Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c4f8m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-23T02:47:18.988Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

8 - Breakdown of Will

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

George Ainslie
Temple University Medical School
Jonathan E. Adler
Brooklyn College, City University of New York
Lance J. Rips
Northwestern University, Illinois
Get access



There have been plenty of books and articles that describe how irrational we are – in consuming drugs and alcohol and cigarettes, in gambling, in forming destructive relationships, in failing to carry out our own plans, even in boring ourselves and procrastinating. The paradoxes of how people knowingly choose things they'll regret don't need rehashing. Examples of self-defeating behaviors abound. Theories about how this could be are almost as plentiful, with every discipline that studies the problem represented by several. However, the proliferation of theories in psychology, philosophy, economics, and the other behavioral sciences is best understood as a sign that no one has gotten to the heart of the matter.

These theories almost never mention failures of will. This is just not a concept that behavioral scientists used much in the twentieth century. Some writers have even proposed that there's no such thing as a “will,” that the word refers only to someone's disposition to choose. Still, the word crops up a lot in everyday speech, especially as part of “willpower,” something that people still buy books to increase.

It's widely perceived that some factor transforms motivation from a simple reflection of the incentives we face to a process that is somehow ours, that perhaps even becomes us – some factor that lies at the very core of choice-making. We often refer to it as our will, the faculty by which we impose some overriding value of ours on the array of pressures and temptations that seem extrinsic.

Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations
, pp. 156 - 186
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Agarwal, D. P. and Goedde, H. W. (1989) Human aldehyde dehydrogenases: Their role in alcoholism. Alcohol 6, 517–523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ainslie, G. (1970) Experiment described by Howard Rachlin in his Introduction to Modern Behaviorism. San Francisco: Freeman, pp. 186–188.
Ainslie, G. (1974) Impulse control in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21, 485–489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ainslie, G. (1986) Beyond microeconomics: Conflict among interest in a multiple self as a determinant of value. In Elster, J. (ed.), The Multiple Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 133–175.Google Scholar
Ainslie, G. (1992) Picoeconomics: The Strategic Interaction of Successive Motivational States within the Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ainslie, G. (1999b) The intuitive explanation of passionate mistakes, and why it's not adequate. In Elster, J. (ed.), Addiction: Entries and Exits. New York: Sage, pp. 209–238.Google Scholar
Ainslie, G. and Herrnstein, R. (1981) Preference reversal and delayed reinforcement. Animal Learning and Behavior 9, 476–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ainslie, G. and Monterosso, J. (2000) Building choices into series makes rats switch preference from the smaller-earlier to larger-later sucrose rewards. Unpublished manuscript.
Allison, J. (1981) Economics and operant conditioning. In Harzen, P. and Zeiler, M. D. (eds.), Predictability, Correlation, and Contiguity. New York: Wiley, pp. 321–353.Google Scholar
Altman, J., Everitt, B. J., Glautier, S., Markou, A., Nutt, J., Oretti, R., Phillips, G. D., and Robbins, T. W. (1996) The biological, social and clinical bases of drug addiction: Commentary and debate. Psychopharmacology 125, 285–345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aristotle (1984) The Complete Works of Aristotle. Barnes, J. (ed.). Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Averill, J. R. (1988) Disorders of emotion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6, 247–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azrin, N. H., Nunn, R., and Frantz-Renshaw, S. (1982) Habit reversal vs. negative practice of self-destructive oral habit (biting, chewing, or licking of lips, cheeks, tongue, or palate). Journal of Behavior Therapy in Experimental Psychiatry 13, 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, R. F. and Heatherton, T. (1996) Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry 7, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, G. S. (1976) The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
Becker, G. S. and Murphy, K. (1988) A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy 96, 675–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, H. S. (1960) Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology 66, 32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benabou, R. and Tirole, J. (2000) Personal rules. Paper delivered at the ECARES-CEPR Conference on Psychology and Economics, Brussels, June 9–11.
Bickel, W. K., Odum, A. L., and Madden, G. J. (1999) Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: Delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology 146, 447–454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boring, E. G. (1950) A History of Experimental Psychology. New York: Appleton Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Bratman, M. E. (1999) Faces of Intention: Selected Essays on Intention and Agency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brennan, G. and Tullock, G. (1982) An economic theory of military tactics: Methodological individualism at war. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 3, 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunner, D. and Gibbon, J. (1995) Value of food aggregates: Parallel versus serial discounting. Animal Behavior 50, 1627–1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunsson, N. (1985) The Irrational Organization. Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics.Google Scholar
Carrillo, J. D. (1999) Self-control, moderate consumption, and craving. Unpublished manuscript. Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
Case, D. (1997) Why the delay-of-reinforcement gradient is hyperbolic. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, Chicago, May 22.
Charlton, W. (1988) Weakness of the Will. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Crane, A. M. (1905) Right and Wrong Thinking and Their Results. Boston: Lathrop.Google Scholar
Crews, F. (1995) The Memory Wars: Freud Legacy in Dispute. New York: New York Review of Books.Google Scholar
Cropper, M. L., Aydede, S. K., and Portney, P. R. (1991) Discounting human lives. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73, 1410–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeVilliers, P. and Herrnstein, R. (1976) Toward a law of response strength. Psychological Bulletin 83, 1131–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellenberger, H. F. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Elster, J. (1979) Ulysses and the Sirens: Studies in Rationality and Irrationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Elster, J. (1999) Strong Feelings: Emotion; Addiction, and Human Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Elster, J. (2000) Ulysses Unbound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erasmus, D. (1509/1983) The Praise of Folly. Leonard, F. Dean (ed.). Putney, VT: Hendricks House.Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1895/1956) Project for a Scientific Psychology. In Strachey, J. and Freud, A. (eds.), The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Vol. I.Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1911) Ibid., vol. 12. Formulations on the Two Principles of Mental Functioning.
Freud, S. (1923) Ibid., vol. 19. The Ego and the Id.
Freud, S. (1926/1956) Ibid., vol. 20. Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety.
Frijda, N. H. (1986) The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fuller, R. K. and Roth, H. P. (1979) Disulfiram for the treatment of alcoholism. Annals of Internal Medicine 90, 901–904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galen, (1963) Galen on the Passions and Errors of the Soul. P. W. Harkins (trans.). Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
Gardner, E. L. (1997) Brain reward mechanisms. In Lowinson, J. H., Ruiz, P., Millman, R. B., and Langrod, J. G. (eds.), Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook (3d ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, pp. 51–85.Google Scholar
Gilligan, C. (1977) In a different voice: Womens' conceptions of self and morality. Harvard Educational Review 47, 481–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleick, J. (1987) Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
Goldiamond, I. (1965) Self-control procedures in personal behavior problems. Psychological Reports 17, 851–868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, K. A., and Lemery, K. S. (1997) Toddler and childhood temperament: Expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment. Developmental Psychology 33, 891–905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grace, R. C. (1994) A contextual model of concurrent chains choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 61, 113–129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, L., Fisher, E. B. Jr., Perlow, S., and Sherman, L. (1981) Preference reversal and self-control: Choice as a function of reward amount and delay. Behaviour Analysis Letters 1, 43–51.Google Scholar
Hampton, C. (1976) Savages. London: Samuel French.Google Scholar
Harris, C. and Laibson, D. (1999) Dynamic choices of hyperbolic consumers. Paper Presented at the GREMAQ/CEPR Conference on Economics and Psychology, Toulouse, France, June 19.
Harvey, C. M. (1994) The reasonableness of non-constant discounting. Journal of Public Economics 53, 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1961) Relative and absolute strengths of response as a function of frequency of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4, 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1969) Method and theory in the study of avoidance. Psychological Review 76, 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1997) The Matching Law: Papers in Psychology and Economics. Rachlin, H. and Laibson, D. I. (eds.). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J., Loewenstein, G., Prelec, D., and Vaughan, W. Jr. (1993) Utility maximization and melioration: Internalities in individual choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 6, 149–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyman, G. M. (1996) Resolving the contradictions of addiction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19, 561–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyman, G. M. and Tanz, L. (1995) How to teach a pigeon to maximize overall reinforcement rate. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 64, 277–297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirschman, A. (1977) The Passions and the Interests. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
James., W. (1890) Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
Kagel, J. H., Green, L., and Caraco, T. (1986) When foragers discount the future: Constraint or adaptation?Animal Behavior 34, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanfer, F. H. (1975) Self-management methods. In Kanfer, F. and Goldstein, A. (eds.), Helping People Change. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, pp. 283–345.Google Scholar
Kant, I. (1793/1960) Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone. Green, T. and Hucken, H. (trans.). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 15–49.Google Scholar
Kirby, K. N. (1997) Bidding on the future: Evidence against normative discounting of delayed rewards. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 126, 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirby, K. N. and Guastello, B. (2000) Making choices in the context of similar, future choices can increase self-control. Unpublished manuscript.
Kirby, K. N. and Herrnstein, R. J. (1995) Preference reversals due to myopic discounting of delayed reward. Psychological Science 6, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirby, K. N., Petry, N. M., and Bickel, W. K. (1999) Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128, 78–87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, B. and Leffler, K. B. (1981) The role of market forces in assuring contractual performance. Journal of Political Economy 89, 615–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, R. (1989) Introduction to the disorders of the self. In Masterson, J. F. and Klein, R. (eds.), Psychotherapy of the Disorders of the Self. New York: Brunner/ Mazel.Google Scholar
Kohlberg, L. (1963) The development of children's orientations toward a moral order: I. Sequence in the development of moral thought. Vita Humana 6, 11–33.Google Scholar
Kuhl, J. (1994) Motivation and volition. In d'Ydewalle, G., Bertelson, P., and Eelen, P. (eds.), International Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 311–340.Google Scholar
Kuhl, J. (1996) Who controls whom when “I control myself”? Psychological Inquiry 7, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kyokai, B. D. (1996) The Teaching of Buddha: The Way of Practice (893rd ed.). Tokyo: Kosaido Printing Co.
Laibson, D. (1997) Golden eggs and hyperbolic discounting. Quarterly Journal of Economics 62, 443–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lassers, E. and Nordan, R. (1978) Separation-individuation of an identical twin. Adolescent Psychiatry 6, 469–479.Google ScholarPubMed
Lea, S. E. G. (1979) Foraging and reinforcement schedules in the pigeon. Animal Behavior 27, 875–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macaulay, S. (1963) Non-contractual relations in business: A preliminary study. American Sociological Review 28, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madden, G. J., Chase, P. N., and Joyce, J. H. (1998) Making sense of sensitivity in the human operant literature. Behavior Analyst 21, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madden, G. J., Petry, N. M., Badger, G. J., and Bickel, W. K. (1997) Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control patients: Drug and monetary rewards. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 5, 256–262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mawhinney, T. C. (1982) Maximizing versus matching in people versus pigeons. Psychological Reports 50, 267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Maynard J. (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9, 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. E. (1986) Choice between single and multiple delayed reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 46, 67–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazur, J. E. (1987) An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In Commons, M. L., Mazur, J. E., Nevin, J. A., and Rachlin, H. (eds.), Quantitative Analyses of Behavior V: The Effect of Delay and of Intervening Events on Reinforcement Value. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 55–73.Google Scholar
Mazur, J. E. (1997) Choice, delay, probability, and conditioned reinforcement. Animal Learning and Behavior 25, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. E. and Logue, A. W. (1978) Choice in a self-control paradigm: Effects of a fading procedure. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 30, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClennen, E. F. (1990) Rationality and Dynamic Choice. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDiarmid, C. G. and Riling, M. E. (1965) Reinforcement delay and reinforcement rate as determinants of schedule preference. Psychonomic Science 2, 195–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metcalfe, J. and Jacobs, W. (1998) Emotional memory: The effects of stress on “cool” and “hot” memory systems. In Medin, D. L. (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 38: Advances in Research and Theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 187–222.Google Scholar
Millar, A. and Navarick, D. J. (1984) Self-control and choice in humans: Effects of video game playing as a positive reinforcer. Learning and Motivation 15, 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mischel, H. N. and Mischel, W. (1983) The development of children's knowledge of self-control strategies. Child Development 54, 603–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mourant, J. A. (1967) Pelagius and Pelagianism. In Edwards, P. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 6. New York: Macmillan, pp. 78–79.Google Scholar
Navarick, D. J. (1982) Negative reinforcement and choice in humans. Learning and Motivation 13, 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Navon, D. and Gopher, D. (1979) On the economy of the human-processing system. Psychological Review 86, 214–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nemiah, J. C. (1977) Alexithymia: Theoretical considerations. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 28, 199–206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Offer, A. (1995) Going to war in 1914: A matter of honor?Politics and Society 23, 213–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Offer, A.. (2006) The challenge of Affluence: Self-Control and Well-Being the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press)Google Scholar
Olds, J. (1992) Mapping the mind onto the brain. In Frederick, G. Worden and Swazey, J. P. (eds.), The Neurosciences: Paths of Discovery. Boston: Birkhaeuser, pp. 375–400.Google Scholar
Ostaszewski, P. (1996) The relation between temperament and rate of temporal discounting. European Journal of Personality 10, 161–172.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phelps, E. S. and Pollack, R. A. (1968) On second-best national saving and game-equilibrium growth. Review of Economic Studies 35, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plato (1892) The Dialogues of Plato. Jowett, B. (trans.). New York: Random House, vol. 1. (See also Jowett, 1892/1937.)Google Scholar
Polivy, J. (1998) The effects of behavioral inhibition: Integrating internal cues, cognition, behavior, and affect. Psychological Inquiry 9, 181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabin, M. (1995) Moral preferences, moral constraints, and self-serving biases. Working Paper 95-241, Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley.
Rachlin, H. (1985) Pain and behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8, 43–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1995a) Self-control: Beyond commitment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18, 109–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1995b) Behavioral economics without anomalies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 64, 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragotzy, S. P., Blakely, E., and Poling, A. (1988) Self-control in mentally retarded adolescents: Choice as a function of amount and delay of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 49, 191–199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richards, J. B., Zhang, L., Mitchell, S. H., and Wit, H. (1999) Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: Effect of alcohol. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 71, 121–143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ricoeur, P. (1971) Guilt, ethics, and religion. In Meta, J. (ed.), Moral Evil Under Challenge. New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
Ryan, R. M., Kuhl, J., and Deci, E. L. (1997) Nature and autonomy: An organizational view of social and neurobiological aspects of self-regulation in behavior and development. Development and Psychopathology 9, 701–728.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samuelson, P. (1976) Economics (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. (1986) The Battle for Human Nature: Science, Morality and Modern Life. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M. and Schneider, W. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84, 127–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shull, R., Spear, D., and Bryson, A. (1981) Delay or rate of food delivery as a determiner of response rate. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 35, 129–143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegel, E. and Rachlin, H. (1996) Soft commitment: Self-control achieved by response persistence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 64, 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, H. (1983) Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Simon, J. L. (1995) Interpersonal allocation continuous with intertemporal allocation: Binding commitments, pledges, and bequests. Rationality and Society 7, 367–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sjoberg, L. and Johnson, T. (1978) Trying to give up smoking: A study of volitional breakdowns. Addictive Behaviors 3, 149–167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skog, O.-J. (1999) Rationality, irrationality, and addiction. In Elster, J. and Skog, O.-J. (eds.), Getting Hooked: Rationality and Addiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyderman, M. (1983) Optimal prey selection: Partial selection, delay of reinforcement and self-control. Behavioral Analysis Letters 3, 131–147.Google Scholar
Solnick, J., Kaimenberg, C., Eckerman, D., and Wailer, M. (1980) An experimental analysis of impulsivity and impulse control in humans. Learning and Motivation 2, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Lea, S. E. G., and Webley, P. (1989) Children's choice: Sensitivity to changes in reinforcer density. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 51, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sorensen, R. A. (1992) Thought Experiments. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Spealman, R. (1979) Behavior maintained by termination of a schedule of self-administered cocaine. Science 204, 1231–1233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sperry, R. W. (1984) Consciousness, personal identity and the divided brain. Neuropsychologia 22, 661–673.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stahler, F. (1998) Economic Games and Strategic Behavior: Theory and Application. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar.Google Scholar
Stevenson, M. K. (1986) A discounting model for decisions with delayed positive or negative outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115, 131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strotz, R. H. (1956) Myopia and inconsistency in dynamic utility maximization. Review of Economic Studies 23, 166–180.Google Scholar
Sully, J. (1884) Outlines of psychology. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
Sunstein, C. R. (1995) Problems with rules. California Law Review 83, 953–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szekely, J. (1980) Twins on Twins. New York: Potter. (Probably indexed under its photographers, Kathryn Abbe and Frances Gill.)Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1982) The diversity of goods. In Sen, A. and Williams, B. (eds.), Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press, pp. 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vanderveldt, J. H. and Odenwald, R. P. (1952) Psychiatry and Catholicism. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Vaughan, W., Jr. and Herrnstein, R. J. (1987) Stability, melioration, and natural selection. In Green, L. and Kagel, J. H. (eds.), Advances in Behavioral Economics, vol. 1. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp. 185–215.Google Scholar
Vuchinich, R. E. and Simpson, C. A. (1998) Hyperbolic temporal discounting in social drinkers and problem drinkers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 6, 292–305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, M. (1925/1964) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Zajonc, R. B. (1980) Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist 35, 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats