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Examination 1: Answers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2012

Aidan Shaw
Affiliation:
Guy's and St Thomas’ Hospitals
Benjamin Smith
Affiliation:
Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals
David C. Howlett
Affiliation:
Eastbourne District General Hospital
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Summary

Axial CT scan of the brain

  1. A Frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle.

  2. B Anterior limb of the right internal capsule.

  3. C Head of the left caudate nucleus.

  4. D Left thalamic nucleus.

  5. E Pineal gland.

The heads of the caudate nuclei are located in the concavities of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. The internal capsule lies lateral to the caudate nucleus and is split into anterior and posterior limbs. The anterior limb is located between the caudate nucleus and the globus pallidus of the lentiform nucleus. There are two thalami, which are located lateral to the third ventricle and medially to the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The pineal gland is a midline structure located posterior to the third ventricle and is often calcified.

Sagittal T1 MRI scan of the brain

  1. A Frontal sinus.

  2. B Optic chiasm.

  3. C Pons.

  4. D Prepontine cistern.

  5. E Soft palate.

The paired frontal sinuses lie superior to the nose and orbits and are located between the inner and outer tables of the frontal bone. The two optic nerves partially decussate at the optic chiasm in the middle cranial fossa. The brainstem consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. The pons can be recognized on sagittal imaging by its bulging anterior surface, in front of which is the prepontine cistern (one of the subarachnoid basal cisterns, located between the pons and the clivus).

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

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