Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-xfwgj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-14T17:51:10.607Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part III - Innovative Perspectives and Paradigms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 May 2023

Zhisheng (Edward) Wen
Affiliation:
Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Peter Skehan
Affiliation:
Institute of Education, University of London
Richard L. Sparks
Affiliation:
Mount St Joseph University
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2013). Working memory across the lifespan: A cross-sectional approach. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(1), 8493. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2012.748027Google Scholar
Assaneo, M. F., & Poeppel, D. (2018). The coupling between auditory and motor cortices is rate-restricted: Evidence for an intrinsic speech-motor rhythm. Science Advances, 4(2), 110. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aao3842CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Assaneo, M. F., Ripollés, P., Orpella, , et al. (2019). Spontaneous synchronization to speech reveals neural mechanisms facilitating language learning. Nature Neuroscience, 22(4), 627632. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0353-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baddeley, A. D., Gathercole, S., & Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review, 105(1), 158173. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295x.105.1.158Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). The social design of virtual worlds: constructing the user and community through code. Internet Research Annual: Selected Papers from the Association of Internet Researchers Conferences 2000–2002, vol 1, 260–268.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2000). Development of working memory: Should the Pascual-Leone and the Baddeley and Hitch models be merged? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77(2), 128137. https://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.2000.2592CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benner, J., Wengenroth, M., Reinhardt, J., et al. (2017). Prevalence and function of Heschl’s gyrus morphotypes in musicians. Brain Structure and Function, 222(8), 35873603. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1419-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Besson, M., & Schön, D. (2001). Comparison Between Language and Music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930, 232258. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05736.xGoogle Scholar
Besson, M., Schön, D., Moreno, S., Santos, A., & Magne, C. (2007). Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing in music and language. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25(3–4), 399410.Google Scholar
Bhatara, A., Yeung, H. H., & Nazzi, T. (2015). Foreign language learning in French speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(2), 277282. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038736Google Scholar
Biedroń, A. (2015). Neurology of foreign language aptitude. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 1340. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2015.5.1.2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowles, A. R., Chang, C. B., & Karuzis, V. P. (2016). Pitch ability as an aptitude for tone learning. Language Learning, 66(4), 774808. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandt, A., Gebrian, M., & Slevc, L. R. (2012). Music and early language acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(SEP), 117. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00327CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burnham, D., Brooker, R., & Reid, A. (2015). The effects of absolute pitch ability and musical training on lexical tone perception. Psychology of Music, 43(6), 881897. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735614546359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, J. B., & Sapon, S. M. (1959). Modern language aptitude test. Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Chow, I., & Brown, S. (2018). A musical approach to speech melody. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(MAR), 117. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00247Google Scholar
Christiner, M., & Reiterer, S. M. (2013). Song and speech: Examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(NOV), 111. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christiner, M., & Reiterer, S. M. (2015). A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: Singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(AUG), 18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delogu, F., Lampis, G., & Olivetti Belardinelli, M. (2006). Music-to-language transfer effect: May melodic ability improve learning of tonal languages by native nontonal speakers? Cognitive Processing, 7(3), 203207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-006-0146-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delogu, F., Lampis, G., & Olivetti Belardinelli, M. (2010). From melody to lexical tone: Musical ability enhances specific aspects of foreign language perception. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22(1), 4661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolman, M., & Spring, R. (2014). To what extent does musical aptitude influence foreign language pronunciation skills? A multi-factorial analysis of Japanese learners of English. World Journal of English Language, 4(4), 111. https://doi.org/10.5430/wjel.v4n4p1Google Scholar
Ellis, N. C. (1996). Working memory in the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax: Putting language in good order. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49(1), 403414. https://doi.org/10.1080/713755604Google Scholar
Fonseca-Mora, C., Herrero Machancoses, F., Gryb, O., & Reiterer, S. M. (2020). Musical aptitude, working memory, general intelligence and plurilingualism: When adults learn to read fluently in a foreign language. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1936371. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1936371Google Scholar
Gembris, H. (2013). Grundlagen musikalischer Begabung und Entwicklung. Wißner-Verlag.Google Scholar
Golestani, N., & Pallier, C. (2007). Anatomical correlates of foreign speech sound production. Cerebral Cortex, 17(4), 929934. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhl003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golestani, N., Paus, T., & Zatorre, R. J. (2002). Anatomical correlates of learning novel speech sounds. Neuron, 35(5), 9971010. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00862-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golestani, N., Price, C. J., & Scott, S. K. (2011). Born with an ear for dialects? Structural plasticity in the expert phonetician brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(11), 42134220. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3891-10.2011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gordon, E. E. (1989). Advanced Measures of Music Audiation. GIA Publications.Google Scholar
Gordon, E. E. (2001). Music Aptitude and Related Tests: An Introduction. GIA Publications.Google Scholar
Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2000). Towards a functional neuroanatomy of speech perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(4), 131138.Google Scholar
Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2004). Dorsal and ventral streams: A framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition, 92(1–2), 6799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.011Google Scholar
Homae, F., Watanabe, H., Nakano, T., Asakawa, K., & Taga, G. (2006). The right hemisphere of sleeping infant perceives sentential prosody. Neuroscience Research, 54(4), 276280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2005.12.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honing, H., ten Cate, C., Peretz, I., & Trehub, S. E. (2015). Without it no music: Cognition, biology and evolution of musicality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1664). https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0088CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, X., Ackermann, H., Martin, , et al. (2013). Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: Behavioural predictors and neural substrates. Brain and Language, 127(3), 366376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hummel, K. M. (2009). Aptitude phonological memory and second language proficiency in nonnovice adult learners. Applied Pscyholinguistics, 30(2), 225249.Google Scholar
Jackendoff, R. (2007). A Parallel Architecture perspective on language processing. Brain Research, 1146(1), 222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.111Google Scholar
Jackendoff, R. (2009). Parallels and nonparallels between language and music review. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26(3), 195204. https://doi.org/10.1525/mp.2009.26.3.195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackendoff, R. (2010). Meaning and the Lexicon: The Parallel Architecture 1975–2010. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jacquemot, C., & Scott, S. K. (2006). What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(11), 480486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.09.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jessner, U. (1999). Metalinguistic awareness in multilinguals: Cognitive aspects of third language learning. Language Awareness, 8(3–4), 201209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658419908667129Google Scholar
Jouravlev, O., Mineroff, Z., Blank, I. A., & Fedorenko, E. (2019). The small and efficient language network of polyglots and hyper-polyglots. BioRxiv, 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1101/713057Google Scholar
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. In Language Teaching, 44(2), 137166. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kepinska, O., de Rover, M., Caspers, J., & Schiller, N. O. (2017). On neural correlates of individual differences in novel grammar learning: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 98, 156168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.06.014Google Scholar
Kepinska, O., Pereda, E., Caspers, J., & Schiller, N. O. (2017). Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities. Brain and Language, 175, 99110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2017.10.003Google Scholar
Kogan, V., & Reiterer, S. (2021). Eros, beauty, and phon-aesthetic judgements of language sound. we like it flat and fast, but not melodious. Comparing phonetic and acoustic features of 16 European languages. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.578594Google Scholar
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism, 11(2), 261271. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003416Google Scholar
Kraus, N., & Chandrasekaran, B. (2010). Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(8), 599605. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2882Google Scholar
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21(4), 861883. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludke, K. M., Ferreira, F., & Overy, K. (2014). Singing can facilitate foreign language learning. Memory and Cognition, 42(1), 4152. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-013-0342-5Google Scholar
Marques, C., Moreno, S., Castro, S. L., & Besson, M. (2007). Musicians detect pitch violation in a foreign language better than nonmusicians: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(9), 14531463. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2007.19.9.1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meara, P. (2005). LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests The Manual. Lognostics.Google Scholar
Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270291. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028228Google Scholar
Milovanov, R., Huotilainen, M., Välimäki, V., Esquef, P. A. A., & Tervaniemi, M. (2008). Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: Neural and behavioral evidence. Brain Research, 1194, 8189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.11.042CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milovanov, R., Pietilä, P., Tervaniemi, M., & Esquef, P. A. A. (2010). Foreign language pronunciation skills and musical aptitude: A study of Finnish adults with higher education. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(1), 5660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.11.003Google Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In Healy, A. F. & Bourne, L. E. Jr. (eds.), Foreign Language Learning: Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp. 339365.Google Scholar
Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Barac, R., et al. (2011). Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychological Science, 22(11), 14251433. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611416999Google Scholar
Moreno, S., & Bidelman, G. M. (2014). Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training. Hearing Research, 308, 8497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2013.09.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, N. G., & Knight, R. T. (2006). The functional neuroanatomy of working memory: Contributions of human brain lesion studies. Neuroscience, 139(1), 5158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.09.018Google Scholar
Nardo, D., & Reiterer, S. M. (2009). Musicality and phonetic language aptitude. In Dogil, G. & Reiterer, S. M. (eds.), Language Talent and Brain Activity. Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 213256.Google Scholar
Novén, M., Schremm, A., Nilsson, M., Horne, M., & Roll, M. (2019). Cortical thickness of Broca’s area and right homologue is related to grammar learning aptitude and pitch discrimination proficiency. Brain and Language, 188(January 2018), 4247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2018.12.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27(3), 377402. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716406060322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papagno, C., Valentine, T., & Baddeley, A. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30(3), 331347. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(91)90040-QGoogle Scholar
Perani, D., Saccuman, M. C., Scifo, P., et al. (2011). Neural language networks at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(38), 1605616061. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1102991108Google Scholar
Petrides, M. (2014). Neuroanatomy of Language Regions of the Human Brain. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2011-0-07354-4Google Scholar
Preissl, H., Lowery, C. L., & Eswaran, H. (2005). Fetal magnetoencephalography: Viewing the developing brain in utero. International Review of Neurobiology, 68(05), 123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7742(05)68001-4Google Scholar
Price, C. J. (2010). The anatomy of language: A review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1191, 6288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05444.xGoogle Scholar
Price, C. J. (2012). A review and synthesis of the first 20years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading. NeuroImage, 62(2), 816847. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062Google Scholar
Reiterer, S. M. (ed.) (2018). Exploring Language Aptitude: Views from Psychology, the Language Sciences, and Cognitive Neuroscience. Springer.Google Scholar
Reiterer, S. M. (2019). Neuro-psycho-cognitive markers for pronunciation/speech imitation as language aptitude. In Wen, Z. (E.), Skehan, P., Biedroń, A., Li, S., & Sparks, R. (eds.), Language Aptitude: Advancing Theory, Testing, Research and Practice. Routledge, pp. 277299.Google Scholar
Reiterer, S. M, Hu, X., Erb, M., et al. (2011). Individual differences in audio-vocal speech imitation aptitude in late bilinguals: Functional neuro-imaging and brain morphology. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(OCT), 112. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00271Google Scholar
Reiterer, S. M., Hu, X., Sumathi, T. A., & Singh, N. C. (2013). Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(OCT), 113. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00782Google Scholar
Roden, I., Kreutz, G., & Bongard, S. (2012). Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: A longitudinal study. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(DEC), 19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00572CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sammler, D. (2020). Splitting speech and music. Science, 367(6481), 974976. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba7913Google Scholar
Sawyer, M., & Ranta, L. (2001). Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional design. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge University Press, pp. 319353. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139524780.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schellenberg, E. G. (2011). Examining the association between music lessons and intelligence. British Journal of Psychology, 102(3), 283302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2010.02000.xGoogle Scholar
Schneider, J. W., & McGrew, K. S. (2018). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities. In Flanagan, D. P. & McDonough, E. M. (eds.), Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests and Issues, 4th ed. Guilford Press, pp. 73163.Google Scholar
Schneider, P., Sluming, V., Roberts, N., Bleeck, S., & Rupp, A. (2005). Structural, functional, and perceptual differences in Heschl’s gyrus and musical instrument preference. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 387394. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1360.033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schön, D., Magne, C., & Besson, M. (2004). The music of speech: Music training facilitates pitch processing in both music and language. Psychophysiology, 41(3), 341349. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.00172.xGoogle Scholar
Seither-Preisler, A., Parncutt, R., & Schneider, P. (2014). Size and synchronization of auditory cortex promotes musical, literacy, and Attentional skills in children. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(33), 1093710949. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5315-13.2014Google Scholar
Serrallach, B., Groß, C., Bernhofs, V., et al. (2016). Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the auditory cortex of children. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10(JUL), 123. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00324Google Scholar
Skeide, M. A., & Friederici, A. D. (2016). The ontogeny of the cortical language network. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17(5), 323332. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2016.23Google Scholar
Slevc, L. R., & Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second-language proficiency: Does musical ability matter? Psychological Science, 17(8), 675681. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01765.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1997). Working Memory: A View from Neuroimaging. Cognitive Psychology, 33(1), 542. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1997.0658Google Scholar
Sternberg, R. & Sternberg, K. (2012). Cognitive Psychology. Wadsworth.Google Scholar
Szaflarski, J. P., Holland, S. K., Schmithorst, V. J., & Byars, A. W. (2006). fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults. Human Brain Mapping, 27(3), 202212.Google Scholar
Turker, S. (2019). Exploring the neuroanatomical and behavioural correlates of foreign language aptitude. Doctoral dissertation, University of Graz.Google Scholar
Turker, S., Reiterer, S. M., Schneider, P., & Seither-Preisler, A. (2019). Auditory cortex morphology predicts language learning potential in children and teenagers. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13(JUL), 116. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00824Google Scholar
Turker, S., Reiterer, S. M., Seither-Preisler, A., & Schneider, P. (2017). “When music speaks”: Auditory cortex morphology as a neuroanatomical marker of language aptitude and musicality. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(DEC). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02096Google Scholar
Turker, S., Seither-Preisler, A, A., & Reiterer, S. M. (2021). Examining individual differences in language learning: A neurocognitive model of language aptitude. Neurobiology of Language, 2(3), 389415.Google Scholar
Turker, S., Sommer-Lolei, S., & Christiner, M. (2018). Sprachtalent und Musikgenie – zwei Seiten einer Münze? Zusammenspiel musikalischer und sprachlicher Fähigkeiten durch umsetzungsnahe Ideen im schulischen und familiären Bereich. Journal Für Begabtenförderung, 2(3), 389415.Google Scholar
Ullman, H., Almeida, R., & Klingberg, T. (2014). Structural maturation and brain activity predict future working memory capacity during childhood development. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(5), 15921598. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0842-13.2014Google Scholar
Ullman, M. T., Earle, F. S., Walenski, M., & Janacsek, K. (2020). The Neurocognition of Developmental Disorders of Language. Annual Review of Psychology, 71(1), 389417. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011555Google Scholar
Van Den Noort, M. W. M. L., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity. European Psychologist, 11(4), 289296. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.11.4.289Google Scholar
Vangehuchten, L., Verhoeven, V., & Thys, P. (2015). Pronunciation proficiency and musical aptitude in Spanish as a foreign language: Results of an experimental research project. Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas, 10(1), 90100. https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2015.3372Google Scholar
Vaquero, L., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Reiterer, S. M. (2017). The left, the better: White-matter brain integrity predicts foreign language imitation ability. Cerebral Cortex, 27(8), 39063917. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw199Google Scholar
Wager, T. D., & Smith, E. E. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of working memory. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3(4), 255274. https://doi.org/10.3758/CABN.3.4.255CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wen, Z. (2016). Working Memory and Second Language Learning: Towards an Integrated Approach. Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2019). Working memory as langauge aptitude: The Phonological/Executive Model. In Wen, Z., Skehan, P., Biedroń, A., Li, S., & Sparks, R. (eds.), Language Aptitude: Advancing Theory, Testing, Research and Practice. Routledge.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., Biedroń, A., & Skehan, P. (2017). Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. In Language Teaching 50(1). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444816000276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, Z., & Skehan, P. (2011). A new perspective on foreign language aptitude research: Building and supporting a case for “working memory as language aptitude.Ilha do Desterro A Journal of English Language, Literatures in English and Cultural Studies, 60, 1543. https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p015Google Scholar
Wen, Z., & Skehan, P.. (2021). Stages of acquisition and the P/E Model of working memory: Complementary or contrasting approaches to foreign language aptitude? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 41, 624. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190521000015Google Scholar
Wong, P. C. M., Skoe, E., Russo, N. M., Dees, T., & Kraus, N. (2007). Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nature Neuroscience, 10(4), 420422. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1872Google Scholar
Xiang, H., Dediu, D., Roberts, L., et al. (2012). The structural connectivity underpinning language aptitude, working memory, and IQ in the perisylvian language network. Language Learning, 62(SUPPL. 2), 110130. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00708.xGoogle Scholar

References

Alderson, J. (1984). Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem? In Alderson, J. & Urquhart, A. (eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language. London: Longman, pp. 124.Google Scholar
Cárdenas-Hagan, E., Carlson, C., & Pollard-Durodola, S. (2007). The cross-linguistic transfer of early literacy skills: The role of initial L1 and L2 skills and language of instruction. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 249257.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723733.Google Scholar
Carroll, J., & Sapon, S. (1959, 2000). Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT): Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp. Republished by Second Language Testing, Inc. https://lltf.net/aptitude-tests/language-aptitude-tests/modern-language-aptitude-test-2/Google Scholar
Catts, H. (2018). The simple view of reading: Advancements and false impressions. Remedial and Special Education, 39(5), 317323.Google Scholar
Catts, H., Adlof, S., & Weismer, S. (2006). Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 278293.Google Scholar
Chung, K., & Ho, C. (2010). Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: What are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(3), 195211.Google Scholar
Crombie, M. (1997). The effects of specific learning difficulties (dyslexia) on the learning of a foreign language in school. Dyslexia, 3, 2747.Google Scholar
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222251.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (eds.), The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 589630.Google Scholar
Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2003). Language proficiency and reading ability in first- and second-language learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 38( 2), 78103.Google Scholar
Dufva, M., & Voeten, M. (1999). Native language literacy and phonological memory as prerequisites for learning English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20(3), 329348.Google Scholar
Francis, D., Fletcher, J., Catts, H., & Tomblin, J. (2005). Dimensions affecting the assessment of reading comprehension. In Paris, S. & Stahl, S. (eds.), Children’s Reading Comprehension and Assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 369394.Google Scholar
Gál, E., & Orbán, R. (2013). The relationship between the first language phonological awareness and the second language reading ability and the cross-language transfer of the first language phonological skills. Transylvanian Journal of Psychology, 14(2), 173193.Google Scholar
Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (1996). Foreign language anxiety among high school women. Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 199212.Google Scholar
Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (2001). Learning difficulties and foreign language instruction: A review of research and instruction. Language Teaching, 34(2), 7998.Google Scholar
Ganschow, L., Sparks, R., Anderson, R., et al. (1994). Differences in anxiety and language performance among high, average, and low anxious college foreign language learners. Modern Language Journal, 78(1), 4155.Google Scholar
Ganschow, L., Sparks, R., Javorsky, J., Pohlman, J., & Bishop-Marbury, A. (1991). Identifying native language difficulties among foreign language learners in college: A “foreign” language learning disability? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24(9), 530541.Google Scholar
Gardner, R. (1985). Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Genesee, F., Geva, E., Dressler, C., & Kamil, M. (2006). Synthesis: Cross-linguistic relationships. In August, D. & Shanahan, T. (eds.), Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 153174.Google Scholar
Geva, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2000). Introduction: The development of second language reading in primary children – Research issues and trends. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4(4), 261266.Google Scholar
Gkonou, C., Daubney, M., & Dawaele, J. (eds.) (2017). New Insights into Language Anxiety: Theory, Research, and Educational Implications. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Gottardo, A., & Mueller, J. (2009). Are first- and second-language factors related in predicting second-language reading comprehension? A study of Spanish-speaking children acquiring English as a second language from first to second grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 330344.Google Scholar
Gough, P., & Tunmer, W. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 610.Google Scholar
Hoover, W., & Gough, P. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2(2), 127160.Google Scholar
Hoover, W., & Tunmer, W. (2020). The Cognitive Foundations of Reading and its Acquisition: A Framework with Applications Connecting Teaching and Learning. Cham, CH: Springer.Google Scholar
Hoover, W., & Tunmer, W. (2021). The primacy of science in communicating advances in the science of reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 57(2), 399408. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.446Google Scholar
Horwitz, E. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43(2), 154167.Google Scholar
Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125132.Google Scholar
Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B. (1992). Individual differences in L2 proficiency as a function of L1 proficiency. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4(4), 341353.Google Scholar
Humes-Bartlo, M. (1989). Variation in children’s ability to learn second languages. In Hyltenstam, K. & Obler, L. (eds.), Bilingualism across the Life Span. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 4154.Google Scholar
Kahn-Horwitz, J., Shimron, J., & Sparks, R. (2005). Predicting foreign language reading achievement in elementary school students. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18(6), 527558.Google Scholar
Kahn-Horwitz, J., Shimron, J., & Sparks, R. (2006). Weak and strong novice readers of English as a foreign language: Effects of first language and socioeconomic status. Annals of Dyslexia, 56(1), 161185.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, D. (2015). Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties. New York: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Kim, Y. (2017). Why the Simple View of Reading is not simplistic: Unpacking component skills of reading using a direct and indirect model of reading (DIER). Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(4), 310333.Google Scholar
Kohonen, V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition? Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(2), 155172.Google Scholar
MacIntyre, P., & Gardner, R. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1), 85117.Google Scholar
Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. (2010). Predictors of reading comprehension for struggling readers: The case of Spanish-speaking language minority learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 701711.Google Scholar
Melby‐Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2011). Cross‐linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension: A meta‐analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(1), 114135.Google Scholar
Oxford, R. (1990). Styles, strategies, and aptitude: Connections for language learning. In Parry, T. & Stansfield, C. (eds.), Language Aptitude Reconsidered. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 67125.Google Scholar
Papagno, C., Valentine, T., & Baddeley, A. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30(3), 331347.Google Scholar
Petscher, Y., Cabell, S., Catts, H., et al. (2020). How the science of reading informs 21st‐century education. Reading Research Quarterly, 55, S267S282.Google Scholar
Proctor, C., Carla, M., August, D., & Snow, C. (2005). Native Spanish-speaking children reading in English: Toward a model of comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 246256.Google Scholar
Ranta, L. (2002). The role of the learner’s language analytic ability in the communicative classroom. In Robinson, P. (ed.), Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 159180.Google Scholar
Safa, A. (2018). An overview of cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 5(3), 186203.Google Scholar
Saito, Y., Garza, T., & Horwitz, E. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 202218.Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. (2013). The science of reading and its educational implications. Language Learning and Development, 9(4), 331360.Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. (2017). Language at the Speed of Sight: How We Read, Why So Many Can’t, and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Shum, K., Ho, C., Siegel, L., & Au, T. (2016). First‐language longitudinal predictors of second‐language literacy in young L2 learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(3), 323344.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second-Language Learning. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1998). A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Skehan, P., & Ducroquet, L. (1988). A Comparison of First & Foreign Language Learning Ability: A Follow-Up to “The Bristol Language Project.University of London, Institute of Education.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (1995). Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning. Annals of Dyslexia, 45(1), 187214.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2001). Foreign language learning problems of students classified as learning disabled and non-learning disabled: Is there a difference? Topics in Language Disorders, 21(2), 3854.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2006). Is there a “disability” for learning a foreign language? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(6), 544557.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2012). Individual differences in L2 learning and long‐term L1–L2 relationships. Language Learning, 62, 527.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2015). Language deficits in poor L2 comprehenders: The simple view. Foreign Language Annals, 48(4), 635658.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2016). Myths about foreign language learning and learning disabilities. Foreign Language Annals, 49(2), 252270.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2021). Identification and characteristics of strong, average, and weak foreign language readers: The Simple View of Reading model. Modern Language Journal, 105(2), 507525.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2022a). Where does language aptitude come from? Redux. Language Teaching Research Quarterly, 22, 7–18.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. (2022b). Exploring L1-L2 Relationships: The Impact of Individual Differences. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Sparks, R. & Alamer, A. (2022). Long-term impacts of L1 language skills on L2 anxiety: The mediating role of language aptitude and L2 achievement. Language Teaching Research. Published online 7/1/22Google Scholar
Sparks, R. & Dale, P. (2022). The prediction from MLAT to L2 achievement is largely due to MLAT assessment of underlying L1 abilities. Submitted.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Dale, P., Patton, J., & Luebbers, J. (in press). Individual differences in L1 attainment and language aptitude predict L2 achievement in instructed language learners. Modern Language Journal.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Ganschow, L. (1991). Foreign language learning differences: Affective or native language aptitude differences? Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 316.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Ganschow, L. (1993). Searching for the cognitive locus of foreign language learning difficulties: Linking first and second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 77(3), 289302.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to Macintyre. Modern Language Journal, 79(2), 235244.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Ganschow, L. (2007). Is the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale measuring anxiety or language skills? Foreign Language Annals, 40(2), 260287.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., Artzer, M., Siebenhar, D., & Plageman, M. (1997). Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85(2), 559562.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., Fluharty, K., & Little, S. (1996). An exploratory study on the effects of Latin on the native language skills and foreign language aptitude of students with and without learning disabilities. Classical Journal, 91(2), 165184.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., & Javorsky, J. (2000). Déjà vu all over again: A response to Saito, Horwitz, and Garza. Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 251255.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., Javorsky, J., Pohlman, J., & Patton, J. (1992). Identifying native language deficits in high and low risk foreign language learners in high school. Foreign Language Annals, 25(5), 403418.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., & Patton, J. (1995). Prediction of performance in first-year foreign language courses: Connections between native language and foreign language learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 638655.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., Patton, J., et al. (1997). Prediction of proficiency in a foreign language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 549561.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., & Pohlman, J. (1989). Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 39(1), 7997.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Javorsky, J., Patton, J., & Ganschow, L. (1998). Principal components analysis of a test battery to predict proficiency in a foreign language. Applied Language Learning, 9, 71106.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Luebbers, J. (2018). How many U.S. high school students have a foreign language reading “disability”? Reading without meaning and the Simple View. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(2), 194208.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Luebbers, J., Castenada, M., & Patton, J. (2018). U.S. high school students and foreign language reading anxiety: Déjà vu all over again all over again. Modern Language Journal, 102(3), 533556.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Patton, J. (2013). Relationship of L1 skills and L2 aptitude to L2 anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS): Language ability or anxiety? Language Learning, 63(4), 870895.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., & Patton, J. (2016). Examining the Simple View of Reading (SVR) Model for U.S. high school Spanish students. Hispania, 99(1), 1733.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Ganschow, L. (2012). Cognitive and achievement profiles of more and less successful L2 learners: A cluster analysis study. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 463472.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2009). Long-term relationships among early L1 skills, L2 aptitude, L2 affect, and later L2 proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(4), 725755.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2011). Subcomponents of second-language aptitude and second-language proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 95(2), 121.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N. (2012). Relationships among L1 print exposure, early L1 literacy, L2 aptitude, and L2 proficiency. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25, 15991634.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2006). Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude. Annals of Dyslexia, 56(1), 129160.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2008). Early L1 reading and spelling skills predict later L2 reading and spelling skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 162174.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J. (2009). Long-term cross-linguistic transfer of skills from L1 to L2. Language Learning, 59(1), 203243.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Luebbers, J. (2018a). L2 anxiety and the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS): Listening to the evidence. Foreign Language Annals, 51(4), 125.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Luebbers, J. (2018b). For U.S. students, L2 reading comprehension is hard because L2 listening comprehension is hard, too. Hispania, 101(2), 183210.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Luebbers, J. (2019a). Individual differences in L2 achievement mirror individual differences in L1 skills and L2 aptitude: Crosslinguistic transfer of L1 to L2 skills. Foreign Language Annals, 52(2), 255283.Google Scholar
Sparks, R., Patton, J., & Luebbers, J. (2019b). Language (L2) aptitude: Insights from U.S. high school students. In Wen, Z., Skehan, P., Biedroń, A., Li, S., & Sparks, R. (eds.), Language Aptitude: Advancing Theory, Testing, Research, and Practice. New York: Routledge, pp. 123152.Google Scholar
Trang, T. (2012). A review of Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope’s theory of foreign language anxiety and the challenges to the theory. English Language Teaching, 5(1), 6975.Google Scholar
Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. (eds.) (2017). Learning to Read across Languages and Writing Systems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2012). The simple view of second language reading throughout the primary grades. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 18051818.Google Scholar
Woodcock, R., Muñoz-Sandoval, A., McGrew, K., & Mather, M. (2004, 2007). Batería-III Woodcock-Muñoz. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.Google Scholar

References

Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417423.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, 4789.Google Scholar
Brunfaut, T., Kormos, J., Michel, M., & Ratajczak, M. (2021). Testing young foreign language learners’ reading comprehension: Exploring the effects of working memory, grade level, and reading task. Language Testing, 38(3), 356377.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723733.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. B., & Sapon, S. M. (1959, 2002). Modern Language Aptitude Test. New York, NY: Psychological Corporation (reprinted in 2002).Google Scholar
Chan, H., Verspoor, M., & Vahtrick, L. (2015). Dynamic development in speaking versus writing in identical twins. Language Learning, 65, 298325.Google Scholar
Chang, P., & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Idiodynamic research into EFL listeners’ directed motivational currents. Modern Foreign Languages, 43(2), 200212.Google Scholar
Chang, P., & Zhang, L. J. (2021). A CDST perspective on variability in foreign language learners’ listening development. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(601962), 117.Google Scholar
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 19(4), 450466.Google Scholar
de Bot, K. (2015). Rates of change: Time scales in second language development. In Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P. D., & Henry, A. (eds.), Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, pp. 2937.Google Scholar
de Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Vespoor, M. (2005). Second Language Acquisition: An Advanced Resource Book. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z. (2010). The relationship between language aptitude and language learning motivation: Individual differences from a dynamic systems perspective. In Macaro, E. (ed.), Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition. London, UK: Continuum, pp. 247267.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z., Ibrahim, Z., & Muir, C. (2015). Directed motivational currents: Regulating complex dynamic systems through motivational surges. In Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P. D., & Henry, A. (eds.), Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, pp. 95105.Google Scholar
Evans, D. R., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (2020). Bifurcations and the emergence of L2 syntactic structures in a complex dynamic system. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, (574603), 1–12.Google Scholar
Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2017). Stimulated Recall Methodology in Applied Linguistics and L2 Research. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Granena, G. (2013). Cognitive aptitudes for second language learning and the LLAMA language aptitude test. In Granena, G. & Long, M. (eds.), Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude and Ultimate L2 Attainment. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins, pp. 105129.Google Scholar
Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2020). Research Methods for Complexity Theory in Applied Linguistics. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Hood, G. (2009). Poptools [Computer software]. Canberra, Australia: Pest Animal Control Co-operative Research Center (CSIRO).Google Scholar
Huang, T., Steinkrauss, R., & Verspoor, M. (2021). Variability as predictor in L2 writing proficiency. Journal of Second Language Writing, 52: 1–14.Google Scholar
Kormos, J. (2013). New conceptualizations of language aptitude in second language attainment. In Granena, G. & Long, M. (eds.), Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude and Ultimate L2 Attainment. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins, pp. 131152.Google Scholar
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 261271.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2006). The emergence of complexity, fluency, and accuracy in the oral and written production of five Chinese learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27 , 590619.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2020). Complex dynamic systems theory. In van Pattern, W., Keating, G., & Wulf, S. (eds.), Theories of Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Research methodology on language development from a complex systems perspective. Modern Language Journal, 92(2), 200213.Google Scholar
Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2002). Macro- and microdevelopmental research assumptions, research strategies, constraints and utilities. In Granott, N. & Parziale, J. (eds.), Microdevelopment: Transition Processes in Development and Learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 243265.Google Scholar
Li, S. (2015). The associations between language aptitude and second language grammar acquisition: A meta-analytic review of five decades of research. Applied Linguistics, 36 , 385408.Google Scholar
Lowie, W. (2017). Methodological considerations in complex dynamic theory approaches to second language development research. In Ortega, L. & Han, Z. (eds.), Complexity Theory and Language Development: In Celebration of Diane Larsen-Freeman. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins, pp. 123141.Google Scholar
Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2015). Variability and variation in second language acquisition orders: A dynamic re-evaluation. Language Learning, 65, 6388.Google Scholar
Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2018). Individual differences and the ergodicity problem. Language Learning, 69 , 184206.Google Scholar
Meara, P. (2005). LLAMA Language Aptitude Test. Swansea, UK: Lognostics.Google Scholar
Niżegorodcew, A. (2012). L2 learners’ individual differences and the changing SLA perspective. In Pawlak, M. (ed.), New Perspectives on Individual Differences in Language Learning and Teaching. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 313.Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2005). Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25 , 4673.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second-Language Learning. London, UK: Arnold.Google Scholar
Spoelman, M., & Verspoor, M. (2010). Dynamic patterns in development of accuracy and complexity: A longitudinal case study in the acquisition of Finnish. Applied Linguistics, 31(4), 532553.Google Scholar
Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
van Dijk, M., Verspoor, M., & Lowie, W. (2011). Variability and DST. In Verspoor, M., de Bot, K., & Lowie, W. (eds.), A Dynamic Approach to Second Language Development: Methods and Techniques. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins, pp. 5584.Google Scholar
van Geert, P., Steenbeek, H., & Kunnen, S. (2012). Monte Carlo techniques: Statistical simulation for developmental data. In Kunnen, S. (ed.), A Dynamic Systems Approach to Adolescent Development (pp. 4353). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
van Geert, P., & van Dijk, M. (2002). Focus on variability: New tools to study intra-individual variability in developmental data. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 340374.Google Scholar
Verspoor, M., de Bot, K., & Lowie, W. (eds.) (2011). A Dynamic Approach to Second Language Development: Methods and Techniques. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Verspoor, M., Lowie, W., Chan, H., & Vahtrick, L. (2017). Linguistic complexity in second language development: Variability and variation at advanced stages. Recherches En Didactique Des Langues et Des Cultures Les Cahiers de l’Acedle, 14(1), 127.Google Scholar
Verspoor, M., Lowie, W., & van Dijk, M. (2008). Variability in second language development from a dynamic systems perspective. Modern Language Journal, 92(2), 214231.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2016). Phonological and executive working memory in L2 task-based speech performance. Language Learning Journal, 44(4), 418435.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2019). Working memory as language aptitude: The Phonological/Executive Model. In Wen, Z., Skehan, P., Biedroń, A., Li, S., & Sparks, R. (eds.), Language Aptitude: Advancing Theory, Testing, Research and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 187214.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., Biedroń, A., & Skehan, P. (2017). Foreign language aptitude theory: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Language Teaching, 50(1), 131.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., & Juffs, A. (2020). Testing working memory in SLA. In Winke, P. & Brunfaut, T. (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Testing. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., & Li, S. (2019). Working memory in L2 learning and processing. In Schwieter, J. W. & Benati, A. (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 365389.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., & Skehan, P. (2021). Stages of acquisition and the P/E model of working memory: Complementary or contrasting approaches to foreign language aptitude? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 41 , 624.Google Scholar
Zhang, L. J. (2016). A dynamic metacognitive systems perspective on language learner autonomy. In Barnard, R. & Li, J. (eds.), Language Learner Autonomy: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in East Asian Contexts. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: IDP Education, pp. 150166.Google Scholar
Zhang, L. J., & Zhang, D. (2013). Thinking metacognitively about metacognition in second and foreign language learning, teaching, and research: Toward a dynamic metacognitive systems perspective. Contemporary Foreign Languages Studies, 396 , 111121.Google Scholar
Zhao, H., & Luo, S. (2020). A meta-analysis of the impact of working memory capacity on Chinese EFL learners’ L2 proficiency. Modern Foreign Languages, 43(4), 553564.Google Scholar
Zheng, Y. (2016). The complex, dynamic development of L2 lexical use: A longitudinal study on Chinese learners of English. System, 56, 4053.Google Scholar
Zheng, Y., & Feng, Y. (2017). A dynamic systems study on Chinese EFL learners’ syntactic and lexical complexity development. Modern Foreign Languages, 40(1), 5768.Google Scholar
Zheng, Y., Lu, X., & Ren, W. (2020). Tracking the evolution of Chinese learners’ multilingual motivation through a longitudinal Q methodology. Modern Language Journal, 104(4), 781803.Google Scholar

References

Alexieva, B. (1997). A typology of interpreter-mediated events. The Translator, 3(2), 153174.Google Scholar
Alves, F. (2003). Triangulating Translation: Perspectives in Process Oriented Research. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
Alves, F., & Jakobsen, A. L. (eds.) (2021). The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Cognition. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Atkinson, D. (2011). A sociocognitive approach to second language acquisition: How mind, body, and world work together in learning additional languages. In Atkinson, D. (ed.), Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. London: Routledge, pp. 155178.Google Scholar
Barcelona, A. (2005). The multilevel operation of metonymy in grammar and discourse, with particular attention to metonymic chains. In Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, F. J., & Peña Cervel, S. (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics: Internal Dynamics and Interdisciplinary Interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 313352).Google Scholar
Baynham, M., & Lee, T. K. (2019). Translation and Translanguaging. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bergen, B. K. (2012). Louder than Words: The New Science of How the Mind Makes Meaning. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Carreres, Á., Noriega-Sánchez, M., & Calduch, C. (2018). Mundos en Palabras: Learning Advanced Spanish Through Translation. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Chemero, A. (2003). An outline of a theory of affordances. Ecological Psychology, 15(2), 181195.Google Scholar
Chiang, Y.-N. (2010). Foreign language anxiety and student interpreters’ learning outcomes: Implications for the theory and measurement of interpretation learning anxiety. Meta, 55(3), 589601.Google Scholar
Cook, V. (2016). Premises of multi-competence. In Cook, V. & Li, W. (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-Competence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125.Google Scholar
Coulmas, F. (2005/2013). Sociolinguistics: The Study of Speakers’ Choices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Cummins, J., & Early, M. (2014). Big Ideas for Expanding Minds. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.Google Scholar
Dings, R. (2018). Understanding phenomenological differences in how affordances solicit action. An exploration. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 17(4), 681699.Google Scholar
Dong, Y. (2018). Complex dynamic systems in students of interpreting training. Translating and Interpreting Studies. The Journal of the American Translating and Interpreting Studies Association, 13(2), 185207.Google Scholar
Dong, Y., & Li, P. (2020). Attentional control in interpreting: A model of language control and processing control. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23(4), 716728.Google Scholar
Douglas Fir Group. (2016). A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world. Modern Language Journal, 100 (Supplement 2016), 1947.Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A. (1990). Peak performance and age: An examination of peak performance in sports. In Baltes, P. B. & Baltes, M. M. (eds.), Successful Aging: Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 164195.Google Scholar
Ettekal, A. V., & Mahoney, J. L. (2017). Ecological systems theory. In Peppler, K. (ed.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing, pp. 239241.Google Scholar
Evans, V. (2010). How Words Mean: Lexical Concepts, Cognitive Models, and Meaning Construction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Evans, V. (2015). A unified account of polysemy within LCCM Theory. Lingua. 157: 100123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2014.12.002Google Scholar
Ferreira, A., Schwieter, J. W., & Festman, J. (2020). Cognitive and neurocognitive effects from the unique bilingual experiences of interpreters. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 548755. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.548755Google Scholar
Gile, D. (1985). Le modèle d’efforts et l’équilibre d’interprétation en interprétation simultanée. Meta, 30(1), 4448.Google Scholar
Gile, D. (1995/2009). Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
Gambrell, S., & Lesch, H. (2021). Interpreter training: Devising a model for aptitude testing for simultaneous interpreters. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, 61, 127149.Google Scholar
García, O., & Li, W. (2014). Language, bilingualism and education. In Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 4662.Google Scholar
Gerver, D. (1976). Empirical studies of simultaneous interpretation: A review and a model. In Brislin, R. (ed.), Translation: Applications and Research. New York, NY: Gardner Press, pp. 165207.Google Scholar
Gibson, J. J. (1979/2014). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception: Classic Edition. London, UK; New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of Talk, Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
González-Davies, M. (2004). Multiple Voices in the Translation Classroom: Activities, Tasks and Projects. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
Han, L., Wen, Z., & Runcieman, A. (2023). Interpreting as Translanguaging: Theory, Research and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2019). Research Methods for Complexity Theory in Applied Linguistics. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Hiver, P., Al-Hoorie, A. H., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (2021). Toward a transdisciplinary integration of research purposes and methods for Complex Dynamic Systems Theory: Beyond the quantitative–qualitative divide. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 60(1), 722. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2021-0022Google Scholar
Hult, F. M. (2019). Toward a unified theory of language development: The transdisciplinary nexus of cognitive and sociocultural perspectives on social activity. Modern Language Journal, 103(Supplement 2019), 136144. DOI: 10.1111/modl.12527Google Scholar
Korpal, P. (2016). Interpreting as a stressful activity: Physiological measures of stress in simultaneous interpreting. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52(2), 297316.Google Scholar
Korpal, P., & Jasielska, A. (2019). Investigating interpreters’ empathy: Are emotions in simultaneous interpreting contagious? Target, 31(1), 224. https://doi.org/10.1075/target.17123.korGoogle Scholar
Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W., & Laham, D. (1998). Introduction to latent semantic analysis. Discourse Processes, 25, 259284.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2017). Complexity theory: The lessons continue. In Ortega, L. & Han, Z. (eds.), Complexity Theory and Language Development: In Celebration of Diane Larsen-Freeman. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing, pp. 1150.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Larson, M. L. (1984). Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross–Language Equivalence, 2nd ed. New York, NY: University Press of America.Google Scholar
Lee, T. K. (2021). The Routledge Handbook of Translation and the City. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Levý, J. (1967/2018). Translation as a decision process. In To Honor Roman Jakobson: Essays on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday, vol. 2. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton, pp. 11711182.Google Scholar
Li, D., Lei, V. L. C., & He, Y. (eds.) (2019). Researching Cognitive Processes of Translation. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
Li, W. (2011a). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 12221235.Google Scholar
Li, W. (2011b). Multilinguality, multimodality, and multicompetence: Code‐and mode switching by minority ethnic children in complementary schools. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 370384.Google Scholar
Li, W. (2016). New Chinglish and the post-multilingualism challenge: Translanguaging ELF in China. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5(1), 125.Google Scholar
Li, W. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 930.Google Scholar
Li, W. (2022). Translanguaging as method. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, 1(3), 100026.Google Scholar
Li, W., & Zhu, H. (2013). Translanguaging identities and ideologies: Creating transnational space through flexible multilingual practices amongst Chinese university students in the UK. Applied Linguistics, 34(5), 516535.Google Scholar
Li, W., & Shen, Q. (2021). Translanguaging: Origins, developments, and future directions. Journal of Foreign Languages, 44(4), 214 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Lin, Z.-Y. (2020). Similarity is closeness – A new perspective from utilizing AI tools in translation practice and studies. In Zhou, J., Zhang, B., Guo, L., & Lin, Z.-Y., (eds.), Macao Language and Culture Research. Macao: Macao Polytechnic Institute. 362380.Google Scholar
Lin, Z.-Y. (2021). Going to understand 柴? Evidence and significance of metonymic chains in Chinese/English translation. In Wang, V., Lim, L., & Li, D. (eds.), New Perspectives in Corpus Studies and Translation. Singapore: Springer Singapore. 227257.Google Scholar
Lin, Y., Xu, D., & Liang, J. (2021). Differentiating interpreting types: Connecting complex networks to cognitive complexity. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 590399. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.590399Google Scholar
Liu, M. (2019). In search of a cognitive model for interpreting expertise. In Wen, Z., Skehan, P., Biedroń, A., Li, S., & Sparks, R.. (eds.) Language Aptitude. Routledge, pp. 299314.Google Scholar
Liu, M., Schallert, D., & Carroll, P. (2004). Working memory and expertise in simultaneous interpreting. Interpreting, 6(1), 1942.Google Scholar
Man, D., Mo, A., Meng, H. C., O’Toole, J. M., & Lee, C. (2020). Translation technology adoption: Evidence from a postgraduate programme for student translators in China. Perspectives, 28(2), 253270.Google Scholar
Muñoz Martín, R. (2010). On paradigms and cognitive translatology. In Shreve, G. M. & Angelone, E. (eds.), Translation and Cognition. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing, pp. 169187.Google Scholar
Mason, I., & Ren, W. (2012). Power in face-to-face interpreting events. Translating and interpreting studies. The Journal of the American Translating and Interpreting Studies Association, 7(2), 234253.Google Scholar
Massey, G. (2019). Learning to learn, teach and develop: Co-emergent perspectives on translator and language-mediator education. TRAlinea Special Issue: New Insights into Translator Training (Online Translation Journal), 13.Google Scholar
Meylaerts, R. (2007). “La Belgique vivra-t-elle?” Language and translation ideological debates in Belgium (1919–1940). The Translator, 13(2), 297319.Google Scholar
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., et al. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49100.Google Scholar
Moser, B. (1978). Simultaneous interpretation: A hypothetical model and its practical application, In Gerver, D. & Wallace Sinaiko, H. (eds.), Language Interpretation and Communication, NATO Conference Series III: Human Factors. New York, NY: Plenum, pp. 353368. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9077-4_31Google Scholar
Neal, J. W., & Neal, Z. P. (2013). Nested or networked? Future directions for ecological systems theory. Social Development, 22 , 722737.Google Scholar
Nitzke, J. (2019). Problem Solving Activities in Post-Editing and Translation from Scratch: A Multi-Method Study. Berlin: Language Science Press.Google Scholar
Nour, S., Struys, E., Woumans, E., Hollebeke, I., & Stengers, H. (2020). An interpreter advantage in executive functions? A systematic review. Interpreting, 22(2), 163186.Google Scholar
Ortega, L. (2019). SLA and the study of equitable multilingualism. The Modern Language Journal, 103, 2338.Google Scholar
Pöchhacker, F. (2009). Issues in interpreting studies. In Munday, J., (ed.), Routledge Companion to Translation Studies. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 142154.Google Scholar
Pöchhacker, F. (ed.) (2015). Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Pöchhacker, F. (2022). Interpreters and interpreting: shifting the balance?. The Translator, 28(2), 148161.Google Scholar
Rajendram, S. (2021). Translanguaging as an agentive pedagogy for multilingual learners: Affordances and constraints. International Journal of Multilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2021.1898619Google Scholar
Robinson, P. (2005). Aptitude and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 4673.Google Scholar
Rojo López, A., & Caro, M. (2016). Can emotion stir translation skill? Defining the impact of positive and negative emotions on translation performance. In Muñoz Martín, R., (ed.), Reembedding Translation Process Research. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 107130.Google Scholar
Rojo López, A. M., & Korpal, P. (2020). Through your skin to your heart and brain: A critical evaluation of physiological methods in Cognitive Translating and Interpreting Studies. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series: Themes in Translation Studies, 19, 191217.Google Scholar
Runcieman, A. (2021). Proposal for a “translanguaging space” in interpreting studies: Meeting the needs of a superdiverse and translanguaging world. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, 7(2), 133152.Google Scholar
Seeber, K. (2011). Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting. Interpreting, 13(2), 176204. https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.02see.Google Scholar
Seleskovitch, D., & Lederer, M. (2002). Interpréter pour Traduire, 4th ed. Paris: Didier Érudition.Google Scholar
Setton, R. (1999). Simultaneous Interpretation: A Cognitive-Pragmatic Analysis. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
Setton, R. (2012). Models of interpreting. In Chapelle, C. A. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 37223730.Google Scholar
Setton, R. (2015). Models. In Pöchhacker, F., (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 263268.Google Scholar
Silva, F., Camus, T., Brouillet, D., et al. (2020). Is a letterbox always a letterbox? The role of affordances in guiding perceptual categorization. Psychological Research, 85(4), 16731684.Google Scholar
Spolsky, B. (1998). Sociolinguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Szarkowska, A., Krejtz, K., Dutka, Ł., & Pilipczuk, O. (2016). Cognitive load in intralingual and interlingual respeaking – a preliminary study. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52(2), 209233.Google Scholar
Timarová, Š. (2015). Working memory. In Pöchhacker, F. (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 443446.Google Scholar
Van Geert, P. (2008). The dynamic systems approach in the study of L1 and L2 acquisition: An introduction. The Modern Language Journal, 92(2), 179199.Google Scholar
Van Geert, P., & Verspoor, M. (2015). Dynamic systems and language development. In MacWhinney, B. & O’Grady, W. (eds.), The Handbook of Language Emergence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 537556.Google Scholar
van Lier, L. (ed.) (2004). The Ecology and semiotics of Language Learning: A Sociocultural Perspective. Boston, MA: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Verspoor, M., De Bot, K., & Lowie, W. (eds.) (2011). A Dynamic Approach to Second Language Development: Methods and Techniques, vol. 29. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
Vieira, L. (2014). Indices of cognitive effort in machine translation post-editing. Machine Translation, 28(3/4), 187216.Google Scholar
Wadensjö, C. (1998/2014). Interpreting as Interaction. London, UK: Longman. Reprinted 2014 London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wang, B., & Munday, J. (2020). Advances in Discourse Analysis of Translating and Interpreting Linking Linguistic Approaches with Socio-Cultural Interpretation. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2016). Working Memory and Second Language Learning: Towards an Integrated Approach. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Wen, Z. (2021). Language aptitudes. In Gregersen, T. & Mercer, S. (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching. London, UK; New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 389403.Google Scholar
Wen, Z., & Schwieter, J. (2022). Towards an integrated account of working memory and language. In Schwieter, J. & Wen, Z. (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Working Memory and Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 909927.Google Scholar
Will, M. (2020). Computer Aided Interpreting for Conference Interpreters. Concepts, Content and Prospects. ESSACHESS – Journal for Communication Studies, 13(1), 3771.Google Scholar
Williams, C. (1994). Arfarniad o ddulliau dysgu ac addysgu yng nghyd-destun addysg uwchradd Ddwyieithog. [An Evaluation of Teaching and Learning Methods in the Context of Bilingual Secondary Education]. PhD dissertation, University of Wales.Google Scholar
Williams, C. (2002). Ennill iaith: Astudiaeth o sefyllfa drochi yn 11–16 oed [A Language Gained: A Study of Language Immersion at 11–16 Years of Age]. Bangor: School of Education.Google Scholar
Xiao, K., & Muñoz, M. (2020). Cognitive translation studies: Models and methods at the cutting edge. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies, 19, 124.Google Scholar
Yu, Z., & Dong, Y. (2021). The emergence of a complex language skill: Evidence from the self-organization of interpreting competence in interpreting students. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 25(2), 114.Google Scholar