Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-jrcft Total loading time: 0.652 Render date: 2023-02-04T13:48:05.605Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

11 - Expanding the Public Square

Evangelicals and Electoral Politics in Latin America

from Part III - New Party–Society Linkages

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 January 2021

Diana Kapiszewski
Affiliation:
Georgetown University, Washington DC
Steven Levitsky
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Deborah J. Yashar
Affiliation:
Princeton University, New Jersey
Get access

Summary

The transformation of evangelical Christians from a discriminated-against minority to full citizens with rights and political influence constitutes an important component of the inclusionary turn in Latin America. In some countries, this process of inclusion has translated into a formidable presence in elected office, with evangelicals leading a socially conservative backlash against progressive policy agendas. In other countries, evangelicals have little presence within the halls of power. This chapter seeks to explain differences in evangelicals’ involvement and success with electoral politics in Brazil and Chile, South America’s two most heavily evangelical countries. Rejecting arguments that focus on external barriers, such as social discrimination or constraints posed by political institutions, I instead emphasize the historical process by which a religious identity is or is not politicized, via struggles for legal equality with the Catholic Church and more recent battles over abortion and same-sex marriage. In Brazil, ongoing threats to evangelicals’ core interests and identities, combined with opportunities to defend against these threats via legislative politics, have produced a much more politicized and electorally successful evangelical community than in Chile.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Armas Asín, Fernando. 2008. “Diversidad religiosa y complejidad socio-política: Un estudio introductorio al campo religioso en el Perú actual.” In Políticas divinas: Religión, diversidad y política en el Perú contemporáneo, edited by Armas Asín, Fernando, Cotrina, Carlos Aburto, Fonseca Ariza, Juan, and Ragas Rojas, José, 1150. Lima: Instituto Riva-Agüero, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.Google Scholar
Berrier Sharim, Karina. 1989. Derecha regimental y coyuntara plebiscitaria: Los casos de Renovación Nacional y la UDI. Santiago, Chile: Programa de Jóvenes Investigadores, Servicio Universitário Mundial (WUS-Chile).Google Scholar
Blofield, Merike. 2006. The Politics of Moral Sin: Abortion and Divorce in Spain, Chile and Argentina. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Boas, Taylor C. 2014. “Pastor Paulo vs. Doctor Carlos: Professional Titles as Voting Heuristics in Brazil.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 6(2): 3972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boas, Taylor C. 2016. “Pastors for Pinochet: Authoritarian Stereotypes and Voting for Evangelicals in Chile.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 3(2): 197205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boas, Taylor C., and Smith, Amy Erica. 2015. “Religion and the Latin American Voter.” In The Latin American Voter, edited by Carlin, Ryan, Singer, Matthew, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth, 99121. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Bruneau, Thomas C. 1974. The Political Transformation of the Brazilian Catholic Church. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Campos, Leonildo Silveira. 2006. “Os politicos de Cristo – uma análise do comportamento político de protestantes históricos e pentecostais no Brasil.” In Os Votos de Deus: Evangélicos, política e eleições no Brasil, edited by Burity, Joanildo A and Machado, Maria das Dores C., 2989. Recife, Brazil: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco/Editora Massangana.Google Scholar
Campos, Leonildo Silveira. 2010. “O projeto politico de ‘governo do justo’: Os recuos e avanços dos evangélicos nas eleições de 2006 e 2010 para a Câmara Federal.” Debates do NER 11(18): 3982.Google Scholar
Canales Guevara, Hermes. 2000. Firmes y Adelante: La sacrificada y triunfal marcha de las Iglesias Evangélicas en Chile. Santiago: Barlovento Impresores.Google Scholar
Carlin, Ryan E., and Love, Gregory J.. 2015. “Who Is the Latin American Voter?” In The Latin American Voter, edited by Carlin, Ryan, Singer, Matthew, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth, 3159. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnes, Nicholas. 2018. The Cash Ceiling: Why Only the Rich Run for Office – and What We Can Do about It. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cavalcanti, Robinson. 1988. Cristianismo & política: teoria bíblica e prática histórica. Niteroi, RJ, Brazil: Associação Religiosa Editora e Distribuidora Vinde/São Paulo, SP, Brazil: Corpo de Psicólogos e Psiquiatras Cristãos.Google Scholar
Chesnut, R. Andrew. 1997. Born Again in Brazil: The Pentecostal Boom and the Pathogens of Poverty. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Cleary, Edward L., and Sepúlveda, Juan. 1997. “Chilean Pentecostalism: Coming of Age.” In Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America, edited by Cleary, Edward L. and Stewart-Gambino, Hannah W., 97121. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Coelho, Sandro Anselmo. 2003. “O Partido Democrata Cristão: teores programáticos da terceira via brasileira (1945–1964).” Revista Brasileira de História 23(46): 201228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Ruth Berins, and Collier, David. 1991. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Corrales, Javier. 2017. “Understanding the Uneven Spread of LGBT Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1999–2013.” Journal of Research in Gender Studies 7(1): 5282.Google Scholar
Cortínez Castro, René. 1998. “Personalidad jurídica de las iglesias en el derecho publico chileno y proyecto de ley sobre su constitución jurídica.” Revista Chilena de Derecho, Número Especial: 149–161.Google Scholar
Cosmovisión. 2017. “4 Partidos Evangélicos y 2 Candidatos Presidenciales irrumpen en la carrera electoral.” April 23.Google Scholar
Emol. 2016. “Iglesias evangélicas preparan ofensiva con candidatos propios al Parlamento.” July 28.Google Scholar
Fediakova, Evguenia. 2004. “‘Somos parte de esta sociedad’: Evangélicos y política en el Chile post-autoritario.” Política 43: 253284.Google Scholar
Fediakova, Evguenia, and Parker, Cristián. 2006. “Evangélicos chilenos: ¿Apolíticos o nuevos ciudadanos?Sí Somos Americanos: Revista de Estudios Transfronterizos 13(1): 120133.Google Scholar
Fediakova, Evguenia, and Parker, Cristián. 2009. “Evangélicos en Chile Democrático (1990–2008): Radiografía al centésimo aniversario.” Revista Cultura y Religión 3(2): 4369.Google Scholar
Fonseca, Josué. 1999. “Evangélicos y política en Chile.” Iglesia y Misión 18(4): 2627.Google Scholar
Freston, Paul. 1993. “Protestantes e Política no Brasil: Da Constituinte ao Impeachment.” PhD dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.Google Scholar
Freston, Paul. 2001. Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freston, Paul, ed. 2008. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaskill, Newton. 2002. “Power from on High: The Political Mobilization of Brazilian Pentecostals.” PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
Gill, Anthony. 1998. Rendering Unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2015. Nations under God: How Churches Use Moral Authority to Influence Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagopian, Frances. 2008. “Latin American Catholicism in an Age of Religious and Political Pluralism: A Framework for Analysis.” Comparative Politics 40(2): 149168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallum, Anne Motley. 2003. “Taking Stock and Building Bridges: Feminism, Women’s Movements, and Pentecostalism in Latin America.” Latin American Research Review 38(1): 169186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huneeus, Carlos. 2003. “A Highly Institutionalized Political Party: Christian Democracy in Chile.” In Christian Democracy in Latin America: Electoral Competition and Regime Conflicts, edited by Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R., 121161. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lagos Schuffeneger, Humberto. 1988. Crisis de la esperanza: religión y autoritarismo en Chile. Santiago, Chile: Programa Evangélico de Estudios Socio-Religiosos/Ediciones Literatura Americana Reunida.Google Scholar
Lalive d’Epinay, Christian. 1969. Haven of the Masses: A Study of the Pentecostal Movement in Chile. London: Lutterworth Press.Google Scholar
Lupu, Noam. 2015. “Partisanship in Latin America.” In The Latin American Voter, edited by Carlin, Ryan, Singer, Matthew, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth, 226245. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Machado, Maria das Dores Campos. 2006a. Política e religião: a participação dos evangélicos nas eleições. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV.Google Scholar
Machado, Maria das Dores Campos. 2006b. “Evangélicos e as eleições de 2002 no Rio de Janeiro: as disputas pelo poder legislativo em perspectiva.” In Os Votos de Deus: evangélicos, política e eleições no Brasil, edited by Burity, Joanildo A and Machado, Maria das Dores C., 91117. Recife, Brazil: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco/Editora Massangana.Google Scholar
Machado, Maria das Dores Campos. 2012. “Evangelicals and Politics in Brazil: The Case of Rio de Janeiro.” Religion, State & Society 40(1): 6991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machado, Maria das Dores Campos, and Burity, Joanildo. 2014. “A ascensão política dos pentecostais no Brasil na avaliação de líderes religiosos.” Dados 57(3): 601631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madrid, Raúl L. 2012. The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott. 1986. The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil, 1916–1985. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, and Wilde, Alexander, eds. 1989. The Progressive Church in Latin America. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Mainwaring, Scott, and Scully, Timothy R.. 2003. “The Diversity of Christian Democracy in Latin America.” In Christian Democracy in Latin America: Electoral Competition and Regime Conflicts, edited by Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R., 3063. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mariano, Ricardo, and Flávio Pieruci, Antônio. 1996. “O envolvimento dos pentecostais na eleição de Collor.” In A realidade social das religiões no Brasil, edited by Pierucci, Antônio Flávio and Prandi, Reginaldo, 193210. São Paulo: Editora Hucitec.Google Scholar
Mecham, J. Lloyd. 1966. Church and State in Latin America: A History of Politico-Ecclesiastical Relations. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Mensageiro da Paz. 2010. “Candidatos apoiados pelas Convenções regionais da CGADB.” Mensageiro da Paz 1505 (October): 1415.Google Scholar
Oro, Ari Pedro. 2006a. “A Igreja Universal e a política.” In Os Votos de Deus: Evangélicos, política e eleições no Brasil, edited by Burity, Joanildo A. and Machado, Maria das Dores C., 119147. Recife, Brazil: Fundação Joaquim Nabuco/Editora Massangana.Google Scholar
Oro, Ari Pedro. 2006b. “Religião e política no Brasil.” In Religião e política no Cone Sul: Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai, edited by Pedro Oro, Ari, 75156. São Paulo, Brazil: Attar Editorial.Google Scholar
Orrego, S., Cristóbal, Juan Ignacio González, E., and Javier Saldaña, S. 2003. “La nueva ley chilena de iglesias y organizaciones religiosas.” Revista Chilena de Derecho 30(1): 65102.Google Scholar
Ortiz, Juan Rodrigo. 2012. “Iglesias evangélicas y política en Chile: 1810–1938.” Comunidad Teológica Evangélica, Santiago, Sept. 29.Google Scholar
Raymond, Christopher, and Barros Feltch, Brian M.. 2014. “Parties, Ceavages and Issue Evolution: The Case of the Religious–Secular Cleavage in Chile.” Party Politics 20(3): 429443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Read, William R. 1965. New Patterns of Church Growth in Brazil. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.Google Scholar
Salinas Araneda, Carlos. 1999. “Una primera lectura de la ley chilena que establece normas sobre la constitución jurídica de las iglesias y organizaciones religiosas.” Revista de derecho de la Universidad Católica de Valparaíso 20: 299341.Google Scholar
Silva, Janine Targino da. 2010. “A liderança carismática exercida pelas novas líderes pentecostais femininas de Nova Iguaçu: um diálogo com Charles Lindholm.” Intratextos 1: 151168.Google Scholar
Smith, Amy Erica. 2019. Religion and Brazilian Democracy: Mobilizing the People of God. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Brian H. 1982. The Church and Politics in Chile: Challenges to Modern Catholicism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sylvestre, Josué. 1986. Irmão vota em irmão: os evangélicos, a constituinte e a Bíblia. São Paulo: Pergaminho.Google Scholar
Sylvestre, Josué. 1988. Os evangélicos, a constutuinte, e as eleições municipais. Brasília: Editora Papiro.Google Scholar
Trejo, Guillermo. 2012. Popular Movements in Autocracies: Religion, Repression, and Indigenous Collective Action in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UOL Notícias. 2014. “Obra de megatemplo da Universal foi feita com alvará de reforma.” UOL Notícias, July 29.Google Scholar
Van Cott, Donna Lee. 2005. From Movements to Parties in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vieyra, R. 1980. “Solemne servicio de acción.” La Voz Pentecostal 5: 23.Google Scholar
Vital, Christina, and Lopes, Paulo Victor Leite. 2013. Religião e Política: uma análise da atuação de parlamentares evangélicos sobre direitos das mulheres e de LGBTs no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Heinrich Böll/Instituto de Estudos da Religião (ISER).Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1993. The Sociology of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Willems, Emilio. 1967. Followers of the New Faith: Culture Change and the Rise of Protestantism in Brazil and Chile. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
Williams, Margaret Todaro. 1974. “The Politicization of the Brazilian Catholic Church: The Catholic Electoral League.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 16(3): 301325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yashar, Deborah J. 2005. Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Author’s Interviews

Barrientos, Jaime. Valparaíso, Chile, Jan. 19, 2015.

Contreras, Leonardo. Valparaíso, Chile, Oct. 25, 2017.

Cooper, Alfred. Santiago, Chile, Jan. 20, 2015.

Durán Sepúlveda, Eduardo. Santiago, Chile, Oct. 27, 2017.

Gómez, Evelyn. Santiago, Chile, Oct. 25, 2017.

Larrondo, Abraham. Santiago, Chile, Jan. 15, 2015.

Muñoz, Francesca. Concepción, Chile, Jan. 14, 2015.

Muñoz, Héctor. Concepción, Chile, Jan. 14, 2015.

Pérez, Rosario. Valparaíso, Chile, Oct. 25, 2017.

Roldán, Eddy. Santiago, Chile, Oct. 23, 2017.

Soto, Emiliano. Santiago, Chile, Jan. 22, 2015.

Valenzuela, Samuel. Santiago, Jan. 19, 2015.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×