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14 - Millionaires and Mobility: Inequality and Investment Migration Programs

from Part III - Citizenship

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 November 2021

Tesseltje de Lange
Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Willem Maas
York University, Toronto
Annette Schrauwen
Universiteit van Amsterdam
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A substantial industry has pushed forward the market for multiple citizenships. Drawing on extensive empirical research, this chapter investigates investment migration programs in practice by analyzing their constitution and evolution within a global market. This chapter identifies the underlying dynamics of supply and demand, rethinking the literature on citizenship in three areas: inter-country differences in citizenship’s benefits, privileged access for elites, and the decisive influence of third-party actors on citizenship policy. Within this theoretical landscape, the empirical analysis unpacks how these programs emerged within a broader field constituted by immigrant investor visas and discretionary economic citizenship. It reveals how this field conditioned the development and spread of formal programs, and the roles of geopolitical inequalities, industry actors, and extraterritorial rights in this change. The conclusion shows how incorporating jus pecuniae into our understanding of citizenship revises conventional assumptions in two domains: inequality and third-party actors.

Money Matters in Migration
Policy, Participation, and Citizenship
, pp. 247 - 262
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

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