Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-pjpqr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T11:27:02.785Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

15 - Nonprofits as Part of an Engineered Social Economy

from Part III - New Directions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2024

Eva Witesman
Brigham Young University, Utah
Curtis Child
Brigham Young University, Utah
Get access


Lamothe and colleagues view the nonprofit sector as being intentionally engineered or designed by government to create specific behaviors in the economy. This chapter examines the ways in which government and legal structures envision desirable outcomes in the broad economy and develop laws and policies intended to yield specific institutional state-sanctioned outcomes in the private market. Drawing on the Korean context as an example, the authors explore what government design of the social sector says about not only the strong-state context present in the global East, but also how this lens helps us to reinterpret our understanding of the legal underpinnings of the nonprofit sector elsewhere.

Reimagining Nonprofits
Sector Theory in the Twenty-First Century
, pp. 291 - 312
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2024

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ahn, B. J. (2021). [Live 중소기업] 한국경제 새 활력 “소셜비즈니스”… 디자인으로 혁신하다. MK News. Scholar
Berger, P. L., & Neuhaus, R. J. (1977). To empower people: The role of mediating institutions in public policy. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
Bidet, E., & Eum, H. (2011). Social enterprise in South Korea: History and diversity. Social Enterprise Journal, 7(1), 6985. Scholar
Choi, D., Berry, F. S., & Ghadimi, A. (2020). Policy design and achieving social outcomes: A comparative analysis of social enterprise policy. Public Administration Review, 80(3), 494505. Scholar
Choi, J. E., & Choi, Y. J. (2019). How local governments influence the growth of social economy. Journal of Korean Social Welfare Administration, 21(1), 225251. Scholar
Clemens, E. S. (2006). The constitution of citizens: Political theories of nonprofit organizations. In Powell, W. W. & Steinberg, R. (Eds.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (2nd ed.) (pp. 207220). Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Coskun, M. E., Monroe-White, T., & Kerlin, J. (2019). An updated quantitative analysis of Kerlin’s macro-institutional social enterprise framework. Social Enterprise Journal, 15(1), 111130. Scholar
Crotty, J., & Lee, K. K. (2002). A political-economic analysis of the failure of neo-liberal restructuring in post-crisis Korea. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 26(5), 667678.Google Scholar
Davister, C., Defourny, J., & Gregoire, O. (2004). Work integration social enterprises in the European Union: An overview of existing models. European Research Network. EMES Working Papers no. 04/04.Google Scholar
Defourny, J., & Kim, S. (2011). Emerging models of social enterprise in Eastern Asia: A cross-country analysis. Social Enterprise Journal, 7(1), 86111. Scholar
Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2008). Social enterprise in Europe: Recent trends and developments. Social Enterprise Journal, 4(3), 202228. Scholar
Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2017). Fundamentals for an international typology of social enterprise models. Voluntas, 28(6), 24692497. Scholar
Dunleavy, P., & Hood, C. (1994). From old public administration to new public management. Public Money and Management, 14(3), 916. Scholar
Eikenberry, A. M., & Kluver, J. D. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil society at risk? Public Administration Review, 64(2), 132140. Scholar
Eum, H. (2008). Social economy and social enterprise in South Korea. Working Together Foundation.Google Scholar
Evans, P. B. (1989). The future of the developmental state. The Korean Journal of Policy Studies, 4, 129146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ha, S.-K., & Lee, S.-W. (2001). IMF and the crisis of the marginalized urban sector in Korea. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 31(2), 196213.Google Scholar
Hansmann, H. B. (1980). The role of nonprofit enterprise. The Yale Law Journal, 89(5), 835901. Scholar
Heimovics, R. D., Herman, R. D., & Coughlin, C. L. J. (1993). Executive leadership and resource dependence in nonprofit organizations: A frame analysis. Public Administration Review, 53(5), 419427. Scholar
Hemel, D. J. (2020). Tangled up in tax: The nonprofit sector and the federal tax system. In Powell, W. W. & Bromley, P. (Eds.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (3rd ed.). Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Holliday, I. (2000). Productivist welfare capitalism: Social policy in East Asia. Political Studies, 48(4), 706723. Scholar
Hwang, J., & Jang, Y. (2017). Government funding as a double-edged sword: Governmental support and the performance of social enterprises in Korea. The Korea Association for Policy Studies, 26(2), 225258.Google Scholar
Jang, W. B. (2007). 특집 논문 : 사회적 경제와 한국시민사회의 과제; 사회적 경제(Social Economy)의 대안적 개념화: 쟁점과 과제. Civil Society and NGO, 5(2), 1143.Google Scholar
Jeong, B. (2015). The developmental state and social enterprise in South Korea. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(2), 116137. Scholar
Johnson, C. (1982). MITI and the Japanese miracle : The growth of industrial policy, 1925–1975. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Jung, K., Jang, H. S., & Seo, I. (2016). The government-driven social enterprises in South Korea: Lessons from the social enterprise promotion program in the Seoul metropolitan city. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(3), 598616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, S.-M. (2014). An empirical study on the effect of government support on social enterprise performance. Social Enterprise Studies, 7(2), 319.Google Scholar
Kerlin, J. A. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and learning from the differences. Voluntas, 17(3), 246262. Scholar
Kerlin, J. A. (2013). Defining social enterprise across different contexts: A conceptual framework based on institutional factors. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(1), 84108. Scholar
Kim, D.-H., & Jeon, I.-S. (2013). Over the examinations of the historical development of enterprises based on reflections on social enterprise. The Review of Business History, 28(3), 524.Google Scholar
Kim, H., Kim, S., Kang, D., Park, H., Byun, H., & Yang, D. (2018). A research on introduction of registration system for social enterprise in Korea. Journal of Social Value and Enterprise, 11(3), 95124.Google Scholar
Kim, J. (2014). A legal arguments of corporate governance on the social enterprise. Law & Policy Review, 2, 95126.Google Scholar
Kim, S. Y. (2020). A study on the sustainability of social enterprise by support of governmental subsidies. Cooperative Economics and Management Review, 53, 115.Google Scholar
Kim, Y.-J. (2011). The comparative law study concerning to social enterprises. Public Law Journal, 12(2), 295318.Google Scholar
Kwon, S., & Holliday, I. (2007). The Korean welfare state: A paradox of expansion in an era of globalisation and economic crisis. International Journal of Social Welfare, 16(3), 242248. Scholar
Laratta, R., Nakagawa, S., & Sakurai, M. (2011). Japanese social enterprises: Major contemporary issues and key challenges. Social Enterprise Journal, 7(1), 5068. Scholar
Lee, H., & Min, Y. (2015). A study on institutional isomorphism experience in social enterprise: Focused on the cases of Chungbuk self-sufficient enterprises. Health and Social Welfare Review, 35(3), 515552.Google Scholar
Maier, F., Meyer, M., & Steinbereithner, M. (2016). Nonprofit organizations becoming business-like: A systematic review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(1), 6486. Scholar
Mosley, J. E. (2012). Keeping the lights on: How government funding concerns drive the advocacy agendas of nonprofit homeless service providers. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(4), 841866. Scholar
Nicholls, A. (2010). Institutionalizing social entrepreneurship in regulatory space: Reporting and disclosure by community interest companies. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(4), 394415. Scholar
Nisbet, R. (1953). The quest for community: A study in the ethics of order and freedom. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Park, C., & Wilding, M. (2013). Social enterprise policy design: Constructing social enterprise in the UK and Korea. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22(3), 236247. Scholar
Salamon, L. M. (1981). Rethinking public management 3rd party government and the changing forms of government action. Public Policy, 29(3), 255275.Google Scholar
Salamon, L. M. (1987). Of market failure, voluntary failure, and third-party government: Toward a theory of government-nonprofit relations in the modern welfare state. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 16(1–2), 2949.Google Scholar
Smith, S. R., & Grønbjerg, K. A. (2006). Scope and theory of governmentnonprofit relations. In Powell, W. W. & Steinberg, R. (Eds.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (2nd ed.) (pp. 221242). Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, S. R., & Lipsky, M. (1993). Nonprofits for hire: The welfare state in the age of contracting. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
The Korean Law Information Center. (2012). Social Enterprise Promotion Act.사회적기업육성법#Google Scholar
Triponel, A., & Agapitova, N. (2016). Legal frameworks for social enterprise. World Bank Group.Google Scholar
Tsukamoto, I., & Nishimura, M. (2009). Social enterprises in Japan. In Kerlin, J. A. (Ed.), Social enterprise: A global comparison (pp. 163183). Tufts University Press.Google Scholar
Weisbrod, B. A. (1988). The nonprofit economy. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woo-Cumings, M. (1999). The developmental state. Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Young, D. R., & Lecy, J. D. (2014). Defining the universe of social enterprise: Competing metaphors. Voluntas, 25(5), 13071332. Scholar
Yu, X. (2011). Social enterprise in China: Driving forces, development patterns and legal framework. Social Enterprise Journal, 7(1), 932. Scholar
Yu, X. (2013). The governance of social enterprises in China. Social Enterprise Journal, 9(3), 225246. Scholar
Yu, X. (2016). Social entrepreneurship in China’s non-profit sector: The case of innovative participation of civil society in post-disaster reconstruction. China Perspectives, 2016(3), 5361. Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats