Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jb2ch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-20T16:32:35.629Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 7 - Infections Affecting the Spinal Cord

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2018

Rachel L. Chin
University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
Bradley W. Frazee
University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine
Zlatan Coralic
University of California, San Francisco
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bouchez, B., Arnott, G., and Delfosse, J. M. Acute spinal epidural abscess. J. Neurol. 1985; 231(6): 343–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brazis, P. W., Masdeu, J. C., and Biller, J. Localization in Clinical Neurology (New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001).Google Scholar
Bremer, A. A. and Darouiche, R. O. Spinal epidural abscess presenting as intra-abdominal pathology: a case report and literature review. J. Emerg. Med. 2004; 26(1): 51–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brust, J. C. M. The Practice of Neural Science: From Synapses to Symptoms (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000).Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Poliovirus infections in four unvaccinated children – Minnesota, August–October 2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2005; 54(Dispatch): 13.Google Scholar
Chowfin, A., Potti, A., Paul, A., and Carson, P. Spinal epidural abscess after tattooing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 29(1): 225–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clark, R., Carlisle, J. T., and Valainis, G. T. Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis presenting as an epidural abscess. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1989; 11(2): 338–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cwikiel, W. Percutaneous drainage of abscess in psoas compartment and epidural space. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Radiol. 1991; 32(2): 159–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danner, R. L. and Hartman, B. J. Update on spinal epidural abscess: 35 cases and review of the literature. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1987; 9(2): 265–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darouiche, R. O. Spinal epidural abscess. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 355(19): 2012–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darouiche, R. O., Hamill, R. J., Greenberg, S. B., et al. Bacterial spinal epidural abscess. Review of 43 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore) 1992; 71(6): 369–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flikweert, E. R., Postema, R. R., Briel, J. W., et al. Spinal epidural abscess presenting with abdominal pain. Eur. J. Pediatr. Surg. 2002; 12(2): 141–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fukui, T., Ichikawa, H., Kawate, N., et al. Acute spinal epidural abscess and spinal leptomeningitis: report of 2 cases with comparative neuroradiological and autopsy study. Eur. Neurol. 1992; 32(6): 328–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grewal, S., Hocking, G., and Wildsmith, J. A. Epidural abscesses. Br. J. Anaesth. 2006; 96(3): 292302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, R. K., Agarwal, P., Rastogi, H., et al. Problems in distinguishing spinal tuberculosis from neoplasia on MRI. Neuroradiology 1996; 38(Suppl. 1): S97–104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gupta, R. K., Gupta, S., Kumar, S., et al. MRI in intraspinal tuberculosis. Neuroradiology 1994; 36(1): 3943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanigan, W. C., Asner, N. G., and Elwood, P. W. Magnetic resonance imaging and the nonoperative treatment of spinal epidural abscess. Surg. Neurol. 1990; 34(6): 408–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harston, P. K. Spinal epidural abscess as a complication of duodenolumbar fistula. A Case Report. Spine 1992; 17(5): 593–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hendrix, W. C., Arruda, L. K., Platts-Mills, T. A., et al. Aspergillus epidural abscess and cord compression in a patient with aspergilloma and empyema. Survival and response to high dose systemic amphotericin therapy. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145(6): 1483–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hlavin, M. L., Kaminski, H. J., Ross, J. S., and Ganz, E. Spinal epidural abscess: a ten-year perspective. Neurosurgery 1990; 27(2): 177–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, R. C., Shapiro, G. S., Lim, M., et al. Cervical epidural abscess after epidural steroid injection. Spine 2004; 29(1): E7–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenkin, G., Woolley, I. J., Brown, G. V., and Richards, M. J. Postpartum epidural abscess due to group B Streptococcus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997; 25(5): 1249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jinkins, J. R., Gupta, R., Chang, K. H., and Rodriguez-Carbajal, J. MR imaging of central nervous system tuberculosis. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 1995; 33(4): 771–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joshi, S. M., Hatfield, R. H., Martin, J., Taylor, W. Spinal epidural abscess: a diagnostic challenge. Br. J. Neurosurg. 2003; 17(2): 160–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khatib, R., Riederer, K. M., Held, M., Aljundi, H. Protracted and recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia despite defervescence with vancomycin therapy. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1995; 27(5): 529–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knight, J. W., Cordingley, J. J., and Palazzo, M. G. Epidural abscess following epidural steroid and local anaesthetic injection. Anaesthesia 1997; 52(6): 576–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koppel, B. S., Tuchman, A. J., Mangiardi, J. R., et al. Epidural spinal infection in intravenous drug abusers. Arch. Neurol. 1988; 45(12): 1331–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Latronico, N., Tansini, A., Gualandi, G. F., et al. Successful nonoperative treatment of tuberculous spinal epidural abscess with cord compression: the role of magnetic resonance imaging. Eur. Neurol. 1993; 33(2): 177–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawn, N. D., Fletcher, D. D., Henderson, R. D., et al. Anticipating mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Arch. Neurol. 2001; 58(6): 893–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leys, D., Lesoin, F., Viaud, C., et al. Decreased morbidity from acute bacterial spinal epidural abscesses using computed tomography and nonsurgical treatment in selected patients. Ann. Neurol. 1985; 17(4): 350–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, J., Loeb, J. A., Shy, M. E., et al. Asymmetric flaccid paralysis: a neuromuscular presentation of West Nile virus infection. Ann. Neurol. 2003; 53(6): 703–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lyu, R. K., Chen, C. J., Tang, L. M., and Chen, S. T. Spinal epidural abscess successfully treated with percutaneous, computed tomography-guided, needle aspiration and parenteral antibiotic therapy: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 2002; 51(2): 509–12; discussion 512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mampalam, T. J., Rosegay, H., Andrews, B. T., et al. Nonoperative treatment of spinal epidural infections. J. Neurosurg. 1989; 71(2): 208–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maslen, D. R., Jones, S. R., Crislip, M. A., et al. Spinal epidural abscess. Optimizing patient care. Arch. Intern. Med. 1933; 153(14): 1713–21.Google Scholar
Messer, H. D., Lenchner, G. S., Brust, J. C., and Resor, S. Lumbar spinal abscess managed conservatively. Case report. J. Neurosurg. 1977; 46(6): 825–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Numaguchi, Y., Rigamonti, D., Rothman, M. I., et al. Spinal epidural abscess: evaluation with gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiographics 1993; 13(3): 545–59; discussion 559–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nussbaum, E. S., Rigamonti, D., Standiford, H., et al. Spinal epidural abscess: a report of 40 cases and review. Surg. Neurol. 1992; 38(3): 225–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panagiotopoulos, V., Konstantinou, D., Solomou, E., et al. Extended cervicolumbar spinal epidural abscess associated with paraparesis successfully decompressed using a minimally invasive technique. Spine 2004; 29(14): E300–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patten, J. Neurological Differential Diagnosis (London: Springer-Verlag, 1996).Google Scholar
Pirofski, L. and Casadevall, A. Mixed staphylococcal and cryptococcal epidural abscess in a patient with AIDS. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1990; 12(5): 964–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reihsaus, E., Waldbaur, H., and Seeling, W. Spinal epidural abscess: a meta-analysis of 915 patients. Neurosurg. Rev. 2000; 23(4): 175204; discussion 205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rigamonti, D., Liem, L., Sampath, P., et al. Spinal epidural abscess: contemporary trends in etiology, evaluation, and management. Surg. Neurol. 1999; 52(2): 189–96; discussion 197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sadato, N., Numaguchi, Y., Rigamonti, D., et al. Spinal epidural abscess with gadolinium-enhanced MRI: serial follow-up studies and clinical correlations. Neuroradiology 1994; 36(1): 44–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarubbi, F. A. and Vasquez, J. E. Spinal epidural abscess associated with the use of temporary epidural catheters: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997; 25(5): 1155–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shintani, S., Tanaka, H., Irifune, A., et al. Iatrogenic acute spinal epidural abscess with septic meningitis: MR findings. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 1992; 94: 253–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siao, P., McCabe, P., and Yagnik, P. Nocardial spinal epidural abscess. Neurology 1989; 39(7): 996.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sillevis Smitt, P., Tsafka, A., van den Bent, M., et al. Spinal epidural abscess complicating chronic epidural analgesia in 11 cancer patients: clinical findings and magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurol. 1999; 246(9): 815–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soehle, M. and Wallenfang, T. Spinal epidural abscesses: clinical manifestations, prognostic factors, and outcomes. Neurosurgery 2002; 51(1): 7985; discussion 86–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solera, J., Lozano, E., Martinez-Alfaro, E., et al. Brucellar spondylitis: review of 35 cases and literature survey. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 29(6): 1440–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tabo, E., Ohkuma, Y., Kimura, S., et al. Successful percutaneous drainage of epidural abscess with epidural needle and catheter. Anesthesiology 1994; 80(6): 1393–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tessman, P. A., Preston, D. C., and Shapiro, B. E. Spinal epidural abscess in an afebrile patient. Arch. Neurol. 2004; 61(4): 590–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tung, G. A., Yim, J. W., Mermel, L. A., et al. Spinal epidural abscess: correlation between MRI findings and outcome. Neuroradiology 1999; 41(12): 904–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walter, R. S., King, J. C. Jr., Manley, J., and Rigamonti, D. Spinal epidural abscess in infancy: successful percutaneous drainage in a nine-month-old and review of the literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1991; 10(11): 860–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheeler, D., Keiser, P., Rigamonti, D., and Keay, S. Medical management of spinal epidural abscesses: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1992; 15(1): 22–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, L. L., Chen, S. T., and Tang, L. M. Nonsurgical treatment of spinal epidural abscess: report of a case. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 1994; 93(3): 253–5.Google ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats