Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-76fb5796d-r6qrq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-25T14:29:38.968Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

7 - Precision Education Initiative: The Possibility of Personalized Education

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 October 2017

Susan Bouregy
Yale University, Connecticut
Elena L. Grigorenko
Yale University, Connecticut
Stephen R. Latham
Yale University, Connecticut
Mei Tan
University of Texas, Houston
Get access
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adams, M. J. (1994). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Greulich, L., Meadows, J., & Li, Z. (2011). Assessment data-informed guidance to individualize kindergarten reading instruction: Findings from a cluster-randomized control field trial. The Elementary School Journal, 111(4), 535560.Google Scholar
Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Wanzek, J., Greulich, L., Schatschneider, C., et al. (2014). To wait in tier 1 or intervene immediately a randomized experiment examining first-grade response to intervention in reading. Exceptional Children, 81(1), 1127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al Otaiba, S., & Fuchs, D. (2006). Who are the young children for whom best practices in reading are ineffective? An experimental and longitudinal study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 414431.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Anthoni, H., Zucchelli, M., Matsson, H., Müller-Myhsok, B., Fransson, I., Schumacher, J., et al. (2007). A locus on 2p12 containing the co-regulated MRPL19 and C2ORF3 genes is associated to dyslexia. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(6), 667677.Google Scholar
Artelt, C., Baumert, J., Julius-McElvany, N., & Peschar, J. (2001). Learners for life: Student approaches to learning results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
Berger, M., Yule, W., & Rutter, M. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 126(6), 510519.Google Scholar
Berkman, N. D., Sheridan, S. L., Donahue, K. E., Halpern, D. J., & Crotty, K. (2011). Low health literacy and health outcomes: An updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(2), 97107.Google Scholar
Bishop, D. V. M. (2015). The interface between genetics and psychology: Lessons from developmental dyslexia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 18.Google Scholar
Brady, S. A. (1991). The role of working memory in reading disability. In Brady, S. A. & Shankweiler, D. P. (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy (pp. 129152). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cao, F., Bitan, T., & Booth, J. R. (2008). Effective brain connectivity in children with reading difficulties during phonological processing. Brain and Language, 107(2), 91101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardon, L. R., Smith, S., Fulker, D. W., Kimberling, W. J., Pennington, B. F., & DeFries, J. C. (1994). Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6. Science, 266(5183), 276280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carrion‐Castillo, A., Franke, B., & Fisher, S. E. (2013). Molecular genetics of dyslexia: an overview. Dyslexia, 19(4), 214240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, J. M., Mundy, I. R., & Cunningham, A. J. (2014). The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress. Developmental Science, 17(5), 727742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, O., & Bell, I. R. (2004). One size does not fit all: Aptitude x treatment interaction (ATI) as a conceptual framework for complementary and alternative medicine outcome research. Part II – Research designs and their applications. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10, 698705.Google Scholar
Catts, H. W., Hogan, T. P., & Fey, M. E. (2003). Subgrouping poor readers on the basis of individual differences in reading-related abilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 151164.Google Scholar
Chapman, N. H., Igo, R. P., Thomson, J. B., Matsushita, M., Brkanac, Z., Holzman, T., et al. (2004). Linkage analyses of four regions previously implicated in dyslexia: Confirmation of a locus on chromosome 15q. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 131(1), 6775.Google Scholar
Collins, F. S., & Varmus, H. (2015). A new initiative on precision medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(9), 793795.Google Scholar
Compton, D. L., Miller, A. C., Elleman, A. M., & Steacy, L. M. (2014). Have we forsaken reading theory in the name of “quick fix” interventions for children with reading disability? Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Bryant, J. D. (2006). Selecting at-risk readers in first grade for early intervention: A two-year longitudinal study of decision rules and procedures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 394.Google Scholar
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., Fishman, B., Crowe, E. C., Al Otaiba, S., & Schatschneider, C. (2013). A longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled study on the accumulating effects of individualized literacy instruction on students’ reading from first through third grade. Psychological Science, 24(8), 14081419.Google Scholar
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., Fishman, B., Giuliani, S., Luck, M., Underwood, P., et al. (2011). Testing the impact of child characteristics x intstruction on third graders’ reading comprehension by differentiating literacy instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(3), 189221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., Fishman, B. J., Ponitz, C. C., Glasney, S., Underwood, P. S., et al. (2009). The ISI classroom observation system: Examining the literacy instruction provided to individual students. Educational Researcher, 38(2), 8599. doi:10.3102/0013189x09332373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Petrella, J. N. (2004). Effective reading comprehension instruction: Examining child x instruction interactions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 682698.Google Scholar
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., Schatschneider, C., Toste, J., Lundblom, E., Crowe, E., et al. (2011). Effective classroom instruction: Implications of child characteristics by reading instruction interactions on first graders’ word reading achievement. Journal for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4, 135.Google Scholar
Connor, C. M., Piasta, S. B., Fishman, B., Glasney, S., Schatschneider, C., Crowe, E., et al. (2009). Individualizing student instruction precisely: Effects of child by instruction interactions on first graders’ literacy development. Child Development, 80(1), 77100.Google Scholar
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, S95120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, F. S., & Varmus, H. (2015). A new initiative on precision medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 793795.Google Scholar
Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. H. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends and emerging issues. New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.Google Scholar
Couto, J. M., Livne‐Bar, I., Huang, K., Xu, Z., Cate‐Carter, T., Feng, Y., et al. (2010). Association of reading disabilities with regions marked by acetylated H3 histones in KIAA0319. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153(2), 447462.Google Scholar
Curran, P. J., & Hussong, A. M. (2009). Integrative data analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets. Psychological Methods, 14(2), 81100. doi:10.1037/a0015914CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeFries, J. C., Singer, S. M., Foch, T. T., & Lewitter, F. I. (1978). Familial nature of reading disability. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 132(4), 361367.Google Scholar
Doyle, M., & Furnham, A. (2012). The distracting effects of music on the cognitive test performance of creative and non-creative individuals. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7(1), 17.Google Scholar
Dufur, M. J., Parcel, T. L., & Troutman, K. P. (2013). Does capital at home matter more than capital at school? Social capital effects on academic achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagerheim, T., Raeymaekers, P., Tønnessen, F. E., Pedersen, M., Tranebjærg, L., & Lubs, H. A. (1999). A new gene (DYX3) for dyslexia is located on chromosome 2. Journal of Medical Genetics, 36(9), 664669.Google Scholar
Fisher, S. E., Francks, C., Marlow, A. J., MacPhie, I. L., Newbury, D. F., Cardon, L. R., et al. (2002). Independent genome-wide scans identify a chromosome 18 quantitative-trait locus influencing dyslexia. Nature Genetics, 30(1), 8691.Google Scholar
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2006). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Fletcher, J. M., Foorman, B. R., Boudousquie, A., Barnes, M. A., Schatschneider, C., & Francis, D. J. (2002). Assessment of reading and learning disabilities a research-based intervention-oriented approach. Journal of School Psychology, 40(1), 2763.Google Scholar
Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Barth, A. E., Miciak, J., Francis, D. J., & Denton, C. A. (2014). Agreement and coverage of indicators of response to intervention: A multi-method comparison and simulation. Topics in Language Disorders, 34(1), 74.Google Scholar
Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Morris, R. D., & Lyon, G. R. (2013). Classification and definition of learning disabilities: A hybrid model. In Swanson, H. L. & Harris, K. (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 3350). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1996). Conceptual and methodological issues in construct definition. In G. R. Lyon (Ed.), Validating the constructs of attention, memory, and executive functions (pp. 1742). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157171.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 9399.Google Scholar
Fuller, M., Healey, M., Bradley, A., & Hall, T. (2004) Barriers to learning: A systematic study of the experience of disabled students in one university, Studies in Higher Education, 29, 303318.Google Scholar
Gilger, J. W., Pennington, B. F., & DeFries, J. C. (1991). Risk for reading disability as a function of parental history in three family studies. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3, 299313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L. (2013). What we know (or do not know) about the genetics of reading comprehension and other reading-related processes. In Miller, B., Cutting, L., McCardle, P. (Eds.), Unraveling reading comprehension (pp. 293313). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L., Wood, F. B., Meyer, M. S., Hart, L. A., Speed, W. C., Shuster, A., et al. (1997). Susceptibility loci for distinct components of developmental dyslexia on chromosomes 6 and 15. American Journal of Human Genetics, 60(1), 27.Google Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L., Deyoung, C. G., Getchell, M., Haeffel, G. J., Klinteberg, B. A., Koposov, R. A., et al. (2007). Exploring interactive effects of genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension. Development and Psychopathology, 19(4), 10891103.Google Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L., Wood, F. B., Meyer, M. S., & Pauls, D. L. (2000). Chromosome 6p influences on different dyslexia-related cognitive processes: Further confirmation. American Journal of Human Genetics, 66(2), 715723.Google Scholar
Hallgren, B. (1950). Specific dyslexia (congenital word-blindness); a clinical and genetic study. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica. Supplementum, 65, 1.Google ScholarPubMed
Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kaminen-Ahola, N., Taipale, M., Eklund, R., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Kääriäinen, H., et al. (2005). The axon guidance receptor gene ROBO1 is a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia. PLoS Genet, 1(4), e50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, S. A. (2016). Precision education initiative: Moving toward personalized education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(4), 209211.Google Scholar
Hart, S. A., Soden, B., Johnson, W., Schatschneider, C., & Taylor, J. (2013). Expanding the environment: Gene x school-level SES interaction on reading comprehension. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 10471055. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawke, J. L., Wadsworth, S. J., Olson, R. K., & DeFries, J. C. (2007). Etiology of reading difficulties as a function of gender and severity. Reading and Writing, 20(1–2), 1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hernandez, D. J. (2011). Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation. Annie E. Casey Foundation.Google Scholar
Hoeft, F., McCandliss, B. D., Black, J. M., Gantman, A., Zakerani, N., Hulme, C., et al. (2011). Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(1), 361366.Google Scholar
Jameson, J. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Precision medicine – Personalized, problematic, and promising. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 70(10), 612614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jerman, O., Reynolds, C., & Swanson, H. L. (2012). Does growth in working memory span or executive processes predict growth in reading and math in children with reading disabilities? Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(3), 144157.Google Scholar
Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). National school debate: Banning cell phones in public schools: analyzing a national school and community relations problem. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journals, 25(4), 16.Google Scholar
Juel, C., & Minden‐Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(4), 458492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kegel, C. A. T., Bus, A. G., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility in early literacy instruction through computer games: The role of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). Mind, Brain, and Education, 5(2), 7178. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228X.2011.01112.xGoogle Scholar
Klinger, D. A., Shulha, L. A., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2010). Towards an understanding of gender differences in literacy achievement. Toronto: Education Quality and Accountability Office.Google Scholar
Kohane, I. S. (2015). Ten things we have to do to achieve precision medicine. Science, 349(6243), 3738.Google Scholar
Kovas, Y., Voronin, I., Kaydalov, A., Malykh, S. B., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2013). Literacy and numeracy are more heritable than intelligence in primary school. Psychological Science, 24(10), 20482056.Google Scholar
Lamminmäki, S., Massinen, S., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Kere, J., & Hari, R. (2012). Human ROBO1 regulates interaural interaction in auditory pathways. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(3), 966971.Google Scholar
Limbrick, L., Wheldall, K., & Madelaine, A. (2008). Gender ratios for reading disability: Are there really more boys than girls who are low-progress readers? Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 13(2), 161179.Google Scholar
Little, C. W., Hart, S. A., Schatschneider, C., & Taylor, J. (2014). Examining associations among ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension: A twin study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 0022219414555715.Google ScholarPubMed
Lynch, M., & Walsh, B. (1998). Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
Lyon, G. R. (1996). Learning disabilities. The Future of Children, 6, 5476.Google Scholar
Lyon, R. G. (1998). The NICHD research program in reading development, reading disorders and reading instruction: A summary of research findings. Keys to successful learning. A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities.Google Scholar
Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 114.Google Scholar
Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 347373.Google Scholar
Mortimore, T., & Crozier, W. R. (2006). Dyslexia and difficulties with study skills in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 235251.Google Scholar
Owen, F. W., Adams, P. A., Forrest, T., Stolz, L. M., & Fisher, S. (1971). Learning disorders in children: Sibling studies. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 177.Google Scholar
Pelham, W. E. Jr., Waschbusch, D. A., Hoza, B., Gnagy, E. M., Greiner, A. R., Sams, S. E., et al. (2011). Music and video as distractors for boys with ADHD in the classroom: Comparison with controls, individual differences, and medication effects. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(8), 10851098.Google Scholar
Pennington, B. F. (2009). Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., & Neiderheiser, J. (2013). Behavioral genetics. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Plomin, R., & Kovas, Y. (2005). Generalist genes and learning disabilities. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 592617.Google Scholar
Ponitz, C. C., Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., Brock, L. L., & Nathanson, L. (2009). Early adjustment, gender differences, and classroom organizational climate in first grade. The Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 142162.Google Scholar
Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., Lee, J. R., et al. (2000). Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability(developmental dyslexia). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6(3), 207213.Google Scholar
Pulst, S. M. (1999). Genetic linkage analysis. Archives of Neurology, 56(6), 667672.Google Scholar
Quinn, J. M., & Wagner, R. K. (2013). Gender differences in reading impairment and in the identification of impaired readers: Results from a large scale study of at-risk readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi:10.1177/0022219413508323Google Scholar
Ramus, F. (2001). Dyslexia: Talk to two theories. Nature, 412, 393395.Google Scholar
Ramus, F. (2003). Developmental dyslexia: Specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13(2), 212218.Google Scholar
Rapport, M. D., Alderson, R. M., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Bolden, J., & Sims, V. (2008). Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The contribution of central executive and subsystem processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(6), 825837. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9215-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rapport, M. D., Scanlan, S. W., & Denney, C. B. (1999). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and scholastic achievement: A model of dual developmental pathways. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40(8), 11691183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Robertson, D. L., & Mann, E. A. (2002). Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago child-parent centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(4), 267303.Google Scholar
Reynolds, A. J., & Walberg, H. J. (1992). A process model of mathematics achievement and attitude. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23(4), 306328.Google Scholar
Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., ... & Carroll, J. (2004). Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies. Jama, 291(16), 20072012.Google Scholar
Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1975). The concept of specific reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16(3), 181197.Google Scholar
Sackett, D. L. (2000). Evidence‐based medicine. London: Churchill-Livingstone, Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
Saygin, Z. M., Osher, D. E., Norton, E. S., Youssoufian, D. A., Beach, S. D., Feather, J., et al. (2016). Connectivity precedes function in the development of the visual word form area. Nature Neuroscience, 19(9), 12501255.Google Scholar
Scarborough, H. S. (1990). Very early language deficits in dyslexic children. Child development, 61(6), 17281743.Google Scholar
Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype greater than environment effects. Child Development, 54(2), 424435.Google Scholar
Scerri, T. S., Darki, F., Newbury, D. F., Whitehouse, A. J., Peyrard-Janvid, M., Matsson, H., et al. (2012). The dyslexia candidate locus on 2p12 is associated with general cognitive ability and white matter structure. PloS One, 7(11), e50321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scerri, T. S., Morris, A. P., Buckingham, L. L., Newbury, D. F., Miller, L. L., Monaco, A. P., et al. (2011). DCDC2, KIAA0319 and CMIP are associated with reading-related traits. Biological Psychiatry, 70(3), 237245.Google Scholar
Schatschneider, C., Wagner, R. K., Hart, S. A., & Tighe, E. L. (2016). Using simulations to investigate the longitudinal stability of alternative schemes for classifying and identifying children with reading disabilities. Scientific Studies of Reading, 20(1), 3448.Google Scholar
Schulte-Körne, G., Grimm, T., Nöthen, M. M., Müller-Myhsok, B., Cichon, S., Vogt, I. R., ... & Remschmidt, H. (1998). Evidence for linkage of spelling disability to chromosome 15. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63(1), 279.Google Scholar
Shaywitz, S., Fletcher, J., Holahan, J., Shneider, A. E., Marchione, K. E., Stuebing, K. K.,et al. (1999). Persistence of dyslexia: The Connecticut Longitudinal Study at adolescence. Pediatrics, 104, 13511359.Google Scholar
Shaywitz, S. E., Morris, R., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annual Review ofPsychology., 59, 451475.Google Scholar
Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). The science of reading and dyslexia. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 7(3), 158166.Google Scholar
Shaywitz, S. E., (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20(4), 13291349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., Mencl, W. E., et al. (1998). Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(5), 26362641.Google Scholar
Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of educational research, 75(3), 417453.Google Scholar
Schumacher, J., König, I. R., Schröder, T., Duell, , , M., Plume, , , E., Propping, P., et al. (2008). Further evidence for a susceptibility locus contributing to reading disability on chromosome 15q15–q21. Psychiatric Genetics, 18(3), 137142.Google Scholar
Slavin, R. E., Leavey, M. B., & Madde, N. A. (1982). Combining cooperative learning and individualized instruction: Effects on student mathematics achievement, attitudes and behaviors. The Elementary School Journal, 84(4) 409422.Google Scholar
Snowling, M. J., Gallagher, A., & Frith, U. (2003). Family risk of dyslexia is continuous: Individual differences in the precursors of reading skill. Child Development, 74(2), 358373.Google Scholar
Spencer, M., Wagner, R. K., Schatschneider, C., Quinn, J. M., Lopez, D., & Petscher, Y. (2014). Incorporating RTI in a hybrid model of reading disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(3), 161171. 0731948714530967.Google Scholar
Spira, E. G., Bracken, S. S., & Fischel, J. E. (2005). Predicting improvement after first-grade reading difficulties: The effects of oral language, emergent literacy, and behavior skills. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 225.Google Scholar
Stanovich, K. E. (1988). Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poor reader: The phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of learning disabilities, 21(10), 590604.Google Scholar
Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 24.Google Scholar
Stein, C. M., Schick, J. H., Taylor, H. G., Shriberg, L. D., Millard, C., Kundtz-Kluge, A., et al. (2004). Pleiotropic effects of a chromosome 3 locus on speech-sound disorder and reading. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(2), 283297.Google Scholar
Suppes, P., Holland, P. W., Hu, Y., & Vu, M. T. (2013). Effectiveness of an individualized computer-driven online math K-5 course in eight California title I elementary schools. Educational Assessment, 18(3), 162181.Google Scholar
Tanaka, H., Black, J. M., Hulme, C., Stanley, L. M., Kesler, S. R., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., et al. (2011). The brain basis of the phonological deficit in dyslexia is independent of IQ. Psychological Science, 22(11), 14421451.Google Scholar
Taylor, J., Roehrig, A. D., Hensler, B. S., Connor, C. M., & Schatschneider, C. (2010). Teacher quality moderates the genetic effects on early reading. Science, 328(5977), 512.Google Scholar
Taylor, J. E., Hart, S. A., Mikolajewski, A. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2012). An update on the Florida State Twin Registry. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 1(1), 15.Google Scholar
The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. (2015). Fact Sheet: President Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from Scholar
Thomas, M. S., Kovas, Y., Meaburn, E. L., & Tolmie, A. (2015). What can the study of genetics offer to educators? Mind, Brain, and Education, 9(2), 7280.Google Scholar
Thompson, P. A., Hulme, C., Nash, H. M., Gooch, D., Hayiou‐Thomas, E., & Snowling, M. J. (2015). Developmental dyslexia: Predicting individual risk. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(9), 976987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40(1), 726.Google Scholar
Shaywitz, S. E., (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15(1), 5564.Google Scholar
van Bergen, E., Bishop, D. V. M., van Zuigen, T., & de Jong, P. F. (2015). How does parental reading influence children’s reading? A study of cognitive mediation. Scientific Studies of Reading.Google Scholar
van Bergen, E., van der Leij, A., & de Jong, P. F. (2014). The intergenerational multiple deficit model and the case of dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 346.Google Scholar
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 240.Google Scholar
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Reid Lyon, G. (2000). Differentiating between difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: More evidence against the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(3), 223238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., et al. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 601.Google Scholar
Vogler, G. P., DeFries, J. C., & Decker, S. N. (1985). Family history as an indicator of risk for reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18(7), 419421. doi:10.1177/002221948501800711Google Scholar
Wagner, R. K. (2008). Rediscovering dyslexia: New approaches for identification and classification. In Reid, G., Fawcett, A. J., Manis, F., & Siegel, L. S (Eds.), The Sage handbook of dyslexia (pp. 174191). London: Sage.Google Scholar
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192212.Google Scholar
Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., & DeFries, J. C. (2000). Twin study of the etiology of comorbidity between reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 96, 293301.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats