Published online by Cambridge University Press: 14 April 2022
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-containing gonadotropin preparations have been commercially available since the 1960s. Their first use was in ovulation induction in women with anovulatory disorders. Since 1978, however, after the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born, they have been used increasingly in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) but also in intrauterine insemination (IUI) as ovarian stimulation to achieve multifollicular growth. Now, in many countries, ovulation induction stimulation comprises only 10% of gonadotropin usage, while 90% is used for ovarian (hyper) stimulation in ART, of which about half of the gonadotropin usage is for IVF and the other half is used for stimulated IUI cycles.