Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-q6bj7 Total loading time: 1.816 Render date: 2022-12-02T23:05:33.432Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2022

Peter Tyrer
Affiliation:
Imperial College London
Roger Mulder
Affiliation:
University of Otago, New Zealand
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Personality Disorder
From Evidence to Understanding
, pp. 130 - 156
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

A-Tjak, J. G. L., Davis, M. L., Morina, N., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A. J. & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2015). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for clinically relevant mental and physical health problems. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84(1),30–6. doi:10.1159/000365764CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abraham, P. F. & Calabrese, J. R. (2008). Evidenced-based pharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder: A shift from SSRIs to anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics? Journal of Affective Disorders, 111(1),2130. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2008.01.024CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adams, H. E., Feuerstein, M. & Fowler, J. L. (1980). Migraine headache: Review of parameters, etiology, and intervention. Psychological Bulletin, 87(2),217–37. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.87.2.217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akiskal, H. S., Hirschfeld, R. M. A. & Yerevanian, B. I. (1983). The relationship of personality to affective disorders: A critical review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(7),801–10. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790060099013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akiskal, H. S. & Mckinney, W. T., Jr (1973). Depressive disorders: Toward a unified hypothesis. Science, 182(4107),20–9. doi:10.1126/science.182.4107.20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alden, L. E. & Capreol, M. J. (1993). Avoidant personality disorder: Interpersonal problems as predictors of treatment response. Behavior Therapy, 24(3),357–76. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80211-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aldington, R. (ed.) (1924). A Book of ‘Characters’ from Theophrastus: Joseph Hall, Sir Thomas Overbury, Nicolas Breton, John Earle, Thomas Fuller, and Other English Authors; Jean De La Bruyere, Vauvenargues, and Other French Authors, London, Routledge.Google Scholar
Allport, G. W. (1927). Concepts of trait and personality. Psychological Bulletin, 24(5),284–93. doi:10.1037/h0073629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allport, F. H. & Allport, G. W. (1921). Personality traits: Their classification and measurement. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, 16(1),640. doi:10.1037/h0069790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-III (3rd ed.), Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines (2001). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. American Psychiatric Association. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(10 Suppl),152.Google Scholar
Andrews, G. (1996). Comorbidity and the general neurotic syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168 (Supplement 30),7684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrews, G., Stewart, G., Morris-Yates, A., Holt, P. & Henderson, S. (1990). Evidence for a general neurotic syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 612.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aquilina, C. (1994). Label of personality disorder [Correspondence]. Psychiatric Bulletin, 18(5),305–6.Google Scholar
Aviram, R. B., Brodsky, B. S. & Stanley, B. (2006). Borderline personality disorder, stigma, and treatment implications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 14(5),249–56. doi:10.1080/10673220600975121CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B. & Bernstein, D. P. (2019). Schema therapy conceptualization of personality functioning and traits in ICD-11 and DSM-5. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 32(1),3849. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000464CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B., Christensen, S., Kongerslev, M. T., Sellbom, M. & Simonsen, E. (2020a). Structure of clinician-reported ICD-11 personality disorder trait qualifiers. Psychological Assessment, 32(1),50–9. doi:10.1037/pas0000747CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B. & First, M. B. (2018). Application of the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1),351. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1908-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B., Kerber, A., Aluja, A., Bastiaens, T., Keeley, J. W., Claes, L., et al. (2020b). International assessment of DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality disorder traits: Toward a common nosology in DSM-5.1. Psychopathology, 53(3–4),179–88. doi:10.1159/000507589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bach, B. & Presnall-Shvorin, J. (2020). Using DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality traits in clinical treatment. In Lejuez, C. & Gratz, K. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Disorders, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bach, B., Sellbom, M., Kongerslev, M., Simonsen, E., Krueger, R. F. & Mulder, R. T. (2017). Deriving ICD-11 personality disorder domains from DSM-5 traits: Initial attempt to harmonize two diagnostic systems. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 136(1),108–17. doi:10.1111/acps.12748CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B., Sellbom, M., Skjernov, M. & Simonsen, E. (2018). ICD-11 and DSM-5 personality trait domains capture categorical personality disorders: Finding a common ground. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52(5),425–34. doi:10.1177/0004867417727867CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, B. & Simonsen, S. (2021). How does level of personality functioning inform clinical management and treatment? Implications for ICD-11 classification of personality disorder severity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 34(1),5463. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000658CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagby, R. M., Gralnick, T. M., Al-Dajani, N. & Uliaszek, A. A. (2016). The role of the five-factor model in personality assessment and treatment planning. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 23(4),365–81. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12175Google Scholar
Baleydier, B., Damsa, C., Schutzbach, C., Stauffer, O. & Glauser, D. (2003). Étude comparative des caractéristiques sociodémographiques et des facteurs prédictifs de soins de patients Suisses et étrangers consultant un service d’urgences psychiatriques [Comparison between Swiss and foreign patients characteristics at the psychiatric emergencies department and the predictive factors of their management strategies]. Encephale, 29(3 Pt 1),205–12. doi:ENC-6-2003-29-3-0013-7006-101019-ART2Google Scholar
Bangash, A. (2020). Personality disorders in later life: Epidemiology, presentation and management. BJPsych Advances, 26(4),208–18. doi:10.1192/bja.2020.16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., et al. (2011). Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Therapist Guide, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Barnicot, K. & Crawford, M. (2019). Dialectical behaviour therapy v. mentalisation-based therapy for borderline personality disorder. Psychological Medicine, 49(12),2060–8. doi:10.1017/S0033291718002878CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnicot, K., Gonzalez, R., McCabe, R. & Priebe, S. (2016). Skills use and common treatment processes in dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 52, 147–56. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2016.04.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrash, J., Kroll, J., Carey, K. & Sines, L. (1983). Discriminating borderline disorder from other personality disorders: Cluster analysis of the diagnostic interview for borderlines. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(12),1297–302. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790110039008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barry, D. T., Cutter, C. J., Beitel, M., Kerns, R. D., Liong, C. & Schottenfeld, R. S. (2016). Psychiatric disorders among patients seeking treatment for co-occurring chronic pain and opioid use disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(10),1413–19. doi:10.4088/JCP.15m09963Google ScholarPubMed
Bateman, A. W. (2011). Throwing the baby out with the bathwater? [Commentary]. Personality and Mental Health, 5(4),274–80. doi:10.1002/pmh.184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (1999a). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 156(10),1563–9. doi:10.1176/ajp.156.10.1563CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bateman, A. W. & Fonagy, P. (1999b). Psychotherapy for severe personality disorder: Article did not do justice to available research data [Letter to the Editor]. BMJ, 319 (7211),709–10;author reply 710–1. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7211.709aGoogle Scholar
Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of outpatient mentalization-based treatment versus structured clinical management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(12),1355–64. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09040539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (2013). Impact of clinical severity on outcomes of mentalisation-based treatment for borderline personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(3),221–7. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.121129CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (2016). Mentalization-Based Treatment for Personality Disorders: A Practical Guide, New York, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateman, A. W. & Krawitz, R. (2013). Borderline Personality Disorder: An Evidence-Based Guide for Generalist Mental Health Professionals, Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, A. T., Davis, D. D. & Freeman, A. (2015). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders (3rd ed.), New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Beck, A. T., Freeman, A. & Associates. (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders, New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Behary, W. T. & Dieckman, E. (2012). Schema therapy for narcissism: The art of empathic confrontation, limit-setting, and leverage. In Campbell, W. K. & Miller, J. D. (eds.) The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Findings, and Treatments. New York, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Bender, D. S., Morey, L. C. & Skodol, A. E. (2011). Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM-5, Part I: A review of theory and methods. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(4),332–46. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.583808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benefield, N. & Haigh, R. (2020). Personality disorder: Breakdown in the relational field. In Ramsden, J., Prince, S. & Blazdell, J. (eds.) Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’: Contemporary and Critical Approaches to Clinical and Organizational Practice. London, Luminate (Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd).Google Scholar
Benefield, N., Turner, K., Bolger, L. & Bainbridge, C. (2017). Psychologically informed planned environments: A new optimism for criminal justice provision? In Akerman, G., Needs, A. & Bainbridge, C. (eds.) Transforming Environments and Rehabilitation: A Guide for Practitioners in Forensic Settings and Criminal Justice. 1st ed. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
Bernstein, D. P., Arntz, A. & De Vos, M. (2007a). Schema focused therapy in forensic settings: Theoretical model and recommendations for best clinical practice. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(2),169–83. doi:10.1080/14999013.2007.10471261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernstein, D. P., Iscan, C., Maser, J., Board of Directors of the Association for Research in Personality Disorders & Board of Directors of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (2007b). Opinions of personality disorder experts regarding the DSM-IV personality disorders classification system. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(5),536–51. doi:10.1521/pedi.2007.21.5.536CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bickerdike, L., Booth, A., Wilson, P. M., Farley, K. & Wright, K. (2017). Social prescribing: less rhetoric and more reality. A systematic review of the evidence. BMJ Open, 7(4), e013384. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bion, W. R. & Rickman, J. (1943). Intra-group tensions in therapy: Their study as the task of the group. Lancet, 242(6274),678–82. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)88231-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Black, D. W. (2013). Bad Boys, Bad Men: Confronting Antisocial Personality Disorder (Sociopathy) (2nd ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Black, D. W., Baumgard, C. H. & Bell, S. E. (1995). A 16- to 45-year follow-up of 71 men with antisocial personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36(2),130–40. doi:10.1016/s0010-440x(95)90108-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bleidorn, W. & Ködding, C. (2013). The divided self and psychological (mal) adjustment – A meta-analytic review. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(5),547–52. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.04.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blum, N., St John, D., Pfohl, B., et al. (2008). Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(4),468–78. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07071079CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bogdanowicz, K. M., Stewart, R., Broadbent, M., et al. (2015). Double trouble: Psychiatric comorbidity and opioid addiction – all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Drug Alcohol Depend, 148, 8592. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowen, M. L. (2016). Stigma: Content analysis of the representation of people with personality disorder in the UK popular press, 2001–2012. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25(6),598605. doi:10.1111/inm.12213CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braden, J. B. & Sullivan, M. D. (2008). Suicidal thoughts and behavior among adults with self-reported pain conditions in the national comorbidity survey replication. The Journal of Pain, 9(12),1106–15. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.06.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brazão, N., Rijo, D., Salvador, M. D. C. & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2018). The efficacy of the growing pro-social program in reducing anger, shame, and paranoia over time in male prison inmates: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 55(5),649–86. doi:10.1177/0022427818782733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
British Medical Association & Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2010). British National Formulary (BNF) 59 (59th ed.), London, Pharmaceutical Press.Google Scholar
British Psychological Society. (n.d.). Introduction to the PTMF [Online]. Available: https://www.bps.org.uk/power-threat-meaning-framework/introduction-ptmf [Accessed 25 February 2021].Google Scholar
Buer Christensen, T., Eikenaes, I., Hummelen, B., et al. (2020). Level of personality functioning as a predictor of psychosocial functioning – Concurrent validity of criterion A. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 11(2),7990. doi:10.1037/per0000352CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, R. (1621; republished 1927). The Anatomy of Melancholy, New York, George H. Doran Company.Google Scholar
Buss, D. M. & Penke, L. (2015). Evolutionary personality psychology. In Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., Cooper, M. L. & Larsen, R. J. (eds.) APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology: Personality Processes and Individual Differences. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Caldwell-Harris, C. L. & Ayçiçegi, A. (2006). When personality and culture clash: The psychological distress of allocentrics in an individualist culture and idiocentrics in a collectivist culture. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43(3),331–61. doi:10.1177/1363461506066982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calliess, I. T., Sieberer, M., Machleidt, W. & Ziegenbein, M. (2008). Personality disorders in a cross-cultural perspective: Impact of culture and migration on diagnosis and etiological aspects. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 4(1),3941. doi:10.2174/157340008783743776Google Scholar
Campbell, G., Bruno, R., Darke, S. & Degenhardt, L. (2015). Associations of borderline personality with pain, problems with medications and suicidality in a community sample of chronic non-cancer pain patients prescribed opioids for pain. General Hospital Psychiatry, 37(5),434–40. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.05.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantor-Graae, E. & Selten, J. P. (2005). Schizophrenia and migration: A meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(1),1224. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.12CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carnovale, M., Carlson, E. N., Quilty, L. C. & Bagby, R. M. (2019). Discrepancies in self‐ and informant‐reports of personality pathology: Examining the DSM–5 Section III trait model. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 10(5),456–67. doi:10.1037/per0000342CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W. & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–84. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chamberlain, S. R., Stochl, J., Redden, S. A. & Grant, J. E. (2018). Latent traits of impulsivity and compulsivity: Toward dimensional psychiatry. Psychological Medicine, 48(5),810–21. doi:10.1017/S0033291717002185CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chanen, A. M., Jackson, H. J., McCutcheon, L. K., et al. (2008). Early intervention for adolescents with borderline personality disorder using cognitive analytic therapy: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 193(6),477–84. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.048934CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chanen, A. M. & McCutcheon, L. (2013). Prevention and early intervention for borderline personality disorder: Current status and recent evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S54),S24–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.119180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaplin, S. (2018). Consensus statement calls for better treatment for personality disorder. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry (Wiley). Available: https://www.progressnp.com/news/consensus-statement-calls-better-treatment-personality-disorder/ [Last accessed 11 February 2021].Google Scholar
Chartonas, D., Kyratsous, M., Dracass, S., Lee, T. & Bhui, K. (2017). Personality disorder: Still the patients psychiatrists dislike? BJPsych Bulletin, 41(1),1217. doi:10.1192/pb.bp.115.052456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C. & Stevenson, H. W. (1995). Motivation and mathematics achievement: A comparative study of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian high school students. Child Development, 66(4),1214–34. doi:10.2307/1131808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheung, F. M., Cheung, S. F., Leung, K., Ward, C. & Leong, F. (2003). The English Version of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(4),433–52. doi:10.1177/0022022103034004004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Church, A. T. (2016). Personality traits across cultures. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 2230. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.09.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Church, A. T. (2020). Culture and personality: Toward an integrated cultural trait psychology. Journal of Personality, 68(4),651703. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, L. A., Livesley, W. J. & Morey, L. (1997). Special feature: Personality disorder assessment: The challenge of construct validity. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11(3),205–31. doi:10.1521/pedi.1997.11.3.205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, L. A., Nuzum, H. & Ro, E. (2018). Manifestations of personality impairment severity: Comorbidity, course/prognosis, psychosocial dysfunction, and ‘borderline’ personality features. Current Opinion in Psychology, 21, 117–21. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.12.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F. & Kernberg, O. F. (2007). Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: A multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(6),922–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.922CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarkin, J. F., Yeomans, F. E. & Kernberg, O. E. (1999). Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality, New York, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Cleckley, H. M. (1941). The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Reinterpret the So-Called Psychopathic Personality (1st ed.), St Louis, MO, Mosby.Google Scholar
Cleckley, H. M. (1988). The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues around the So-Called Psychopathic Personality (5th ed.), Augusta, Emily S. Cleckley.Google Scholar
Cohen, B. J., Nestadt, G., Samuels, J. F., Romanoski, A. J., Mchugh, P. R. & Rabins, P. V. (1994). Personality disorder in later life: A community study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165(4),493–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.165.4.493CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coid, J., Yang, M., Tyrer, P., Roberts, A. & Ullrich, S. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in Great Britain. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(5),423–31. doi:10.1192/bjp.188.5.423CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Compton, W. M., 3rd., Helzer, J. E., Hwu, H. G., et al. (1991). New methods in cross-cultural psychiatry: Psychiatric illness in Taiwan and the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(12),1697–704. doi:10.1176/ajp.148.12.1697Google ScholarPubMed
Conway, C. C., Hammen, C. & Brennan, P. A. (2016). Optimizing prediction of psychosocial and clinical outcomes with a transdiagnostic model of personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(4),545–66. doi:10.1521/pedi_2015_29_218CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooke, D. J. (1996). Psychopathic personality in different cultures: What do we know? What do we need to find out? Journal of Personality Disorders, 10(1),2340. doi:10.1521/pedi.1996.10.1.23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, M. J., Koldobsky, N., Mulder, R. T. & Tyrer, P. (2011). Classifying personality disorder according to severity. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3),321–30. doi:10.1521/pedi.2011.25.3.321CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crawford, M. J., Sanatinia, R., Barrett, B., et al. (2018). The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lamotrigine in borderline personality disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(8),756–64. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17091006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crawford, M. J., Thana, L., Parker, J., et al. (2020). Structured Psychological Support for people with personality disorder: Feasibility randomised controlled trial of a low-intensity intervention. BJPsych Open, 6(2), e25. doi:10.1192/bjo.2020.7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cristea, I. A., Gentili, C., Cotet, C. D., Palomba, D., Barbui, C. & Cuijpers, P. (2017). Efficacy of psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(4),319–28. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.4287Google ScholarPubMed
Dahl, A. A. (1986). Some aspects of the DSM-III personality disorders illustrated by a consecutive sample of hospitalized patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 73, 61–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1986.tb10526.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, K. (2007). Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Guide for Clinicians, London, Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, K., Norrie, J., Tyrer, P., et al. (2006). The effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: Results from the borderline personality disorder study of cognitive therapy (BOSCOT) trial. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20(5),450–65. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.5.450CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, K. M., Tyrer, P., Norrie, J., Palmer, S. J. & Tyrer, H. (2010). Cognitive therapy v. usual treatment for borderline personality disorder: Prospective 6-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(6),456–62. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074286CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, K. M., Tyrer, P., Tata, P., et al. (2009). Cognitive behaviour therapy for violent men with antisocial personality disorder in the community: An exploratory randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 39(4),569–77. doi:10.1017/S0033291708004066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Aquino Ferreira, L. F., Queiroz Pereira, F. H., Neri Benevides, A. & Aguiar Melo, M. C. (2018). Borderline personality disorder and sexual abuse: A systematic review. Psychiatry Research, 262, 70–7. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2018.01.043CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Fruyt, F. & De Clercq, B. (2014). Antecedents of personality disorder in childhood and adolescence: Toward an integrative developmental model. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 449476. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Distel, M. A., Carlier, A., Middeldorp, C. M., Derom, C. A., Lubke, G. H. & Boomsma, D. I. (2011). Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, 156(7),817–25. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Lacy, N. & King, B. H. (2013). Revisiting the relationship between autism and schizophrenia: Toward an integrated neurobiology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 555587.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doering, S., Horz, S., Rentrop, M., et al. (2010). Transference-focused psychotherapy v. treatment by community psychotherapists for borderline personality disorder: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(5),389–95. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.070177CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowson, J. H. & Berrios, G. E. (1991). Factor structure of DSM-III-R personality disorders shown by self-report questionnaire: Implications for classifying and assessing personality disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84(6),555–60. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1991.tb03194.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drake, M. M., Morris, M. & Davis, T. J. (2017). Neuroticism’s susceptibility to distress: Moderated with mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 248–52. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duggan, C., Sham, P., Lee, A. & Minne, C. (1996). Neuroticism: A vulnerability marker for depression evidence from a family study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 35, 139–43.Google Scholar
Duggan, C., Huband, N., Smailagic, N., Ferriter, M. & Adams, C. (2008). The use of pharmacological treatments for people with personality disorder: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Personality and Mental Health, 2(3),119–70. doi:10.1002/pmh.41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duggan, C., Parry, G., Mcmurran, M., Davidson, K. & Dennis, J. (2014). The recording of adverse events from psychological treatments in clinical trials: Evidence from a review of NIHR-funded trials. Trials, 15, 335. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-335CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eagles, J. (2017). Starting to Shrink, London, Austin Macauley.Google Scholar
Eaton, N. R. & Greene, A. L. (2018). Personality disorders: Community prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. Current Opinion in Psychology, 21, 2832. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.09.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ekselius, L., Lindström, E., Von Knorring, L., Bodlund, O. & Kullgren, G. (1994). SCID II interviews and the SCID Screen questionnaire as diagnostic tools for personality disorders in DSM-III-R. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90(2),120–3. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb01566.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Benner, A., Kuipers, A., Feiertag, G. A., Koster, H. C. & Van Apeldoorn, F. J. (2006). Comparison of brief dynamic and cognitive-behavioural therapies in avoidant personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189(1),60–4. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.012153CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emmelkamp, P. M. G. & Meyerbröker, K. (2020). Personality Disorders (2nd ed.), London, Psychological Press.Google Scholar
Engels, G. I., Duijsens, I. J., Haringsma, R. & Van Putten, C. M. (2003). Personality disorders in the elderly compared to four younger age groups: A cross-sectional study of community residents and mental health patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17(5),447–59. doi:10.1521/pedi.17.5.447.22971CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
English, T. & Chen, S. (2011). Self-concept consistency and culture: The differential impact of two forms of consistency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6),838–49. doi:10.1177/0146167211400621CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eurelings-Bontekoe, E. H., Van Dam, A., Luyten, P., et al. (2009). Structural personality organization as assessed with theory driven profile interpretation of the Dutch short form of the MMPI predicts dropout and treatment response in brief cognitive behavioral group therapy for axis I disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(5),439452. doi:10.1080/00223890903087927CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eysenck, H. J. (1970). The classification of depressive illnesses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117(538),241–50. doi:10.1192/S0007125000193195CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eysenck, H. J. & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, London, Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
Fabrega, H., Jr. (1994). Personality disorders as medical entities: A cultural interpretation. Journal of Personality Disorders, 8(2),149–67. doi:10.1521/pedi.1994.8.2.149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faiad, Y., Khoury, B., Daouk, S., et al. (2018). Frequency of use of the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 diagnostic categories for mental and behavioural disorders across world regions. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 27, 568–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farstad, S. M., McGeown, L. M. & Von Ranson, K. M. (2016). Eating disorders and personality, 2004–2016: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 91105. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fava, M., Bouffides, E., Pava, J. A., McCarthy, M. K., Steingard, R. J. & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1994). Personality disorder comorbidity with major depression and response to fluoxetine treatment. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 62(3–4),160–7. doi:10.1159/000288918CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feinstein, A. R. (1970). The pre-therapeutic classification of co-morbidity in chronic disease. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 23(7),455–68. doi:10.1016/0021-9681(70)90054-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferguson, E. (2013). Personality is of central concern to understand health: Towards a theoretical model for health psychology. Health Psychology Review, 7(Suppl 1), S3270. doi:10.1080/17437199.2010.547985CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fischer, C. T. & Finn, S. E. (2008). Developing the life meaning of psychological test data: Collaborative and therapeutic approaches. In Archer, R. P. & Smith, S. R. (eds.) Personality Assessment. New York, Routledge.Google Scholar
Fok, M., Hayes, R. D., Chang, C. K., Stewart, R., Callard, F. J. & Moran, P. (2012). Life expectancy at birth and all-cause mortality among people with personality disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 73(2),104–7. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.05.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fok, M., Hotopf, M., Stewart, R., Hatch, S., Hayes, R. & Moran, P. (2014). Personality disorder and self-rated health: A population-based cross-sectional survey. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(3),319–33. doi:10.1521/pedi_2013_27_119CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulds, J. A., Boden, J. M., Newton‐Howes, G. M., Mulder, R. T. & Horwood, L. J. (2017). The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder outcomes in early adulthood. Addiction, 112(9),1629–37. doi:10.1111/add.13838CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulkes, S. H. (1946). Group analysis in a military neurosis centre. Lancet, 247(6392),303–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frances, A. (2013). Saving Normal: An Insider’s Revolt against Out-of-Control Psychiatric Diagnosis, DSM-5, Big Pharma, and the Medicalization of Ordinary Life, New York, William Morrow.Google Scholar
Freeman, C. (1988). Personality disorders. In Kendell, R. E. & Zealley, A. K. (eds.) Companion Guide to Psychiatric Studies. 4th ed. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1916; republished 1963). Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Parts I and II) (1915–1916). In Strachey, J., Freud, A., Strachey, A. & Tyson, A. (eds.) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London, Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1925). On narcissism: An introduction (1914). In Strachey, J. (ed.) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London, Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Friborg, O., Martinsen, E. W., Martinussen, M., Kaiser, S., Øvergård, K. T. & Rosenvinge, J. H. (2014). Comorbidity of personality disorders in mood disorders: A meta-analytic review of 122 studies from 1988 to 2010. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152–154, 111. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.08.023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friborg, O., Martinussen, M., Kaiser, S., Øvergård, K. T. & Rosenvinge, J. H. (2013). Comorbidity of personality disorders in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of 30 years of research. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145(2),143–55. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.07.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, H. S. & Booth-Kewley, S. (1987). The ‘disease-prone personality’. A meta-analytic view of the construct. The American Psychologist, 42(6),539–55. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.42.6.539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, H. S. & Kern, M. L. (2014). Personality, well-being, and health. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1),719–42. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frost, R., Hyland, P., Shevlin, M. & Murphy, J. (2020). Distinguishing complex PTSD from borderline personality disorder among individuals with a history of sexual trauma: A latent class analysis. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 4(1),100080. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.08.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fry, S. (2018). Foreword. In Tyrer, P. (ed.) Taming the Beast Within: Shredding the Stereotypes of Personality Disorder. London, Sheldon Press.Google Scholar
Fyer, M. R., Frances, A. J., Sullivan, T., Hurt, S. W. & Clarkin, J. (1988). Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45(4),348–52. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800280060008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galen (2019). De Temperamentis. Edited and translated by P. N. Singer, P. J van der Eijk & P. Tassinari. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gardiner, C., Tsukagoshi, S., Nur, U. & Tyrer, P. (2010). Associations of treatment resisting (Type R) and treatment seeking (Type S) personalities in medical students. Personality and Mental Health, 4(2),5963. doi:10.1002/pmh.106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gask, L. (2015). The Other Side of Silence: A Psychiatrist’s Memoir of Depression, Chichester, UK, Vie Books (Summersdale).Google Scholar
Gask, L. (4 March 2016). Borderline Traits. Patching the Soul [Online]. Available from: https://lindagask.com/2016/03/04/borderline-traits/ [Accessed 12 February 2021].Google Scholar
Gaudio, S. & Dakanalis, A. (2018). Personality and eating and weight disorders: An open research challenge. Eating and Weight Disorders, 23(2),143–7. doi:10.1007/s40519-017-0463-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giesen-Bloo, J., Van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, , et al. (2006). Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6),649–58. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.6.649CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, P. (2014). The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(1),641. doi:0.1111/bjc.12043CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, P. & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(6),353–79. doi:10.1002/cpp.507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goddard, E., Wingrove, J. & Moran, P. (2015). The impact of comorbid personality difficulties on response to IAPT treatment for depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 73, 17. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2015.07.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomez, R. & Corr, P. J. (2014). ADHD and personality: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(5),376–88. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2014.05.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gordon, R. M., Spektor, V. & Luu, L. (2019). Personality organization traits and expected countertransference and treatment interventions. International Journal of Psychology and Psychoanalysis, 5(1),17. doi:10.23937/2572-4037.1510039Google Scholar
Graham, E. K., Rutsohn, J. P., Turiano, N. A., et al. (2017). Personality predicts mortality risk: An integrative data analysis of 15 international longitudinal studies. Journal of Research in Personality, 70, 174–86. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2017.07.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., et al. (2004). Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(7),948–58. doi:10.4088/jcp.v65n0711Google ScholarPubMed
Griggs, S. M. & Tyrer, P. J. (1981). Personality disorder, social adjustment and treatment outcome in alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42(9),802–5. doi:10.15288/jsa.1981.42.802CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grinker, R. R., Werble, B. & Drye, R. C. (1968). The Borderline Syndrome: A Behavioral Study of Ego-Functions, New York, Basic Books.Google Scholar
Grounds, A. & Gordon, H. (2007). In conversation with John Gunn. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31(1),25–8. doi:10.1192/pb.31.1.25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunderson, J., Masland, S. & Choi-Kain, L. (2018). Good psychiatric management: A review. Current Opinion in Psychology, 21, 127–31. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.12.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunderson, J. G. & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2008). BPD’s interpersonal hypersensitivity phenotype: A gene-environment-developmental model. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(1),2241. doi:10.1521/pedi.2008.22.1.22CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunderson, J. G. & Singer, M. T. (1975). Defining borderline patients: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132(1),110. doi:10.1176/ajp.132.1.1Google ScholarPubMed
Gunderson, J. G., Stout, R. L., Mcglashan, T. H., et al. (2011). Ten-year course of borderline personality disorder: Psychopathology and function from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(8),827–37. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.37CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunderson, J. G. & Zanarini, M. C. (2011). Deceptively simple – or radical shift? [Commentary]. Personality and Mental Health, 5(4),260–2. doi:10.1002/pmh.181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurven, M., Von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H. & Lero Vie, M. (2013). How universal is the Big Five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2),354–70. doi:10.1037/a0030841CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gutiérrez, F., Aluja, A., Peri, J. M., et al. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Spanish PID-5 in a clinical and a community sample. Assessment, 24(3),326–36. doi:10.1177/1073191115606518Google Scholar
Gutiérrez, F., Ruiz, J., Peri, J. M., Gárriz, M., Vall, G. & Cavero, M. (2019). Toward an integrated model of pathological personality traits: Common hierarchical structure of the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ. Journal of Personality Disorders, 1-S18. doi:10.1521/pedi_2019_33_431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haigh, R. & Pearce, S. (2017). The Theory and Practice of Democratic Therapeutic Community Treatment, London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
Hall, K., Barnicot, K., Crawford, M. & Moran, P. (2019). A systematic review of interventions aimed at improving the cardiovascular health of people diagnosed with personality disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54(8),897904. doi:10.1007/s00127-019-01705-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hansen, S. J., Christensen, S., Kongerslev, M. T., et al. (2019). Mental health professionals’ perceived clinical utility of the ICD‐10 vs. ICD‐11 classification of personality disorders. Personality and Mental Health, 13(2),8495. doi:doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1442CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hare, R. D. (2003). The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (2nd ed.), Toronto, Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
Harkness, A. R. & McNulty, J. L. (2006). An overview of personality: The MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales. In Butcher, J. N. (ed.) MMPI-2: A Practitioner’s Guide. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and the new behavior therapies: Mindfulness, acceptance, and relationship. In Hayes, S. C., Follette, V. M. & Linehan, M. M. (eds.) Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition. New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A. & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1),125. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henderson, D. K. (1939). Psychopathic States, New York, W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Henderson, D. K. & Gillespie, R. D. (1927). A Text-Book of Psychiatry for Students and Practitioners (1st ed.), Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Henry, D., Geary, D. & Tyrer, P. (1993). Adolf Hitler: A re-assessment of his personality status. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 10(3),148–51. doi:10.1017/S0790966700012593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herpertz, S. C., Huprich, S. K., Bohus, M., et al. (2017). The challenge of transforming the diagnostic system of personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 31(5),577–89. doi:10.1521/pedi_2017_31_338CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herpertz, S. C., Zanarini, M., Schulz, C. S., et al. (2007). World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for biological treatment of personality disorders.World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 8(4),212–44. doi:10.1080/15622970701685224CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hershberger, A. R., Um, M. & Cyders, M. A. (2017). The relationship between the UPPS-P impulsive personality traits and substance use psychotherapy outcomes: A meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 178, 408–16. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.032CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffmann, D., Rask, C. U., Hedman-Lagerlöf, E., Jensen, J. S. & Frostholm, L. (2020). Efficacy of internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for severe health anxiety: Results from a randomized, controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 111. doi:10.1017/S0033291720001312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofmann, S. G., Anu Asnaani, M. A. & Hinton, D. E. (2010). Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 27(12),1117–27. doi:10.1002/da.20759CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopwood, C. J., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., et al. (2018). The time has come for dimensional personality disorder diagnosis. Personality and Mental Health, 12(1),82–6. doi:10.1002/pmh.1408CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopwood, C. J., Morey, L. C., Donnellan, M. B., et al. (2013). Ten-year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality, 81(3),335–44. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00801.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
House, A. (15 September 2019a). Geoffrey Boycott and domestic abuse: A footnote on the psychiatric “evidence”. Available from: https://profallanhouse.co.uk/geoffrey-boycott-and-domestic-abuse/ [Accessed 21 January 2021].Google Scholar
House, A. (2019b). Understanding and Responding to Self-Harm: The One-Stop Guide: Practical Advice for Anybody Affected by Self-Harm, London, Profile Books.Google Scholar
Høye, A., Jacobsen, B. K. & Hansen, V. (2013). Sex differences in mortality of admitted patients with personality disorders in North Norway: A prospective register study. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 317. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-317CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, Y., Kotov, R., De Girolamo, G., et al. (2009). DSM-IV personality disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(1),4653. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.058552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huband, N., McMurran, M., Evans, C. & Duggan, C. (2007). Social problem-solving plus psychoeducation for adults with personality disorder: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(4),307–13. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.106.023341CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hunt, C. & Andrews, G. (1992). Measuring personality disorder: The use of self-report questionnaires. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6(2),125–33. doi:10.1521/pedi.1992.6.2.125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huxley, E., Lewis, K. L., Coates, A. D., et al. (2019). Evaluation of a brief intervention within a stepped care whole of service model for personality disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 19, 341. doi:10.1186/s12888-019-2308-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, H. J. & Burgess, P. M. (2004). Personality disorders in the community: Results from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being Part III. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(10)765–76. doi:10.1007/s00127-004-0821-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology, New York, Henry Holt.Google Scholar
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C. & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1),166–75. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.166CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jilek-Aall, L. (1988). Suicidal behaviour among youth: A cross-cultural comparison. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 25(2),87105. doi:10.1177%2F136346158802500201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, F. (1985). The Western concept of self. In Marsella, A. J., De Vos, G. A. & Hsu, F. L. K. (eds.) Culture and Self: Asian and Western Perspectives. London, Tavistock.Google Scholar
Johnson, T. (1998). Clinical trials in psychiatry: Background and statistical perspective. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 7(3),209–34. doi:10.1177/096228029800700302CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jokela, M., Batty, G. D., Nyberg, S. T., et al. (2013). Personality and all-cause mortality: Individual-participant meta-analysis of 3,947 deaths in 76,150 adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 178(5),667–75. doi:10.1093/aje/kwt170CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, M. (1968). Beyond the Therapeutic Community: Social Learning and Social Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Jowett, S., Karatzias, T., Shevlin, M. & Albert, I. (2020). Differentiating symptom profiles of ICD-11 PTSD, complex PTSD, and borderline personality disorder: A latent class analysis in a multiply traumatized sample. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 11(1),3645. doi:10.1037/per0000346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaess, M., Brunner, R. & Chanen, A. (2014). Borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Pediatrics, 134(4),782–93. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3677CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karukivi, M., Vahlberg, T., Horjamo, K., Nevalainen, M. & Korkeila, J. (2017). Clinical importance of personality difficulties: Diagnostically sub-threshold personality disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1),16. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1200-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendall, T., Burbeck, R. & Bateman, A. (2010). Pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder: NICE guideline. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(2),158–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.196.2.158CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R. E. (1991). The major functional psychoses: Are they independent entities or part of a continuum? Philosophical and conceptual issues underlying the debate. In Kerr, A. & Mcclelland, H. (eds.) Concepts of Mental Disorder: A Continuing Debate. London, Gaskell/Royal College of Psychiatrists.Google Scholar
Kendell, R. E. (2002). The distinction between personality disorder and mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(2),110–15. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.2.110CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1993). A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(11),853–62. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820230023002Google ScholarPubMed
Kerber, A., Schultze, M., MüLler, S., et al. (2020). Development of a short and ICD-11 compatible measure for DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits using ant colony optimization algorithms. Psychological Assessment, doi:10.31234/osf.io/rsw54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kernberg, O. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15(3),641–85. doi:10.1177/000306516701500309CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Mcgonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(1),819. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khalifa, N., Duggan, C., Stoffers, J., et al. (2010). Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8), CD007667. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007667.pub2Google Scholar
Kim, J. J., Rapee, R. M., Oh, K. J. & Moon, H.-S. (2008). Retrospective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustment in young adulthood: Cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students. Journal of Adolescence, 31(5),543–63. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.10.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, Y. R., Tyrer, P. & Hwang, S. T. (2021). Personality Assessment Questionnaire for ICD‐11 personality trait domains: Development and testing. Personality and Mental Health, 10,5871. doi:10.1002/pmh.1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Y. R., Tyrer, P., Lee, H.-S., et al. (2015). Preliminary field trial of a putative research algorithm for diagnosing ICD-11 personality disorders in psychiatric patients: 2. Proposed trait domains. Personality and Mental Health, 9(4),298307. doi:10.1002/pmh.1305CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knight, R. P. (1953). Borderline states. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 17,112.Google ScholarPubMed
Köck, P. & Walter, M. (2018). Personality disorder and substance use disorder – An update. Mental Health & Prevention, 12, 82–9. doi:10.1016/j.mhp.2018.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koehler, J. A., Lösel, F., Akoensi, T. D. & Humphreys, D. K. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of young offender treatment programs in Europe. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(1),1943. doi:10.1007/s11292-012-9159-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koelen, J. A., Luyten, P., Eurelings-Bontekoe, L. H. M., et al. (2012). The impact of level of personality organization on treatment response: A systematic review. Psychiatry and Clincal Neuroscience, 75(4),355–74. doi:10.1521/psyc.2012.75.4.355Google ScholarPubMed
Koenigsberg, H. W., Kernberg, O. F. & Schomer, J. (1983). Diagnosing borderline conditions in an outpatient setting. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(1),4953. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790010051005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kool, S., Dekker, J., Duijsens, I. J., De Jonghe, F. & Puite, B. (2003). Changes in personality pathology after pharmacotherapy and combined therapy for depressed patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17(1),6072. doi:10.1521/pedi.17.1.60.24058CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., et al. (2021). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A quantitative nosology based on consensus of evidence. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 17, 83108. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-081219-093304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraepelin, E. (1909–15). Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studirende und Aerzte (8th ed.), Leipzig, Barth.Google Scholar
Krasnova, A., Eaton, W. W. & Samuels, J. F. (2019). Antisocial personality and risks of cause-specific mortality: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study with 27 years of follow-up. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54(5),617–25. doi:10.1007/s00127-018-1628-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kretschmer, E. (1922) Körperbau und Charakter. Berlin, Springer.Google Scholar
Kroll, J., Sines, L., Martin, K., Lari, S., ., Pyle, R. & Zander, J. (1981). Borderline personality disorder: Construct validity of the concept. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(9),1021–6. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780340073009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kulkarni, J. (2017). Complex PTSD – a better description for borderline personality disorder? Australasian Psychiatry, 25(4),333–5. doi:10.1177/1039856217700284CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laporte, L., Paris, J., Bergevin, T., Fraser, R. & Cardin, J. F. (2018). Clinical outcomes of a stepped care program for borderline personality disorder. Personality and Mental Health, 12(3),252–64. doi:10.1002/pmh.1421CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laurenssen, E., Luyten, P., Kikkert, M. J., et al. (2018). Day hospital mentalization-based treatment v. specialist treatment as usual in patients with borderline personality disorder: Randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 48(15),2522–9. doi:10.1017/S0033291718000132CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, C. K., Kwak, Y. S., Rhee, H., et al. (1987). The nationwide epidemiological study of mental disorders in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 2(1),1934. doi:10.3346/jkms.1987.2.1.19CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, S. H. & Oh, K. S. (1999). Offensive type of social phobia: Cross-cultural perspectives. International Medical Journal, 6(4),271–80.Google Scholar
Lejuez, C. W. & Gratz, K. L. (eds.) (2020). The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Disorders, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lejuez, C. W., Hopko, D. R., Acierno, R., Daughters, S. B. & Pagoto, S. L. (2011). Ten year revision of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: Revised treatment manual. Behavior Modification, 35(2),111–61. doi:10.1177/0145445510390929CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lester, R., Prescott, L., Mccormack, M., Sampson, M. & North West Boroughs Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust (2020). Service users’ experiences of receiving a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder: A systematic review. Personality and Mental Health, 14 (3),263–83. doi:10.1002/pmh.1478CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, K. N., Mcmain, S., Bateman, A. & Clouthier, T. (2018). Treatment of borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 41(4),711–28. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2018.07.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, G. & Appleby, L. (1988). Personality disorder: The patients psychiatrists dislike. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 44–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.153.1.44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, J.-B., Vazsonyi, A. T. & Dou, K. (2018). Is individualism-collectivism associated with self-control? Evidence from Chinese and US samples. PLOS One, 13(12), e0208541. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lieb, K., Völlm, B., Rücker, G., Timmer, A. & Stoffers, J. M. (2010). Pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Cochrane systematic review of randomised trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(1),412. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.062984CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lier, H. Ø., Biringer, E., Stubhaug, B., Eriksen, H. R. & Tangen, T. (2011). Psychiatric disorders and participation in pre- and postoperative counselling groups in bariatric surgery patients. Obesity Surgery, 21(6),730–7. doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0146-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linehan, M. M. (1987a). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Theory and method. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 51(3),261–76.Google ScholarPubMed
Linehan, M. M. (1987b). Dialectical behavioral therapy: A cognitive behavioral approach to parasuicide. Journal of Personality Disorders, 1(4),328–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive Behaviural Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder, New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Linehan, M. M. (2019). How Marsha Linehan Developed the Central Feature of Dialectical Behavior Therapy. A descent into despair led to the birth of dialectical behavior therapy [Online]. Psychology Today. Available: https://www.psychologytoday.com/nz/articles/201912/how-marsha-linehan-developed-the-central-feature-dialectical-behavior-therapy [Accessed 10 February 2021].Google Scholar
Linehan, M. M., Armstrong, H. E., Suarez, A., Allmon, D. & Heard, H. L. (1991). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(12),1060–4. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810360024003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linehan, M. M. & Dexter-Mazza, E. T. (2008). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. In Barlow, D. H. (ed.) Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual. 4th ed. New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Linehan, M. M., Dimeff, L. A., Reynolds, S. K., et al. (2002). Dialectical behavior therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 67(1),1326. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(02)00011-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livesley, W. J. (2003). Practical Management of Personality Disorder, New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Livesley, W. J. (2021). Why is an evidence‐based classification of personality disorder so elusive? Personality and Mental Health, 15(1),8–25. doi:10.1002/pmh.1471CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livesley, W. J. & Larstone, R. (eds.) (2018). Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, (2nd), New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Livesley, W. J., Schroeder, M. L., Jackson, D. N. & Jang, K. L. (1994). Categorical distinctions in the study of personality disorder: Implications for classification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(1),617. doi:10.1037//0021-843x.103.1.6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Löckenhoff, C. E., Chan, W., McCrae, R. R., et al. (2014). Gender stereotypes of personality: Universal and accurate? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(5),675–94. doi:10.1177/0022022113520075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loranger, A. W. (1999). The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Loranger, A. W., Sartorius, N., Andreoli, A., et al. (1994). The International Personality Disorder Examination. The World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration international pilot study of personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(3),215–24. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950030051005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lotfi, M., Bach, B., Amini, M. & Simonsen, E. (2018). Structure of DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality domains in Iranian community sample. Personality and Mental Health, 12(2),155–69. doi:10.1002/pmh.1409CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynch, T. R., Hempel, R. J. & Dunkley, C. (2015). Radically open-dialectical behavior therapy for disorders of over-control: Signaling matters. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 69(2),141–62. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2015.69.2.141CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macdonald, K. (1998). Evolution, culture, and the five-factor model. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(1),119–49. doi:10.1177%2F0022022198291007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mack, J. E. (1975). Borderline states: An historical perspective. In Mack, J. E. (ed.) Borderline States in Psychiatry. New York, Grune & Stratton Inc.Google Scholar
Main, T. F. (1946). The hospital as a therapeutic institution. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 10, 6670.Google ScholarPubMed
Makris, N., Oscar-Berman, M., Jaffin, S. K., et al. (2008). Decreased volume of the brain reward system in alcoholism. Biological Psychiatry, 64(3),192202. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.01.018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bonagura, N., Malloy, P., Giampino, T. L. & Addalli, K. A. (1991). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: V. Replication of psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(1),7783. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810250079012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. F. & Watson, D. (2005). Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: An integrative hierarchical approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1),139–57. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.139CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2),224–53. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinussen, M., Friborg, O., Schmierer, P., et al. (2017). The comorbidity of personality disorders in eating disorders: A meta-analysis. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22, 201–9. doi:10.1007/s40519-016-0345-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matthews, G., Deary, I. J. & Whiteman, M. C. (2009). Personality Traits (3rd ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthies, S. & Philipsen, A. (2016). Comorbidity of personality disorders and adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – Review of recent findings. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(4),33. doi:10.1007/s11920-016-0675-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maudsley, H. (1868). The Physiology and Pathology of Mind (2nd ed.), London, Macmillan.Google Scholar
McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1984). Emerging Lives, Enduring Dispositions: Personality in Adulthood, Boston, MA, Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
McCrae, R. R., Yik, M. S., Trapnell, P. D., Bond, M. H. & Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(4),1041–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGilloway, A., Hall, R. E., Lee, T. & Bhui, K. S. (2010). A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: Prevalence, aetiology and treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 33. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMurran, M. (2020). Outcomes. In Ramsden, J., Prince, S. & Blazdell, J. (eds.) Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’: Contemporary and Critical Approaches to Clinical and Organizational Practice. London, Luminate (Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd).Google Scholar
McMurran, M., Crawford, M. J., Reilly, J. G., et al. (2011). Psycho-education with problem solving (PEPS) therapy for adults with personality disorder: A pragmatic multi-site community-based randomised clinical trial. Trials, 12, 198. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-198CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMurran, M., Crawford, M. J., Reilly, J., et al. (2016). Psychoeducation with problem- solving (PEPS) therapy for adults with personality disorder: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a manualised intervention to improve social functioning. Health Technology Assessment, 20(52),1250. doi:10.3310/hta20520CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMurran, M., Day, F., Reilly, J., et al. (2017). Psychoeducation and problem solving (PEPS) therapy for adults with personality disorder: A pragmatic randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Personality Disorders, 31(6),810–26. doi:10.1521/pedi_2017_31_286CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer, A. (1950). The Collected Papers of Adolf Meyer, Balitmore, MD, Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
Miller, T. Q., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Guijarro, M. L. & Hallet, A. J. (1996). A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2),322–48. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.322CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, T. W. & Kraus, R. F. (2007). Modified dialectical behavior therapy and problem solving for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 37(2),7985. doi:10.1007/s10879-006-9039-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millon, T. (1987). On the genesis and prevalence of borderline personality disorders: A social learning thesis. Journal of Personality Disorders, 1(4),354–72. doi:10.1521/pedi.1987.1.4.354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mills, J. & Clark, M. S. (1982). Exchange and communal relationships. In Wheeler, L. (ed.) Review of Personality and Social Psychology. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage.Google Scholar
MIND. (2018). ‘Shining lights in dark corners of people’s lives’ The Consensus Statement for People with Complex Mental Health Difficulties who are diagnosed with a Personality Disorder. Available: www.mind.org.uk/media-a/4408/consensus-statement-final.pdf.Google Scholar
MIND. (2020). Personality disorders [Online]. MIND. Available: www.mind.Org.Uk/Information-Support/Types-Of-Mental-Health-Problems/Personality-Disorders/Why-Is-It-Controversial/ [Accessed November 18 2020].Google Scholar
Minkov, M., Dutt, P., Schachner, M., et al. (2017). A revision of Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension A new national index from a 56-country study. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(3),386404. doi:10.1108/CCSM-11-2016-0197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moos, R. H. & Solomon, G. F. (1965). Psychologic comparisons between women with rheumatoid arthritis and their nonarthritic sisters. I. Personality test and interview rating data. Psychosomatic Medicine, 27, 135–49. doi:10.1097/00006842-196503000-00006Google ScholarPubMed
Moran, P., Leese, M., Lee, T., Walters, P., Thornicroft, G. & Mann, A. (2003). Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS): Preliminary validation of a brief screen for personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(3),228–32. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.3.228CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, P., Rendu, A., Jenkins, R., Tylee, A. & Mann, A. (2001). The impact of personality disorder in UK primary care: A 1-year follow-up of attenders. Psychological Medicine, 31(8),1447–54. doi:10.1017/s003329170105450zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, P., Stewart, R., Brugha, T., et al. (2007). Personality disorder and cardiovascular disease: Results from a national household survey. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(1),6974. doi:10.4088/jcp.v68n0109CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mordekar, A. & Spence, S. (2008). Personality disorder in older people: How common is it and what can be done? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 14(1),71–7. doi:10.1192/apt.bp.107.003897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morel, B. A. (1852). Études cliniques: Traité, théorique et pratique des maladies mentales, Nancy, Grimblot.Google Scholar
Morey, L. C., Berghuis, H., Bender, D. S., Verheul, R., Krueger, R. F. & Skodol, A. E. (2011). Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM–5, Part II: Empirical articulation of a core dimension of personality pathology. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(4),347–53. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.577853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morey, L. C., Krueger, R. F. & Skodol, A. E. (2013). The hierarchical structure of clinician ratings of proposed DSM-5 pathological personality traits. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(3),836–41. doi:10.1037/a0034003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morey, L. C., Shea, M. T., Markowitz, J. C., et al. (2010). State effects of major depression on the assessment of personality and personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(5),528–35. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09071023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morton, J., Snowdon, S., Gopold, M. & Guymer, E. (2012). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group treatment for symptoms of borderline personality disorder: A public sector pilot study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19(4),527–44. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. T. (1992). Boundaries of psychiatry. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 35(3),443–59. doi:10.1353/pbm.1992.0027CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T. (2002). Personality pathology and treatment outcome in major depression: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(3),359–71. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.359CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T. (2004). Depression and personality disorder. In Joyce, P. R. & Mitchell, P. B. (eds.) Mood Disorders: Recognition and Treatment. Sydney, The University of New South Wales Press Ltd.Google Scholar
Mulder, R. T. (2008). An epidemic of depression or the medicalization of distress? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 51(2),238–50. doi:10.1353/pbm.0.0009Google ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T., Horwood, L. J. & Tyrer, P. (2020). The borderline pattern descriptor in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision: A redundant addition to classification. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 54(11),1095–100. doi:10.1177/0004867420951608CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T., Horwood, J., Tyrer, P., Carter, J. & Joyce, P. R. (2016). Validating the proposed ICD-11 domains. Personality and Mental Health, 10(2),8495. doi:10.1002/pmh.1336CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T., Joyce, P. R. & Luty, S. E. (2003). The relationship of personality disorders to treatment outcome in depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(3),259–64. doi:10.4088/jcp.v64n0306Google ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T., Murray, G. & Rucklidge, J. (2017). Common versus specific factors in psychotherapy: Opening the black box. Lancet Psychiatry, 4(12),953–62. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30100-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T., Newton-Howes, G., Crawford, M. J. & Tyrer, P. J. (2011). The central domains of personality pathology in psychiatric patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3),364–77. doi:10.1521/pedi.2011.25.3.364CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, R. T. & Tyrer, P. (2019). Diagnosis and classification of personality disorders: Novel approaches. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 32(1),2731. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000461CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Hopwood, C. J., Chmielewski, M., et al. (2020). Treatment of personality pathology through the lens of the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology: Developing a research agenda. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1),123–41. doi:10.1002/pmh.1464CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munjiza, J., Britvic, D. & Crawford, M. J. (2019). Lasting personality pathology following exposure to severe trauma in adulthood: Retrospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1),3. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1975-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, J. M. (1976). Psychiatric labeling in cross-cultural perspective. Science, 191(4231),1019–28. doi:10.1126/science.1251213CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nandi, D. N., Banerjee, G., Nandi, S. & Nandi, P. (1992). Is hysteria on the wane? A community survey in West Bengal, India. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1),8791. doi:10.1192/bjp.160.1.87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Health and Medical Research Council (2012). Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Borderline Personality Disorder, Melbourne, National Health and Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2009). Borderline Personality Disorder: Recognition and Management (NICE Clinical Guideline CG78). London, NICE.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2009; updated 2013). Antisocial Personality Disorder: Prevention and Management (NICE Clinical guideline CG77). London, NICE.Google Scholar
Neacsiu, A. D., Erberle, J. W., Keng, S.-L., Fang, C. M. & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2017). Understanding borderline personality disorder across sociocultural groups: Findings, issues, and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 13(3),188223. doi:10.2174/1573400513666170612122034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newton-Howes, G., Clark, L. A. & Chanen, A. (2015a). Personality disorder across the life course. Lancet, 385(9969),727–34. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61283-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G. & Foulds, J. (2018). Personality disorder and alcohol use disorder: An overview. Psychopathology, 51(2),130–36. doi:10.1159/000486602CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G. M., Foulds, J. A., Guy, N. H., Boden, J. M. & Mulder, R. T. (2017). Personality disorder and alcohol treatment outcome: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 211(1),2230. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.116.194720CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G. & Mulder, R. T. (2020). Treatment and management of personality disorder. In Geddes, J. R., Andreasen, N. C. & Goodwin, G. M. (eds.) New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. 3rd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Newton-Howes, G., Mulder, R. T. & Tyrer, P. (2015b). Diagnostic neglect: The potential impact of losing a separate axis for personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(5),355–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.155259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newton-Howes, G., Tyrer, P., Anagnostakis, K., et al. (2010). The prevalence of personality disorder, its comorbidity with mental state disorders, and its clinical significance in community mental health teams. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(4),453–60. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0084-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G., Tyrer, P., Johnson, T., et al. (2014). Influence of personality on the outcome of treatment in depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(4),577–93. doi:10.1521/pedi_2013_27_070CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G., Tyrer, P., North, B. & Yang, M. (2008a). The prevalence of personality disorder in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: Systematic review of rates and explanatory modelling. Psychological Medicine, 38(8),1075–82. doi:10.1017/S0033291707002036CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newton-Howes, G., Weaver, T. & Tyrer, P. (2008b). Attitudes of staff towards patients with personality disorder in community mental health teams. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42(7),572–7. doi:10.1080/00048670802119739CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ni, H. C. & Gau, S. S. (2015). Co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with other psychopathology in young adults: Parenting style as a moderator. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 57, 8596. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.11.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norasakkunkit, V. & Uchida, Y. (2014). To conform or to maintain self-consistency? Hikikomori risk in Japan and the deviation from seeking harmony. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 33(10),918–35. doi:10.1521/jscp.2014.33.10.918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nordentoft, M., Thorup, A., Petersen, L., et al. (2006). Transition rates from schizotypal disorder to psychotic disorder for first-contact patients included in the OPUS trial. A randomized clinical trial of integrated treatment and standard treatment. Schizophrenia Research, 83(1),2940. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Boyle, M. (1995). DSM-III-R and Eysenck personality measures among patients in a substance abuse programme. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4),561–5.Google Scholar
O’Neil, A., Jacka, F. N., Quirk, S. E., et al. (2015). A shared framework for the common mental disorders and non-communicable disease: Key considerations for disease prevention and control. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 15. doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0394-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olabi, B. & Hall, J. (2010). Borderline personality disorder: Current drug treatments and future prospects. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, 1(2),5966. doi:10.1177/2040622310368455CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olajide, K., Munjiza, J., Moran, P., et al. (2018). Development and psychometric properties of the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD). Journal of Personality Disorders, 32(1),4456. doi:10.1521/pedi_2017_31_285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oltmanns, J. R. & Widiger, T. A. (2018). A self-report measure for the ICD-11 dimensional trait model proposal: The personality inventory for ICD-11. Psychological Assessment, 30(2),154–69. doi:10.1037/pas0000459CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oltmanns, J. R. & Widiger, T. A. (2019). Evaluating the assessment of the ICD-11 personality disorder diagnostic system. Psychological Assessment, 31(5),674–84. doi:10.1037/pas0000693CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oltmanns, J. R. & Widiger, T. A. (2020). The Five-Factor Personality Inventory for ICD-11: A facet-level assessment of the ICD-11 trait model. Psychological Assessment, 32(1),6071. doi:10.1037/pas0000763CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oltmanns, T. F. & Balsis, S. (2011). Personality disorders in later life: Questions about the measurement, course, and impact of disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 321–49. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-090310-120435CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orwell, G. (1940). Charles Dickens. Inside the Whale and Other Essays. London, Victor Gollancz Ltd.Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M. & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1),372. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papamalis, F. E., Kalyva, E., Teare, M. D. & Meier, P. S. (2020). The role of personality functioning in drug misuse treatment engagement. Addiction, 115(4),726–39. doi:10.1111/add.14872CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. (1991). Personality disorders, parasuicide and culture. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 28(1),2539. doi:10.1177%2F136346159102800102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paris, J. (1994). The etiology of borderline personality disorder: A biopsychosocial approach. Psychiatry, 57(4),316–25. doi:10.1080/00332747.1994.11024696CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. (1998). Personality disorders in sociocultural perspective. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12(4),289301. doi:10.1521/pedi.1998.12.4.289CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. (2020). Access to psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders. Personality and Mental Health, 14(3),246–53. doi:10.1002/pmh.1483CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. & Lis, E. (2013). Can sociocultural and historical mechanisms influence the development of borderline personality disorder? Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(1),140–51. doi:10.1177/1363461512468105CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parsonage, M., Hard, E. & Rock, B. (2014). Managing Patients with Complex Needs: Evaluation of the City and Hackney Primary Care Psychotherapy Consultation Service, London, Centre for Mental Health.Google Scholar
Pascual, J. C., Malagón, A., Córcoles, D., et al. (2008). Immigrants and borderline personality disorder at a psychiatric emergency service. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193(6),471–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.038208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paykel, E. S. (1972). Depressive typologies and response to amitriptyline. British Journal of Psychiatry, 120(555),147–56. doi:10.1192/bjp.120.555.147CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peabody, F. W. (1927). The care of the patient. JAMA, 88(12),877–82. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02680380001001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, S. (2007). Knowledge of the effectiveness of treatments for borderline personality disorder is not yet sufficient to justify the lack of a control condition [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5),609. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.609-bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, S. & Haigh, R. (2008). Mini therapeutic communities – A new development in the United Kingdom. Therapeutic Communities, 29(2),111–24.Google Scholar
Pearce, S., Scott, L., Attwood, G., Saunders, K., et al. (2017). Democratic therapeutic community treatment for personality disorder: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210(2),149–56. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.116.184366CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pelizza, L. & Pupo, S. (2016). Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(8),1544–7. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.07.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peralta, V., Cuesta, M. J. & De Leon, J. (1991). Premorbid personality and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84(4),336–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1991.tb03156.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, J. C. & Klerman, G. L. (1978). The borderline patient. A comparative analysis of four sets of diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35(2),141–50. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770260019001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petursson, H. & Lader, M. H. (1981). Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 283(6292),643–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.283.6292.643CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pfohl, B., Coryell, W., Zimmerman, M. & Stangl, D. (1986). DSM-III personality disorders: Diagnostic overlap and internal consistency of individual DSM-III criteria. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27(1),2134. doi:10.1016/0010-440x(86)90066-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pilgrim, D. (2018). Taming the Beast Within: Shredding the Stereotypes of Personality Disorder, by Peter Tyrer [Book Review]. Available: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/books/review-taming-the-beast-within-peter-tyrer-sheldon-press].Google Scholar
Pinel, P. (1809). Traité médico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentale (2nd ed.), Paris, Chez J Ant Brosson.Google Scholar
Pope, H. G., Jonas, J. M., Hudson, J. I., Cohen, B. M. & Gunderson, J. G. (1983). The validity of DSM-III borderline personality disorder: A phenomenologic, family history, treatment response, and long-term follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(1),2330. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790010025003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Preston, N. (2015). Psychologically Informed Planned Environments (PIPEs): Empowering the institutionalised prisoner. Forensic Update, (117),714.Google Scholar
Prichard, J. C. (1837). A treatise on insanity and other diseases affecting the mind, Philadelphia, PA, Haswell, Barrington, and Haswell.Google Scholar
Quirk, S. E., El-Gabalawy, R., Brennan, S. L., et al. (2015). Personality disorders and physical comorbidities in adults from the United States: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 807–80. doi:10.1007/s00127-014-0974-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsden, J., Prince, S. & Blazdell, J. (eds.) (2020). Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’: Contemporary and Critical Approaches to Clinical and Organizational Practice, London, Luminate (Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd).Google Scholar
Ranger, M., Tyrer, P., Miloseska, K., et al. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of nidotherapy for comorbid personality disorder and severe mental illness: Randomized controlled trial. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 18(2),128–36. doi:10.1017/S1121189X00001019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rapoport, R. N. (1960). Community as Doctor: New Perspectives on a Therapeutic Community, London, Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
Reich, J., Schatzberg, A. & Delucchi, K. (2018). Empirical evidence of the effect of personality pathology on the outcome of panic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 107, 42–7. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.10.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ring, D. & Lawn, S. (2019). Stigma perpetuation at the interface of mental health care: A review to compare patient and clinician perspectives of stigma and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Mental Health, 121. doi:10.1080/09638237.2019.1581337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, B. W. & Delvecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126(1),325. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.1.3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W., Hill, P. L. & Davis, J. P. (2017a). How to change conscientiousness: The sociogenomic trait intervention model. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 8(3),199205. doi:10.1037/per0000242CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W., Luo, J., Briley, D. A., Chow, P. I., Su, R. & Hill, P. L. (2017b). A systematic review of personality trait change through intervention. Psychological Bulletin, 143(2),117–41. doi:10.1037/bul0000088CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, B. W. & Robins, R. W. (2004). Person-Environment Fit and its implications for personality development: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality, 72(1),89110. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00257.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robin, A. (1976). Rationing out-patients: A defence of the waiting list. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129(2),138–41. doi:10.1192/bjp.129.2.138CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant Children Grown Up: A Sociological and Psychiatric Study of Sociopathic Personality, Baltimore, MD, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
Ronningstam, E. (2010). Narcissistic personality disorder: A current review. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12(1),6875. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0084-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenström, T., Torvik, F. A., Ystrom, E., et al. (2018). Prediction of alcohol use disorder using personality disorder traits: A twin study. Addiction, 113(1),1524. doi:10.1111/add.13951CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossier, J. & Rigozzi, C. (2008). Personality disorders and the five-factor model among French speakers in Africa and Europe. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(8),534–44. doi:10.1177%2F070674370805300808CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Royal College of Psychiatrists (2020). Services for people diagnosable with personality disorder [Position Statement PS01/20]. London, Royal College of Psychiatrists.Google Scholar
Rutter, M. & Smith, D. J. (eds.) (1995). Psychosocial Disorders in Young People. Time Trends and Their Causes, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Ryle, A. (ed.) (1997). Cognitive Analytic Therapy and Borderline Personality Disorder: The Model and the Method, Chichester, Wiley.Google Scholar
Ryle, A. (2004). The contribution of cognitive analytic therapy to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(1),335. doi:10.1521/pedi.18.1.3.32773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryle, A. & Kellett, S. (2018). Cognitive analytic therapy. In Livesley, W. J. & Larstone, R. (eds.) Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. 2nd ed. New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Sampath, H. M. (1974). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a Southern Baffin Island Eskimo Settlement. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 19(4),363–7. doi:10.1177/070674377401900406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samuels, J. (2011). Personality disorders: Epidemiology and public health issues. International Review of Psychiatry, 23(3),223–33. doi:10.3109/09540261.2011.588200CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samuels, J., Eaton, W. W., Bienvenu, O. J., 3rd., Brown, C. H., Costa, P. T., Jr. & Nestadt, G. (2002). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(6),536–42. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.6.536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santayana, G. (1905). Introduction and Reason in Common Sense (The Life of Reason: The Phases of Human Progress. Vol 1.), New York, Scribner.Google Scholar
Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E. W. & Grossmann, I. (2017). Global increases in individualism. Psychological Science, 28(9),1228–39. doi:10.1177/0956797617700622CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sartorius, N. & Schulze, H. (2005). Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness: A Report from a Global Programme of the World Psychiatric Association, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sato, T. & Takeichi, M. (1993). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in a general medicine clinic. General Hospital Psychiatry, 15(4),224–33. doi:10.1016/0163-8343(93)90037-OCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saucier, G. (2002). Orthogonal markers for orthogonal factors: The case of the Big Five. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(1),131. doi:10.1006/jrpe.2001.2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sauer-Zavala, S., Bentley, K. H. & Wilner, J. G. (2016). Transdiagnostic treatment of borderline personality disorder and comorbid disorders: A clinical replication series. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(1),3551. doi:10.1521/pedi_2015_29_179CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmideberg, M. (1947). The treatment of psychopaths and borderline patients. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1(1),4570. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.1947.1.1.45CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, K. (1921). Studien über Persönlichkeit und Schicksal Eingeschriebener Prostituierter, Berlin, Springer.Google Scholar
Schneider, K. (1923). Die Psychopathischen Persönlichkeiten, Leipzig & Wien, Franz Deuticke.Google Scholar
Schulz, S. C., Zanarini, M. C., Bateman, A., et al. (2008). Olanzapine for the treatment of borderline personality disorder: Variable dose 12-week randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193(6),485–92. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.037903CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schuster, J.-P., Hoertel, N., Le Strat, Y., Manetti, A. & Limosin, F. (2013). Personality disorders in older adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 757–68. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.055CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schweizer, E., Rickels, K., De Martinis, N., Case, G. & García-España, F. (1998). The effect of personality on withdrawal severity and taper outcome in benzodiazepine dependent patients. Psychological Medicine, 28(3),713–20. doi:10.1017/s0033291798006540CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seivewright, H., Tyrer, P. & Johnson, T. (2002). Change in personality status in neurotic disorders [Research Letter]. Lancet, 359(9325),2253–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09266-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sellbom, M., Bach, B. & Huxley, E. (2018). Related personality disorders located within an elaborated externalizing psychopathology spectrum. In Lochman, J. E. & Matthys, W. (eds.) The Wiley Handbook of Disruptive and Impulse-Control Disorders. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Sharp, C. (2016). Current trends in BPD research as indicative of a broader sea-change in psychiatric nosology. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(4),334–43. doi:10.1037/per0000199CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharp, C., Wright, A. G., Fowler, J. C., et al. (2015). The structure of personality pathology: Both general (‘g’) and specific (‘s’) factors? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(2),387–98. doi:10.1037/abn0000033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shorter, E. (2005). A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Siever, L. J. & Davis, K. L. (1991). A psychobiological perspective on the personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(12),1647–58. doi:10.1176/ajp.148.12.1647Google ScholarPubMed
Silberman, E., Balon, R., Starcevic, V., et al. (2020). Benzodiazepines: it’s time to return to the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 13. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silk, K. R. & Feurino, L., III. (2012). Psychopharmacology of personality disorders. In Widiger, T. A. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Personality Disorders. New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Simon, K. M. (2015). Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder. In Beck, A. T., Davis, D. D. & Freeman, A. (eds.) Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. 3rd ed. New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Simonsen, E. & Newton-Howes, G. (2018). Personality pathology and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(6),1180–4. doi:10.1093/schbul/sby053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinclair, M. & Beadman, M. (2016). The Little ACT Workbook, Bath, Crimson Publishing.Google Scholar
Sisti, D., Young, M. & Caplan, A. (2013). Defining mental illnesses: Can values and objectivity get along? BMC Psychiatry, 13(1),346. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-346CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., McGlashan, T. H., et al. (2002). Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(2),276–83. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.2.276CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skodol, A. E., Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Sneed, J. R. & Crawford, T. N. (2007). Personality disorder and impaired functioning from adolescence to adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry 190(5),415–20. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.019364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, T. E. & Samuel, D. B. (2017). A multi-method examination of the links between ADHD and personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 31(1),2648. doi:10.1521/pedi_2016_30_236CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soeteman, D. I., Hakkaart-Van Roijen, L., Verheul, R. & Busschbach, J. J. (2008). The economic burden of personality disorders in mental health care. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(2),259–65. doi:10.4088/jcp.v69n0212Google ScholarPubMed
Soloff, P. H. (1998). Algorithms for pharmacological treatment of personality dimensions: Symptom-specific treatments for cognitive-perceptual, affective, and impulsive-behavioral dysregulation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 62(2),195214.