Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-98q29 Total loading time: 2.022 Render date: 2022-06-30T14:43:02.699Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Section 5 - Medical and Surgical Emergencies During Pregnancy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 May 2021

Edwin Chandraharan
St George's University of London
Sir Sabaratnam Arulkumaran
St George's University of London
Get access
Obstetric and Intrapartum Emergencies
A Practical Guide to Management
, pp. 159 - 230
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbott, AV. Diagnostic approach to palpitations. Am Fam Phys. 2005;71:743–50.Google ScholarPubMed
Shotan, MDA, Ostrzega, MDE, Mehra, MDA, et al. 1997. Incidence of arrhythmias in normal pregnancy and relation to palpitations, dizziness, and syncope. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:1061–4.Google Scholar
Mabie, WC, Freire, CM. Sudden chest pain and cardiac emergencies in the obstetric patient. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 1995;22:1937.Google ScholarPubMed
Trappe, H-J. Acute therapy of maternal and fetal arrhythmias during pregnancy. J Intens Care Med. 2006;21:305–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Draper, ES, Gallimore, ID, Kurinczuk, JJ, et al., on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK Collaboration. MBRRACE-UK Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report, UK Perinatal Deaths for Births from January to December 2016. Leicester: The Infant Mortality and Morbidity Studies, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester. 2018.Google Scholar
Fabre, E. Use of drugs in pulmonary medicine in pregnant women. Clin Pulmon Med. 2002;9(1):2032.Google Scholar
Goodnight, WH, Soper, DE. Pneumonia in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(10 Suppl):S390–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graves, C. Acute pulmonary complications during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;45(2):369–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hegewald, M, Crapo, R. Respiratory physiology in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. March 2011;32(1).Google ScholarPubMed
Hunt, BJ, Parmar, K, Horspool, K, Shephard, N Nelson-Piercy, C, Goodacre, S. The DiPEP (Diagnosis of PE in Pregnancy) biomarker study: an observational cohort study augmented with additional cases to determine the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for suspected venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium. Br J Haematol. 2018;180(5):694704. DOI: 10.1111/bjh.15102.Google ScholarPubMed
Mehta, N, Chen, K, Hardy, E, Powrie, R. Respiratory disease in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;29(5).Google ScholarPubMed
Murdock, M. Asthma in pregnancy. J Perinatal Neonatal Nurs. 2002;15(4):2736.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson-Piercy, C. Handbook of Obstetric Medicine, 5th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NICE. Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Breathlessness, 2017.Google Scholar
Quigley, J, Keating, A, Byrd, L. Fatigue and breathlessness in pregnancy: a rare and sinister cause. BMJ Case Rep. 2014. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2014-205441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shehata, H, Nelson-Piercy, C. Medical diseases complicating pregnancy, including thromboembolism. Anaesth Intensive Care Med. 2001;2(6): 225–32.Google Scholar
Susanthi, I. Respiratory complications in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Surv. 2002;57(1):3946.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging during Pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion 158. Washington, DC: ACOG, 1995.Google Scholar
Groen, RS, Bae, JY, Lim, KJ. Fear of the unknown: ionizing radiation exposure during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;206:456–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Masselli, G, Derchi, L, McHugo, J, Rockall, A, Vock, P, Weston, M, Spencer, J, Subcommittee EFPI. Acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy: ESUR recommendations. Eur Radiol. 2013;23:3485–500.Google ScholarPubMed
Katz, DS, Khalid, M, Coronel, EE, Mazzie, JP. Computed tomography imaging of the acute pelvis in females. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2013;64:108–18.Google ScholarPubMed
Kennedy, A. Assessment of acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2000;21:6477.Google ScholarPubMed
Hurwitz, LM, Yoshizumi, T, Reiman, RE, et al. Radiation dose to the fetus from body MDCT during early gestation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:871–6.Google ScholarPubMed
Forsted, DH, Kalbhen, CL. CT of pregnant women for urinary tract calculi, pulmonary thromboembolism, and acute appendicitis. AJR. 2002;178:1285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, TS, Hilton, S, Papanicolaou, N. Perspectives on radiation dose in abdominal imaging. Abdom Imaging. 2013;38:1190–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, W, Bonvento, MJ, Lee, D, Dunkin, J, Bhattacharji, P. Reduction of fetal dose in computed tomography using anterior shields. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2015;39:298300.Google ScholarPubMed
Baron, KT, Arleo, EK, Robinson, C, Sanelli, PC. Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Emerg Radiol. 2012;19:519–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Unal, A, Sayharman, SE, Ozel, L, Unal, E, Aka, N, Titiz, I, Kose, G. Acute abdomen in pregnancy requiring surgical management: a 20-case series. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:8790.Google ScholarPubMed
Berlingieri, P, Grudzinkas, JG. Assessment of abdominal pain in pregnancy, BMJ Best Practice, Aug 2018. Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Early Pregnancy Loss. Green-top Guideline No. 25. London: RCOG, 2006.Google Scholar
Shur, J, Bottomley, C, Walton, K, Patel, JH. Imaging of acute abdominal pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. BMJ. 2018;361:k2511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schenker, JG, Weinstein, D. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a current survey. Fertil Steril. 1978;30:255–68.Google ScholarPubMed
Golan, A, Ron-El, R, Herman, A, et al. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: an update review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1989;44:430–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devarajan, S, Chandraharan, E. Abdominal pain in pregnancy: a rational approach to management. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2011;21(7):198206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). Saving mothers’ lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006–2008. The Eighth Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;118(Suppl. 1):1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandraharan, E, Arulkumaran, S. Acute abdomen and abdominal pain in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2008;18(8):205–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dellinger, RP, Carlet, JM, Masur, H, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:858–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chandraharan, E, Arulkumaran, S. Painful uterine contractions. In Arulkumaran, S (ed.), Emergencies in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006, 823.Google Scholar
Kammerer, WS. Nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy. Med Clin North Am. 1979;63:1157–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Augustin, G, Majerovic, M. Non-obstetrical acute abdomen during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;131:412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pedrosa, I, Levine, D, Eyvazzadeh, AD, et al. MR imaging evaluation of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Radiology. 2006;238(3):891–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearl, JP, Price, RR, Tonkin, AE, Richardson, WS, Stefanidis, D. Guidelines for the Use of Laparoscopy During Pregnancy. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). May 2017.Google Scholar
Wang, C, Li, AL, Pang, Y, Lei, YQ, Yu, L. Changes in intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Ophthalmol. 2017;10(10):1573–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Yenerel, NM, Küçümen, RB. Pregnancy and the eye. Turkish J Ophthalmol. 2015;45(5):213–19. DOI:10.4274/tjo.43815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Landau, D, Seelenfreund, MH, Tadmor, O, Silverstone, BZ, Diamant, Y. The effect of normal childbirth on eyes with abnormalities predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1995;233(9):598600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pizzarello, LD. Refractive changes in pregnancy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241(6):484–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanski, JJ (ed.) Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach, 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
Chandraharan, E, Arulkumaran, S. Pituitary and adrenal disorders in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2003;15:101–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naderan, M. Ocular changes during pregnancy. J Curr Ophthalmol. 2018;30(3):202–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.joco.2017.11.012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackensen, F, Paulus, WE, Max, R, Ness, T. Ocular changes during pregnancy. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(33–34):567–76. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2014.0567.Google ScholarPubMed
Roche, JC, Alarcia, R. Can ocular flutter be due to pregnancy? Acta Neurol Belg. (2019). Scholar
Polizzi, S, Mahajan, VB . Intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in pregnancy: case series and review of literature. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2015;31(10):605–10. DOI: 10.1089/jop.2015.0056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glick, RL, Berlin, JS, Fishkind, AB, Zeller, SL. Emergency Psychiatry. Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.Google Scholar
Puri, BK, Treasaden, IH. Emergencies in Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NICE. Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health. NICE Clinical Guideline 45. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2007.Google Scholar
Kent, A. Psychiatric disorders in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2009;19:3741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safer – 2006–2008. The Eighth Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;118(Suppl. 1):1208.Google Scholar
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy and lactation. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 92. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:1001–20.Google Scholar
Knight, M, Bunch, K, Tuffnell, D, et al. (eds.) on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Lessons Learned to Inform Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2014–16. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, 2018.Google Scholar
Rodriguez-Cabezas, L, Clark, C. Psychiatric emergencies in pregnancy and postpartum. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018;61(3):615–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClure, CK, Patrick, TE, Katz, KD, Kelsey, SF, Weiss, HB. Birth outcomes following self-inflicted poisoning during pregnancy, California, 2000 to 2004. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40(3):292301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czeizel, AE. Attempted suicide and pregnancy. J Inj Violence Res. 2011;3(1):4554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dart, RC (ed.). Medical Toxicology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.Google Scholar
Haas, DM, Lehmann, AS, Skaar, T, et al. The impact of drug metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms on outcomes after antenatal corticosteroid use. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;206(5):447.e417–447.e424.Google ScholarPubMed
Haas, DM, Quinney, SK, Clay, JM, et al. Nifedipine pharmacokinetics are influenced by CYP3A5 genotype when used as a preterm labor tocolytic. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30(4):275–81.Google ScholarPubMed
Madadi, P, Avard, D, Koren, G. Pharmacogenetics of opioids for the treatment of acute maternal pain during pregnancy and lactation. Curr Drug Metab. 2012;13(6):721–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madadi, P, Ross, CJ, Hayden, MR, et al. Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;85(1):31–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
US FDA Public Health Advisory. Use of Codeine by Some Breastfeeding Mothers May Lead to Life-Threatening Side Effects in Nursing Babies. 2007. Scholar
Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group. The Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults. Sept. 2013. Scholar
Parker, JA, Conway, DL. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2007;34:533–43.Google ScholarPubMed
Bryant, SN, Herrera, CL, Nelson, DB, Cunningham, FG. Diabetic ketoacidosis complicating pregnancy. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2017;10(1):1723. DOI: 10.3233/NPM-1663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamalakannan, D, Baskar, V, Barton, DM, Abdu, TA. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Postgrad Med J. 2003;79(934):454–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Rougerie, M, Czuzoj-Shulman, N, Abenhaim, HA. Diabetic ketoacidosis among pregnant and non-pregnant women: a comparison of morbidity and mortality. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019;32(16):2649–52. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1443071.Google ScholarPubMed
Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safer: 2006–08. The Eighth Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. BJOG. 2011;118(Suppl. 1):1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, FJR, Movassaghian, M, Seeley, EW, et al. Fetal outcomes after DKA in pregnancy. ADA Diabetes Care. 2017;40(7): e77e79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otieno, CF, Kayima, JK, Omonge, EO, Oyoo, GO. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa. East African Med J. 2005;82:S197203.Google ScholarPubMed
Chauhan, SP, Perry, KG. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in the obstetric patient. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1995;22:143–55.Google ScholarPubMed
Winkler, C, Coleman, F. Endocrine emergencies. In Belfort, M, Saade, G, Foley, M, Phelan, J, Dildy, G, (eds.), Critical Care Obstetrics, 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2010.Google Scholar
Mohan, M, Baagar, KAM, Lindow, S. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. TOG: The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 2017;19: 5562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Management of glycaemic control in pregnant women with diabetes on obstetric wards and delivery units, May 2017.Google Scholar
Joint Diabetes Societies for Inpatient care, DKA, 2013.Google Scholar
Mahler, SA, Conrad, SA, Wang, H, Arnold, TC. Resuscitation with balanced electrolyte solution prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(6):670–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Zyl, DG, Rheeder, P, Delport, E. Fluid management in diabeticacidosis – Ringer’s lactate versus normal saline: a randomized controlled trial. QJM. 2012; 105(4):337–43.Google ScholarPubMed
Irish Medication Safety Network. Best practice for the safe use of intravenous potassium in Irish hospitals. July 2013 Version 3.Google Scholar
Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Management of DKA, 2410, 13.Google Scholar
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Prevention of VTE in Pregnancy. Green-top Guideline 37a. London: RCOG.Google Scholar
Stokes, T, Shaw, EJ, Juarez-Garcia, A, CamossoStefinovic, J, Baker, R. Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Review for the Epilepsies: Diagnosis and Management in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care. London: Royal College of General Practitioners/NICE, 2004. Scholar
The EURAP Study Group. Seizure control and treatment in pregnancy. Neurology. 2006;66:354–60.Google Scholar
Berg, AT, Berkovic, SF, Brodie, MJ, et al. Revised Terminology and Concepts for Organization of the Epilepsies: Report of the Commission on Classification and Terminology. International League Against Epilepsy, 2009. SummaryReport web Aug2009.pdf.Google Scholar
Walker, SP, Permezel, M, Berkovic, SF. The management of epilepsy in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;116(6):758–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harden, CL, Hopp, J, Ting, TY, et al. Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy – focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): obstetrical complications and change in seizure frequency. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2009;73(2):126–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Guideline Number 81. Diagnosis and Management of Epilepsies in Children and Young People. 2005. Scholar
Shorvon, S. Handbook of Epilepsy Treatment, 3rd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization. Managing Eclampsia. Education Materials for Teachers of Midwifery. Midwifery Education Modules, 2nd ed. Geneva: Department of Making Pregnancy Safer, Family and Community Health, World Health Organization, 2006.Google Scholar
Duley, L, Henderson-Smart, DJ, Walker, GJ, Chou, D. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:CD000127.Google Scholar
World Health Organization, International Bureau for Epilepsy, International League against Epilepsy. Global Campaign Against Epilepsy out of the Shadow. SW Heemstede, The Netherlands, 2003.Google Scholar
Meinardi, H, Scott, RA, Reis, R, Sander, JW; ILAE Commission on the Developing World. The treatment gap in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2001;42:136–49.Google ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Epilepsy: The Services. Epilepsy Atlas. Geneva: WHO, 2005 www.who. int/mental health/neurology/Epilepsy atlas r1.pdf.Google Scholar
Birbeck, GL. Epilepsy care in developing countries: Part II of II. Epilepsy Curr. 2010;10(5):105–10.Google ScholarPubMed
Kevat, D, Mackillop, L. Neurological diseases in pregnancy. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2013;43:4958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Epilepsy in Pregnancy. RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 68. London: RCOG, 2016.Google Scholar
Viale, L, Allotey, J, Cheong-See, F, et al. Epilepsy in pregnancy and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2015;386(10006): 1845–52. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00045-8.Google ScholarPubMed
Harden, C, Lu, C. Epilepsy in pregnancy. Neurol Clin. 2019;37(1):53–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ritchie, JR. Orthopedic considerations during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2003;46:456–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doro, CJ, Forward, DP, Kim, H, et al. Does 2.5 cm of symphyseal widening differentiate anteroposterior compression I from anteroposterior compression II pelvic ring injuries? J Orthop Trauma. 2010;24:610–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaBan, MM, Perrin, JC, Latimer, FR. Pregnancy and the herniated lumbar disc. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1983;64:319–21.Google ScholarPubMed
Brown, MD, Levi, AD. Surgery for lumbar disc herniation during pregnancy. Spine (Philadelphia). 2001;26:440–3.Google ScholarPubMed
Senechal, PK. Symphysis pubis separation during childbirth. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1994;7:141–4.Google ScholarPubMed
Fuhs, SE, Herndon, JH, Gould, FR. Herniation of the bladder: an unusual complication of traumatic diastasis of the pubis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1978;60:704–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, RN, Sonson, RD. Separation of the pubic symphysis: an underrecognized peripartum complication. J Reprod Med. 1986;31:203–6.Google ScholarPubMed
McIntosh, JM. Diastasis of the pubic symphysis. Br J Gen Pract. 1994;44:386428.Google ScholarPubMed
Glynn, CJ, Carrie, LE. Cryoanalgesia to relieve pain in diastasis of the symphysis pubis during pregnancy. Br MedJ (Clin Res Ed). 1985;290:1946–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Depledge, J, McNair, PJ, Keal-Smith, C, Williams, M. Management of symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy using exercise and pelvic support belts. Phys Ther. 2005;85:1290–300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lange, RH, Hansen, ST Jr. Pelvic ring disruptions with symphysis pubis diastasis: indications, technique, and limitations of anterior internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985;201:130–7.Google Scholar
Chang, JL, Wu, V. External fixation of pubic symphysis diastasis from postpartum trauma. Orthopedics. 2008;31:493.Google ScholarPubMed
Dunivan, GC, Hickman, AM, Connolly, A. Severe separation of the pubic symphysis and prompt orthopedic surgical intervention. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:473–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webb, LX, Gristina, AG, Wilson, JR, et al. Two-hole plate fixation for traumatic symphysis pubis diastasis. J Trauma. 1988;28:813–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orlin, JR, Oen, J, Andersen, JR, et al. Leg cramps in pregnancy caused by chronic compartment syndrome and relieved by fasciotomy after childbirth. Clin Case Rep. 2014;2:103–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hensley, JG. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2009;54:211–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamarul, T, Loh, WY. Traumatic hip dislocation in late pregnancy: a case report. Med J Malaysia. 2005;60(Suppl C):114–16.Google ScholarPubMed
Kono, K, Kuroki, T, Mori, N. [Pregnancy and delivery in hip joint movement disorder caused by congenital hip dislocation]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1983;35:591–4.Google Scholar
Van der Spuy, ZM, Jacobs, HS. Management of endocrine disorders in pregnancy. Part 1 – thyroid and parathyroid disease. Postgrad Med J. 1984;60:245–52.Google ScholarPubMed
Schenker, JG, Granat, M. Phaeochromocytoma and pregnancy: an updated appraisal. Austral N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1982;22:110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandraharan, E, Arulkumaran, S. Endocrine disorders of pregnancy. Int Gynecol Obstet India. 2002;5(5):6885.Google Scholar
González-González, JG, Borjas-Almaguer, OD, Salcido-Montenegro, A, et al. Sheehan’s syndrome revisited: underlying autoimmunity or hypoperfusion? Int J Endocrinol. 2018, Article ID 8415860; 2018. ScholarPubMed
Khoo, CM, Lee, KO. Endocrine emergencies in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;27(6):885–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molitch, ME. Endocrine emergencies in pregnancy. Baillières Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;6(1):167–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Momotani, N, Nob, J, Oyanagi, H, et al. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves’ disease during pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:24–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, A, Singh, S. Other endocrine emergencies in pregnancy. In Gandhi, A, Malhotra, N, Malhotra, J, Gupta, N, Bora, N (eds), Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics, 127–35. New Delhi: Springer; 2016.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats