (2012) Multiple asteroid systems: Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations. Icarus, 221, 11301161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markus, K., Arnold, G., Hiesinger, H., et al. (2013) Comparison of ground-based and VIRTIS-M/ROSETTA reflectance spectra of asteroid 2867 Steins with laboratory reflectance spectra in the VIS and IR. EGU General Assembly, Abstract #EGU2013-11287.
Mayne, R., Sunshine, J., McSween, H. Jr., Bus, S., & McCoy, T.J. (2011) The origin of Vesta’s crust: Insights from spectroscopy of the Vestoids. Icarus, 214, 147160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCord, T.B., Li, J.-Y., Combe, J.-P., et al. (2012) Dark material on Vesta from the infall of carbonaceous volatile-rich material. Nature, 491, 8386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCoy, T.J., Burbine, T., McFadden, L., et al. (2001) The composition of 433 Eros: A mineralogical—chemical synthesis. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 16611672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McFadden, L.A., Wellnitz, D.D., Schnaubelt, M., et al. (2001) Mineralogical interpretation of reflectance spectra of Eros from NEAR near‐infrared spectrometer low phase flyby. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 17111726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McSween, Y. Jr., Ghosh, A., Grimm, R.E., Wilson, L., & Young, E.D. (2002) Thermal evolution models of asteroids. In: Asteroids III (Bottke, W., Paolicchi, Cellino, & Binzel, R.P., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 559571.Google Scholar
Mignard, F., Cellino, A., Muinonen, K., et al. (2007) The Gaia mission: Expected applications to asteroid science. Earth, Moon, and Planets, 101, 97125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milliken, R.E. & Rivkin, A.S. (2009) Brucite and carbonate assemblages from altered olivine-rich materials on Ceres. Nature Geoscience, 2, 258261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., & Gomes, R. (2005) Chaotic capture of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids in the early Solar System. Nature, 435, 462465.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moyano‐Cambero, C.E., Trigo‐Rodrίguez, J.M., Llorca, J., Fornasier, S., Barucci, M.A., & Rimola, A. (2016) A plausible link between the asteroid 21 Lutetia and CH carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 51, 17951812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muinonen, K. & Pieniluoma, T. (2011) Light scattering by Gaussian random ellipsoid particles: First results with discrete-dipole approximation. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 112, 17471752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, T., Noguchi, T., Tanaka, M., et al. (2011) Itokawa dust particles: A direct link between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites. Science, 333, 11131116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., & Morbidelli, A. (2013) Capture of Trojans by jumping Jupiter. The Astrophysical Journal, 768, 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nittler, L.R., Starr, R.D., Lim, L., et al. (2001) X‐ray fluorescence measurements of the surface elemental composition of asteroid 433 Eros. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 16731695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Brien, D.P. & Sykes, M.V. (2011) The origin and evolution of the asteroid belt—Implications for Vesta and Ceres. Space Science Reviews, 163, 4161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pieters, C.M. & Noble, S.K. (2016) Space weathering on airless bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 18651884.Google ScholarPubMed
Pieters, C.M., Goswami, J.N., Clark, R.N., et al. (2009) Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1. Science, 326, 568572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Popescu, M., Licandro, J., Morate, D., et al. (2016) Near-infrared colors of minor planets recovered from Vista-VHS survey (MOVIS). Astronomy and Astrophysics, 591, A115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prinn, R.G., & Fegley, B. Jr. (1989) Solar nebula chemistry: Origins of planetary, satellite and cometary volatiles. In: Origin and evolution of planetary and satellite atmospheres (Atreya, S.K., Pollack, J.B., & Matthews, M.S., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 78136.Google Scholar
Reddy, V., Le Corre, L., O’Brien, D.P., et al. (2012) Delivery of dark material to Vesta via carbonaceous chondritic impacts. Icarus, 221, 544559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reddy, V., Dunn, T., Thomas, C.A., Moskovitz, N., & Burbine, T. (2015) Mineralogy and surface composition of asteroids. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., DeMeo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 6587.Google Scholar
Rivkin, A.S. & Emery, J.P. (2010) Detection of ice and organics on an asteroidal surface. Nature, 464, 13221323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivkin, A.S., Clark, B.E., Britt, D.T., & Lebofsky, L.A. (1997) Infrared spectrophotometry of the NEAR flyby target 253 Mathilde. Icarus, 127, 255257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Vilas, F., & Lebofsky, L.A. (2002) Hydrated minerals on asteroids: The astronomical record. Asteroids III, 1, 235253.Google Scholar
Rivkin, A.S., Volquardsen, E.L., & Clark, B.E. (2006) The surface composition of Ceres: Discovery of carbonates and iron-rich clays. Icarus, 185, 563567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivkin, A.S., Clark, B.E., Ockert-Bell, M., et al. (2011) Asteroid 21 Lutetia at 3 μm: Observations with IRTF SpeX. Icarus, 216, 6268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivkin, A.S., Thomas, C.A., Howell, E.S., & Emery, J.P. (2015) The Ch-class asteroids: Connecting a visible taxonomic class to a 3 μm band shape. The Astronomical Journal, 150, 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Emery, J.P., & Sunshine, J. (2018) Evidence for OH or H2O on the surface of 433 Eros and 1036 Ganymed. Icarus, 304, 7482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, C.T., Raymond, C.A., Coradini, A., et al. (2012) Dawn at Vesta: Testing the protoplanetary paradigm. Science, 336, 684686.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, J.A., Reddy, V., Nathues, A., Cloutis, E.A., Mann, P., & Hiesinger, H. (2012) Phase reddening on near-Earth asteroids: Implications for mineralogical analysis, space weathering and taxonomic classification. Icarus, 220, 3650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schorghofer, N. (2016) Predictions of depth-to-ice on asteroids based on an asynchronous model of temperature, impact stirring, and ice loss. Icarus, 276, 8895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shestopalov, D.I., Golubeva, L.F., McFadden, L.A., Fornasier, S., & Taran, M.N. (2010) Titanium-bearing pyroxenes of some E asteroids: Coexisting of igneous and hydrated rocks. Planetary and Space Science, 58, 14001403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shkuratov, Y., Starukhina, L., Hoffmann, H., & Arnold, G. (1999) A model of spectral albedo of particulate surfaces: Implications for optical properties of the Moon. Icarus, 137, 235246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunshine, J.M. & Pieters, C.M. (1993) Estimating modal abundances from the spectra of natural and laboratory pyroxene mixtures using the modified Gaussian model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 90759087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunshine, J.M., Bus, S.J., McCoy, T.J., Burbine, T.H., Corrigan, C.M., & Binzel, R.P. (2004) High‐calcium pyroxene as an indicator of igneous differentiation in asteroids and meteorites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39, 13431357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunshine, J.M., Farnham, T.L., Feaga, L.M., et al. (2009) Temporal and spatial variability of lunar hydration as observed by the Deep Impact spacecraft. Science, 326, 565568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takir, D. & Emery, J.P. (2012) Outer main belt asteroids: Identification and distribution of four 3-μm spectral groups. Icarus, 219, 641654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tholen, D.J. (1984) Asteroid taxonomy from cluster analysis of photometry. PhD thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Thomas, C.A., Emery, J.P., Trilling, D.E., Delbó, M., Hora, J.L., & Mueller, M. (2014) Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects. Icarus, 228, 217246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernazza, P., Binzel, R., Thomas, C., et al. (2008) Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids. Nature, 454, 858860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vernazza, P., Carry, B., Emery, J., et al. (2010) Mid-infrared spectral variability for compositionally similar asteroids: Implications for asteroid particle size distributions. Icarus, 207, 800809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernazza, P., Delbo, M., King, P., et al. (2012) High surface porosity as the origin of emissivity features in asteroid spectra. Icarus, 221, 11621172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vernazza, P., Castillo-Rogez, J., Beck, P., et al. (2017) Different origins or different evolutions? Decoding the spectral diversity among C-type asteroids. The Astronomical Journal, 153, 72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veverka, J., Thomas, P., Harch, A., et al. (1997) NEAR’s flyby of 253 Mathilde: Images of a C asteroid. Science, 278, 21092114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vilas, F. & Gaffey, M.J. (1989) Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra. Science, 246, 790792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walsh, K.J., Morbidelli, A., Raymond, S.N., O’Brien, D., & Mandell, A. (2012) Populating the asteroid belt from two parent source regions due to the migration of giant planets—“The Grand Tack.” Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 47, 19411947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weissman, P.R., A’Hearn, M.F., McFadden, L., & Rickman, H. (2002) Evolution of comets into asteroids. Asteroids III, 669686.
Wenger, M., Ochsenbein, F., Egret, D., et al. (2000) The SIMBAD astronomical database-The CDS reference database for astronomical objects. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, 143, 922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigton, N.R. (2015) Near-infrared (2–4 micron) spectroscopy of near-Earth asteroids: A search for OH/H2O on small planetary bodies. MS thesis, University of Tennessee.
Xu, S., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., & Bus, S.J. (1995) Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey: Initial results. Icarus, 115, 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, B. & Jewitt, D. (2010) Identification of magnetite in B-type asteroids. The Astronomical Journal, 140, 692698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zubko, E., Shkuratov, Y., Mishchenko, M., & Videen, G. (2008) Light scattering in a finite multi-particle system. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 109, 21952206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×