Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4rdrl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T02:52:30.619Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 December 2009

Walter D. Koenig
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Janis L. Dickinson
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2004

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abbott, D. H. (1984). Behavioral and physiological suppression of fertility in subordinate marmoset monkeys. Am. J. Primatol., 6, 169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 5, 325–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allee, W. C. (1931). Animal Aggregations: a Study in General Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Alonso, J. A. and Alonso, J. C. (1993). Age-related differences in time budgets and parental care in wintering common cranes. Auk, 110, 78–88Google Scholar
Amos, B., Schlotterer, C. and Tautz, D. (1993). Social structure of pilot whales revealed by analytical DNA profiling. Science, 260, 670–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anava, A. (1998). Seasonal water and energy fluxes in Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps), a passerine that inhabits extreme deserts. Ph. D. dissertation, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2000). Seasonal field metabolic rate and dietary intake in Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps) inhabiting extreme deserts. Funct. Ecol., 14, 607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001a). Growth rate and energetics of Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) nestlings. Auk, 118, 519–524Google Scholar
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001b). Effect of group size on field metaolic rate of Arabian babblers provisioning nestlings. Condor, 103, 376–380Google Scholar
Anava, A., Kam, M., Shkolnik, A. and Degen, A. A. (2001c). Does group size affect field metabolic rate of Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) nestlings? Auk, 118, 525–528Google Scholar
Anderson, A. H. and Anderson, A. (1972). The Cactus Wren. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press
Andersson, M. (1984). Brood parasitism within species. In: Producers and Scroungers, ed. C. J. Barnard. London: Croom-Helm. pp. 195–228CrossRef
Andersson, M. (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Andersson, M. (2001). Relatedness and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism. Am. Nat., 158, 599–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersson, M. and Åhlund, M. (2000). Host-parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 13188–13193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ankney, C. D. (1982). Sex ratio varies with egg sequence in lesser snow geese. Auk, 99, 662–666Google Scholar
Arcese, P. (1989). Intrasexual competition, mating system, and natal dispersal in song sparrows. Anim. Behav., 38, 958–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armitage, K. B. (1981). Sociality as a life-history tactic of ground-squirrels. Oecologia, 48, 36–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armitage, K. B. (1999). Evolution of sociality in marmots. J. Mammal., 80, 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong, E. A. and Whitehouse, H. L. K. (1977). Behavioral adaptations of the wren (Troglodytes troglodytes). Biol. Rev., 52, 235–294Google Scholar
Arnold, K. E. and Owens, I. P. F. (1998). Cooperative breeding in birds: a comparative test of the life history hypothesis. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 265, 739–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, K. E. and Owens, I. P. F. (1999). Cooperative breeding in birds: the role of ecology. Behav. Ecol., 10, 465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, K. E., Griffith, S. C. and Goldizen, A. W. (2001). Sex-biased hatching sequences in the cooperatively breeding noisy miner. J. Avian Biol., 32, 219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, W. (1990a). The evolution of marmot sociality. 1. Why disperse late? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 27, 229–237Google Scholar
Arnold, W. (1990b). The evolution of marmot sociality. 2. Costs and benefits of joint hibernation. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 27, 239–246Google Scholar
Asa, C. S. (1997). Hormonal and experiential factors in the expression of social and parental behavior in canids. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–149
Baglione, V., Canestrari, D., Marcos, J. M., Griesser, M. and Ekman, J. (2002a). History, environment and social behaviour: experimentally induced cooperative breeding in the carrion crow. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1247–1251Google Scholar
Baglione, V., Marcos, J. M. and Canestrari, D. (2002b). Cooperatively breeding groups of the carrion crow Corvus corone corone in northern Spain. Auk, 119, 790–799Google Scholar
Bailey, R. E. (1952). The incubation patch of passerine birds. Condor, 54, 121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, A. J. and Woods, F. (1992). Reproduction of the emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator) in captivity, with comparisons to cotton-top and golden lion tamarins. Am. J. Primatol., 26, 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, A. J., Dietz, J. M. and Kleiman, D. G. (1993). Behavioural evidence for monopolization of paternity in multi-male groups of golden lion tamarins. Anim. Behav., 46, 1091–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balcombe, J. P. (1989). Non-breeder asymmetry in Florida scrub jays. Evol. Ecol., 3, 77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balda, R. P. and Bateman, G. C. (1971). Flocking and the annual cycle of the pinyon jay. Condor, 73, 287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bales, K., O'Herron, M., Baker, A. J. and Dietz, J. M. (2001). Sources of variability in numbers of live births in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol., 54, 211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ball, G. F. (1983). Functional incubation in male barn swallows. Auk, 100, 998–1000Google Scholar
Ball, G. F. (1991). Endocrine mechanisms and the evolution of avian parental care. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 20, 984–991Google Scholar
Ball, G. F. (1993). The neural integration of environmental information by seasonally breeding birds. Am. Zool., 33, 185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balthazart, J. (1983). Hormonal correlates of behavior. In: Avian Biology, vol. 7, ed. D. S. Farner and K. C. Parkes. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 221–365CrossRef
Barkan, C. P. L., Craig, J. L., Strahl, S. D., Stewart, A. M. and Brown, J. L. (1986). Social dominance in communal Mexican jays Aphelocoma ultramarina. Anim. Behav., 34, 175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker, F. K., Barrowclough, G. F. and Groth, J. G. (2002). A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, G. W., Ford, H. A. and Recher, H. F. (1994). Conservation of woodland birds in a fragmented rural landscape. Pacific Cons. Biol., 1, 245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, S. C. H. and Charlesworth, B. (1991). Effects of a change in the level of inbreeding on the genetic load. Nature, 352, 522–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, G. A. and Trost, C. H. (1970). Temperature regulation in the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). Condor, 72, 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateson, P. P. G. (1982). Preferences for cousins in Japanese quail. Nature, 295, 236–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchamp, G. (1999). The evolution of communal roosting in birds: origin and secondary losses. Behav. Ecol., 10, 675–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bednarz, J. C. (1988). Cooperative hunting in Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Science, 239, 1525–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bednarz, J. C. (1995). Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' UnionCrossRef
Bednarz, J. C. and Hayden, T. J. (1991). Skewed brood sex ratio and sex-biased hatching sequence in Harris's hawks. Am. Nat., 137, 116–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bednekoff, P. (1997). Mutualism among safe, selfish sentinels: a dynamic game. Am. Nat., 150, 373–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1987). Territoriality among red-winged blackbirds. II. Removal experiments and site domiance. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20, 339–349Google Scholar
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1989). Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7933–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beletsky, L. D. and Orians, G. H. (1996). Red-Winged Blackbirds: Decision-Making and Reproductive Success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Beletsky, L. D., Gori, D. F., Freeman, S. and Wingfield, J. C. (1995). Testosterone and polygyny in birds. Curr. Ornithol., 12, 1–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengtsson, B. O. (1978). Avoiding inbreeding: at what cost? J. Theor. Biol., 73, 439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, N. C. and Faulkes, C. G. (2000). African Mole-Rats: Ecology and Eusociality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bennett, N. C., Jarvis, J. U. M., Faulkes, C. G. and Millar, R. P. (1993). LH responses to single doses of exogenous GnRH by freshly captured Damaraland mole-rats, Cryptomys damarensis. J. Repro. Fert., 99, 81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, N. C., Jarvis, J. U. M., Millar, R. P., Sasano, H. and Ntshinga, K. V. (1994). Reproductive suppression in eusocial Cryptomys damarensis colonies: socially-induced infertility in females. J. Zool., 233, 617–630Google Scholar
Bennett, N. C., Faulkes, C. G. and Molteno, A. J. (1996). Reproductive suppression in subordinate, non-breeding female Damaraland mole-rats: two components to a lifetime of socially-induced infertility. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 1599–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, N. C., Faulkes, C. G. and Spinks, A. C. (1997). LH responses to single doses of exogenous GnRH by social Mashona mole-rats: a continuum of socially induced infertility in the family Bathyergidae. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1001–1006Google Scholar
Bennett, N. C., Molteno, A. J. and Spinks, A. C. (2000). Pituitary sensitivity to exogenous GnRH in giant Zambian mole-rats, Cryptomys mechowi (Rodentia: Bathyergidae): support for the ‘socially induced infertility continuum’. J. Zool., 252, 447–452Google Scholar
Bennett, P. M. and Owens, I. P. F. (2002). Evolutionary Ecology of Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bensch, S. (1999). Sex allocation in relation to parental quality. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 451–466Google Scholar
Bensch, S., Hasselquist, D., Nielsen, B. and Hansson, B. (1998). Higher fitness for philopatric than for immigrant males in a semi-isolated population of great reed warblers. Evolution, 528, 877–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertram, B. C. R. (1978). Living in groups: predators and prey. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 64–96
Bertram, B. C. R. (1992). The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Birkhead, T. R. (1991). The Magpies: the Ecology and Behaviour of Black-billed and Yellow-billed Magpies. London: Poyser
Birkhead, T. R., Hatchwell, B. J. and Davies, N. B. (1991). Sperm competition and the reproductive organs of the male and female dunnock Prunella modularis. Ibis, 133, 306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, R. P. and Groves, A. L. (1991). The social structure of Arabian babbler, Turdoides squamiceps, roosts. Anim. Behav., 42, 323–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Black, J. M. and Owen, M. (1987). Determinant factors of social rank in goose flocks: acquisition of social rank in young geese. Behaviour, 102, 129–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Black, J. M. and Owen, M. (1989). Parent–offspring relationships in wintering barnacle geese. Anim. Behav., 37, 187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackwell, P. and Bacon, P. J. (1993). A critique of the territory inheritance hypothesis. Anim. Behav., 46, 821–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanchard, L. (2000). An investigation of the communal breeding system of the smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani). M.Sc. dissertation, McMaster University, Canada
Blumstein, D. T. and Armitage, K. B. (1999). Cooperative breeding in marmots. Oikos, 84, 369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boal, C. W. and Spaulding, R. L. (2000). Helping at a Cooper's hawk nest. Wilson Bull., 112, 275–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bock, C. E. (1970). The ecology and behavior of the Lewis woodpecker (Asyndesmus lewis). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 92, 1–91Google Scholar
Boix-Hinzen, C. and Lovegrove, B. G. (1998). Circadian metabolic and thermoregulatory patterns of red-billed woodhoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureus): the influence of huddling. J. Zool., 244, 33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boland, C. R. J. and Cockburn, A. (2002). Short sketches from the long history of cooperative breeding in Australian birds. Emu, 102, 9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boland, C. R. J., Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1997a). Experimental manipulation of brood reduction and parental care in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 683–691Google Scholar
Boland, C. R. J., Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1997b). Deception by helpers in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs and its experimental manipulation. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 251–256Google Scholar
Bortolotti, G. R. (1986). Influence of sibling competition on nestling sex ratios of sexually dimorphic birds. Am. Nat., 127, 495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, B. S. (2002). Groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). In: Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' UnionCrossRef
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. L. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1989). Dispersal in communally nesting groove–billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Condor, 91, 52–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. R. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1991). Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Condor, 93, 159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, B. S., Koford, R. R. and Brown, J. L. (1995). Genetic evidence for undetected alleles and unexpected parentage in the gray-breasted jay. Condor, 97, 503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brant, C. L., Schwab, T. M., Vandenbergh, J. G., Schaefer, R. L. and Solomon, N. G. (1998). Behavioural suppression of female pine voles after replacement of the breeding male. Anim. Behav., 55, 615–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braude, S. (2000). Dispersal and new colony formation in wild naked mole-rats: evidence against inbreeding as the system of mating. Behav. Ecol., 11, 7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breininger, D. R. (1999). Florida scrub-jay demography and dispersal in a fragmented landscape. Auk, 116, 520–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breininger, D. R., Larson, V. L., Duncan, B. W., Smith, R. B., Oddy, D. M. and Goodchild, M. (1995). Landscape patterns in Florida scrub-jay habitat preference and demography. Conserv. Biol., 9, 1142–1153Google Scholar
Breuner, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2002). Plasma binding proteins as mediators of corticosteroid action in vertebrates. J. Endocrinol., 175, 99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briskie, J. V., Montgomerie, R., Pöldmaa, T. and Boag, P. T. (1998). Paternity and paternal care in the polygynandrous Smith's longspur. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 43, 181–190Google Scholar
Brooker, M. G., Rowley, I., Adams, M. and Baverstock, P. R. (1990). Promiscuity: an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in a socially monogamous species? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 26, 191–200Google Scholar
Brooks, T. and Thompson, H. S. (2001). Current bird conservation issues in Africa. Auk, 118, 575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brosset, A. and Fry, C. H. (1988). Order Musophagiformes, Musophagidae, turacos, go-away birds and plantain-eaters. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. C. H. Fry, S. Keith and E. K. Urban. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 26–57
Brotherton, P. N. M., Clutton-Brock, T. H., O'Riain, M. J., Gaynor, D., Sharpe, L., Kansky, R. and McIlrath, G. M. (2001). Offspring food allocation by parents and helpers in a cooperative mammal. Behav. Ecol., 12, 590–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, C. R. (1984). Laying eggs in a neighbor's nest: benefit and cost of colonial nesting in swallows. Science, 224, 518–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, C. R. (1988). Enhanced foraging efficiency through information centers: a benefit of coloniality in cliff swallows. Ecology, 69, 602–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, C. R. and Foster, G. G. (1992). The thermal and energetic significance of clustering on the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). J. Comp. Physiol. B, 162, 664–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1969). Territorial behavior and population regulation in birds, a review and re-evaluation. Wilson Bull., 81, 293–329Google Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1974). Alternate routes to sociality in jays – with a theory for the evolution of altruism and communal breeding. Am. Zool., 64, 63–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1978). Avian communal breeding systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 9, 123–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1980). Fitness in complex avian social systems. In: Evolution of Social Behavior: Hypotheses and Empirical Tests, ed. H. Markl. Weinheim: Dahlem Konferenzen Verlag Chemie. pp. 115–128
Brown, J. L. (1982). Optimal group size in territorial animals. J. Theor. Biol., 95, 793–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1985). The evolution of helping behavior – an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. In: The Evolution of Adaptive Skills: Comparative and Ontogenetic Approaches, ed. E. S. Gollin. Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaus. pp. 137–171
Brown, J. L. (1986). Cooperative breeding and the regulation of numbers. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 18, 774–782Google Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1987). Helping and Communal Breeding in Birds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Brown, J. L. (1994). Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' UnionCrossRef
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1984). Parental facilitation: parent offspring relations in communally breeding birds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 14, 203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1990). Mexican jays: uncooperative breeding. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–288CrossRef
Brown, J. L. and Brown, E. R. (1998). Are inbred offspring less fit? Survival in a natural population of Mexican jays. Behav. Ecol., 9, 60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. and Vleck, C. M. (1998). Prolactin and helping in birds: has natural selection strengthened helping behavior? Behav. Ecol., 9, 541–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L., Brown, E. R., Brown, S. D. and Dow, D. D. (1982). Helpers: effects of experimental removal on reproductive success. Science, 215, 421–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruener, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2001). Seasonal regulation of membrane and intracellular corticosteroid receptors in the house sparrow brain. J. Neuroendocrinol., 13, 412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruener, C. W. and Orchinik, M. (2002). Plasma binding proteins as mediators of corticosteroid action in vertebrates. J. Endocrinol., 175, 99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruning, D. F. (1974). Social structure and reproductive behavior of the greater rhea. Living Bird, 13, 251–294Google Scholar
Bull, J. J. and Charnov, E. L. (1988). How fundamental are Fisherian sex ratios? Oxford Surv. Evol. Biol., 5, 96–135Google Scholar
Bulmer, M. G. and Taylor, P. D. (1980). Dispersal and the sex ratio. Nature, 284, 448–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buntin, J. D. (1996). Neural and hormonal control of parental behavior in birds. Adv. Study Behav., 25, 161–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burda, H. (1995). Individual recognition and incest avoidance in eusocial common mole-rats rather than reproductive suppression by parents. Experientia, 51, 411–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burke, T., Davies, N. B., Bruford, M. W. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1989). Parental care and mating behaviour of polyandrous dunnocks Prunella modularis related to paternity by DNA fingerprinting. Nature, 338, 249–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burley, N. (1981). The evolution of sexual indistinguishability. In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York: Chiron Press. pp. 121–137
Burney, D. A., James, H. F., Burney, L. P., Olson, S. L., Kikuchi, W., Wagner, W. L., Burney, M., McCloskey, D., Kikuchi, D., Grady, F., Gage, R. I. and Nishek, R. (2001). Holocene lake sediments in the Maha'ulepu caves of Kaua'i: evidence for a diverse biotic assemblage from the Hawaiian lowlands and its transformation since human arrival. Ecol. Monogr., 71, 615–642Google Scholar
Burt, D. B. (1996). Phylogenetic and ecological aspects of cooperative breeding in the bee-eaters (Aves: Meropidae). Ph. D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Burt, D. B. (2001). Evolutionary stasis, constraint and other terminology describing evolutionary patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 72, 509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burt, D. B. (2002). Social and breeding biology of bee-eaters in Thailand. Wilson Bull., 114, 275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burt, D. B. and Peterson, A. T. (1993). Biology of cooperative-breeding scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) of Oaxaca, Mexico. Auk, 110, 207–214Google Scholar
Caffrey, C. (2000). Correlates of reproductive success in cooperatively breeding western American crows: if helpers help, it's not by much. Condor, 102, 333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cant, M. A. (1998). A model for the evolution of reproductive skew without reproductive suppression. Anim. Behav., 55, 163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cant, M. A. and Field, J. (2001). Helping effort and future fitness in cooperative animal societies. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 1959–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cant, M. A. and Johnstone, R. A. (1999). Costly young and reproductive skew in animal societies. Behav. Ecol., 10, 178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cant, M. A. and Reeve, H. K. (2002). Female control of the distribution of paternity in cooperative breeders. Am. Nat., 160, 602–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cariello, M. O., Schwabl, H. G., Lee, R. W. and Macedo, R. H. F. (2002). Individual female clutch identification through yolk protein electrophoresis in the communally breeding guira cuckoo (Guira guira). Mol. Ecol., 11, 2417–2424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, A. A., Young, A. J., Bennett, N. C., Russell, A. F., McNeilly, A. S. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (in press). Hormonal correlates of dominance in cooperative meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Hormones and Behavior, in press
Carmen, W. J. (2004). Behavioral ecology of the California scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica): a noncooperative breeder with close cooperative relatives. Stud. Avian Biol., in pressGoogle Scholar
Carrick, R. (1963). Ecological significance of territory in the Australian magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 13, 740–753Google Scholar
Carrick, R. (1972). Population ecology of the black-backed magpie, royal penguin and silver gull. US Dept. Int. Wildl. Res. Rep., 2, 41–99Google Scholar
Carter, C. S. and Roberts, R. L. (1997). The psychobiological basis of cooperative breeding in rodents. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 231–266
Castro, I., Minot, E. O., Fordham, R. A. and Birkhead, T. R. (1996). Polygynandry, face-to-face copulation and sperm competition in the hihi Notiomystis cincta (Aves: Meliphagidae). Ibis, 138, 765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caughley, G. (1994). Directions in conservation biology. J. Anim. Ecol., 63, 215–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chao, L. (1997). Evolution of polyandry in a communal breeding system. Behav. Ecol., 8, 668–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaplin, S. B. (1982). The energetic significance of huddling behavior in common bushtits (Psaltriparus minimus). Auk, 99, 424–430Google Scholar
Charnov, E. L. (1982). The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Cheeseman, C. L., Mallinson, P. J., Ryan, J. and Wilesmith, J. W. (1993). Recolonisation by badgers in Gloucestershire. In: The Badger, ed. T. J. Hayden. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. pp. 78–93
Chen, J. and Franklin, J. F. (1990). Microclimate pattern and basic biological responses at the clearcut edges of old-growth Douglas fir stands. Northwest Environ. J., 6, 424–425Google Scholar
Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. (1985). Vervet monkey alarm calls: manipulation through shared information? Behaviour, 94, 150–166Google Scholar
Cisek, D. (2000). New colony formation in the “highly inbred” eusocial naked mole-rat: outbreeding is preferred. Behav. Ecol., 11, 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A. B. (1978). Sex ratio and local resource competition in a prosimian primate. Science, 201, 163–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, M. M. and Galef, B. G. (2000). Why some male Mongolian gerbils may help at the nest: testosterone, asexuality and alloparenting. Anim. Behav., 59, 801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, F. M. and Faulkes, C. G. (1999). Kin discrimination and female mate choice in the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 1995–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, M. F. (1988). The reproductive behaviour of the bell miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu, 88, 88–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, M. F. (1989). The pattern of helping in the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). Ethology, 80, 292–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, M. F. (1995). Co-operative breeding in Australasian birds: a review of hypotheses and evidence. Corella, 19, 73–90Google Scholar
Clarke, M. F and Fitz-Gerald, G. F. (1994). Spatial organisation of the cooperatively breeding bell miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu, 94, 96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, M. F., Jones, D. A., Ewne, J. G., Robertson, R. J., Griffiths, R., Painter, J., Boag, P. T. and Crozier, R. (2002). Male-biased sex ratios in broods of the cooperatively breeding bell miner Manorina melanophrys. J. Avian Biol., 33, 71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clotfelter, E. D. (1996). Mechanisms of facultative sex-ratio variation in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Auk, 113, 441–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1986). Sex ratio variation in birds. Ibis, 128, 317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. ed. (1988). Reproductive Success. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989a). Mammalian mating systems. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 236, 339–372Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989b). Female transfer and inbreeding avoidance in social mammals. Nature, 337, 70–72Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1998). Reproductive skew, concessions and limited control. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 288–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2002). Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science, 296, 69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Harvey, P. H. (1977). Primate ecology and social organization. J. Zool., 183, 1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1978). Mammals, resources and reproductive strategies. Nature, 273, 191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. and Guinness, F. E. (1981). Parental investment in male and female offspring in polygynous mammals. Nature, 289, 487–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1984). Maternal dominance, breeding success, and birth sex ratios in red deer. Nature, 308, 358–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989). Fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals. Nature, 337, 260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., MacColl, A. D. C., McIlrath, G., Chadwick, P., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Manser, M. and Skinner, J. D. (1998). Costs of cooperative behaviour in suricates (Suricata suricatta). Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 265, 185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Gaynor, D., McIlrath, G. M., MacColl, A. D. C., Kansky, R., Chadwick, P., Manser, M., Skinner, J. D. and Brotherton, P. N. M. (1999a). Predation, group size and mortality in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta. J. Anim. Ecol., 68, 672–683Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., O'Riain, M. J., Brotherton, P. N. M., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Griffin, A. S. and Manser, M. (1999b). Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals. Science, 284, 1640–1644Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Griffin, A. S., Gaynor, D., Sharpe, L., Kansky, R., Manser, M. B. and McIlrath, G. M. (2000). Individual contributions to babysitting in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., O'Riain, M. J., Griffin, A. S., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Sharpe, L. and McIlrath, G. M. (2001a). Contributions to cooperative rearing in meerkats. Anim. Behav., 61, 705–710Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Brotherton, P. N. M., Russell, A. F., O'Riain, M. J., Gaynor, D., Kansky, R., Griffin, A., Manser, M., Sharpe, L., McIlrath, G. M., Small, T., Moss, A. and Monfort, S. (2001b). Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups. Science, 291, 478–481Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F., Sharpe, L. L., Brotherton, P. N. M., McIlrath, G. M., White, S. and Cameron, E. Z. (2001c). Effects of helpers on juvenile development and survival in meerkats. Science, 293, 2446–2449Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F., Sharpe, L. L., Young, A. J., Balmforth, Z. and McIlrath, G. M. (2002). Evolution and development of sex differences in cooperative behavior in meerkats. Science, 297, 253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F. and Sharpe, L. L. (2003). Meerkat helpers do not specialize on particular activities. Anim. Behav., 66, 531–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Russell, A. F. and Sharpe, L. L. (2004). Behavioural tactics of breeders in cooperative meerkats. Anim. Behav., in pressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cockburn, A. (1990). Sex ratio variation in marsupials. Aust. J. Zool., 37, 467–479Google Scholar
Cockburn, A. (1996). Why do so many Australian birds cooperate: social evolution in the Corvida? In: Frontiers of Population Ecology, ed. R. B. Floyd, A. W. Sheppard and P. J. De Barro. East Melbourne: CSIRO. pp. 451–472
Cockburn, A. (1998). Evolution of helping behavior in cooperatively breeding birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 141–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cockburn, A., Legge, S. and Double, M. C. (2002). Sex ratios in birds and mammals: can the hypotheses be disentangled? In: The Sex Ratio Handbook, ed. I. C. W. Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–286
Cockburn, A., Osmond, H. L., Mulder, R. A., Green, D. J. and Double, M. C. (2003). Divorce, dispersal, density-dependence and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. J. Anim. Ecol., 72, 189–202Google Scholar
Coddington, C. L. and Cockburn, A. (1995). The mating system of free-living emus. Aust. J. Zool., 43, 365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Codenotti, T. L. and Alvarez, F. (1997). Cooperative breeding between males in the greater rhea Rhea americana. Ibis, 139, 568–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conner, R. N. and Rudolph, D. C. (1991). Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations. Wilson Bull., 103, 446–457Google Scholar
Conner, R. N., Rudolph, D. C. and Walters, J. R. (2001). The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Surviving in a Fire-Maintained Ecosystem. Austin: University of Texas Press
Connor, R. C. (1995). Altruism among non-relatives: alternatives to the ‘prisoner's dilemma’. Trends Ecol. Evol., 10, 84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conrad, K. F., Clarke, M. F., Robertson, R. J. and Boag, P. T. (1998). Paternity and the relatedness of helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner. Condor, 100, 343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooney, R. and Bennett, N. C. (2000). Inbreeding avoidance and reproductive skew in a cooperative mammal. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, C. B. (2000). Behavioral ecology and conservation of the Australian brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus). Ph. D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Cooper, C. B. and Walters, J. R. (2002a). Experimental evidence of disrupted dispersal causing decline of an Australian passerine in fragmented habitat. Conserv. Biol., 16, 471–478Google Scholar
Cooper, C. B. and Walters, J. R. (2002b). Independent effects of woodland loss and fragmentation on brown treecreeper distribution. Biol. Conserv., 105, 1–10Google Scholar
Cooper, C. B., Walters, J. R. and Ford, H. A. (2002a). Effects of remnant size and connectivity on the response of brown treecreepers to habitat fragmentation. Emu, 102, 249–256Google Scholar
Cooper, C. B., Walters, J. R. and Priddy, J. A. (2002b). Landscape patterns and dispersal success: simulated population dynamics in the brown treecreeper. Ecol. Appl., 12, 1576–1587Google Scholar
Copeyon, C. K., Walters, J. R. and Carter, J. H. I. (1991). Induction of red-cockaded woodpecker group formation by artificial cavity construction. J. Wildl. Manage., 55, 549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coyne, J. A. and Price, T. D. (2000). Little evidence for sympatric speciation in island birds. Evolution, 54, 2166–2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, J. L. (1979). Habitat variation in the social organization of a communal gallinule, the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 5, 331–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, J. L. (1980). Pair and group breeding behaviour of a communal gallinule, the pukeko Porphyrio porphyrio. Anim. Behav., 32, 23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, J. L. and Jamieson, I. G. (1988). Incestuous mating in a communal bird: a family affair. Am. Nat., 131, 58–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, J. L. and Jamieson, I. G. (1990). Pukeko: different approaches and some different answers. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 385–412CrossRef
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C. M. (1993). The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 7: Flycatchers to Shrikes. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Creel, S. R. (2001). Social dominance and stress hormones. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (1991). Energetics, reproductive suppression and obligate communal breeding in carnivores. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 28, 263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (1995). Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Anim. Behav., 50, 1325–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R. and Creel, N. M. (2001). The African Wild Dog. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Creel, S. R. and Macdonald, D. (1995). Sociality, group size, and reproductive suppression among carnivores. Adv. Study Behav., 24, 203–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1994). Inclusive fitness and reproductive strategies in dwarf mongooses. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 5, 339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1997). Variation in reproductive suppression among dwarf mongooses: interplay between mechanisms and evaluation. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–170
Creel, S. R., Monfort, S. L., Wildt, D. E. and Waser, P. M. (1991). Spontaneous lactation is an adaptive result of pseudopregnancy. Nature, 351, 660–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creel, S. R., Creel, N. M., Wildt, D. E. and Monfort, S. L. (1992). Behavioural and endocrine mechanisms of reproductive suppression in Serengeti dwarf mongooses. Anim. Behav., 43, 231–245Google Scholar
Creel, S. R., Wildt, D. E. and Monfort, S. L. (1993). Aggression, reproduction, and androgens in wild dwarf mongooses: a test of the challenge hypothesis. Am. Nat., 141, 816–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crespi, B. J. and Ragsdale, J. E. (2000). A skew model for the evolution of sociality via manipulation: why it is better to be feared than loved. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crick, H. Q. P. (1992). Load-lightening in cooperatively breeding birds and the cost of reproduction. Ibis, 134, 56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crick, H. Q. P. and Fry, C. H. (1986). Effects of helpers on parental condition in red-throated bee-eaters (Merops bullocki). J. Anim. Ecol., 55, 893–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crome, F. H. J. (1976). Some observations on the biology of the cassowary in northern Queensland. Emu, 76, 8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, R. L. (1988a). Influence of kinship on helping behavior in Galápagos mockingbirds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 141–152Google Scholar
Curry, R. L. (1988b). Group structure, within-group conflict and reproductive tactics in cooperatively breeding Galápagos mockingbirds, Nesomimus parvulus. Anim. Behav., 36, 1708–1728Google Scholar
Curry, R. L. and Grant, P. R. (1989). Demography of the cooperatively breeding Galápagos mockingbird, Nesomimus parvulus, in a climatically variable environment. J. Anim. Ecol., 58, 441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, R. L. and Grant, P. R. (1990). Galápagos mockingbirds: territorial cooperative breeding in a climatically variable environment. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 289–331CrossRef
Daniels, S. J. (1997). Female Dispersal and Inbreeding in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. M.S. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (1999). Inbreeding depression and its effects on natal dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2492–2498Google Scholar
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (2000a). Inbreeding depression and its effects on natal dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers. Condor, 103, 482–491Google Scholar
Daniels, S. J. and Walters, J. R. (2000b). Between-year breeding dispersal in red-cockaded woodpeckers: multiple causes and estimated cost. Ecology, 81, 2473–2484Google Scholar
Daniels, S. J., Priddy, J. A. and Walters, J. R. (2000). Inbreeding in small populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers: insights from a spatially explicit individual-based model. In: Genetics, Demography, and Viability of Fragmented Populations, ed. A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–147CrossRef
Darwin, C. (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: John Murray
Davies, N. B. (1983). Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in dunnocks. Nature, 302, 334–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B. (1985). Cooperation and conflict among dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. Anim. Behav., 33, 628–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B. (1989). Sexual conflict and the polygamy threshold. Anim. Behav., 38, 226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B. (1990). Dunnocks: cooperation and conflict among males and females in a variable mating system. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 455–485CrossRef
Davies, N. B. (1992). Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Davies, N. B. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1992). The value of male parental care and its influence on reproductive allocation by male and female dunnocks. J. Anim. Ecol., 61, 259–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B. and Lundberg, A. (1984). Food distribution and a variable mating system in the dunnock, Prunella modularis. J. Anim. Ecol., 53, 895–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B., Hatchwell, B. J., Robson, T. and Burke, T. (1992). Paternity and parental effort in dunnocks Prunella modularis: how good are chick-feeding rules? Anim. Behav., 43, 729–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N. B., Hartley, I. R., Hatchwell, B. J., srochers, A., Skeer, J. and Nebel, D. (1995). The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. 1. Ecological causes and reproductive conflicts. Anim. Behav., 49, 769–788Google Scholar
Davies, N. B., Hartley, I. R., Hatchwell, B. J. and Langmore, N. E. (1996). Female control of copulations to maximize male help: a comparison of polygynandrous alpine accentors, Prunella collaris, and dunnocks, P. modularis. Anim. Behav., 51, 27–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, D. E. (1940). Social nesting habits of the smooth-billed ani. Auk, 57, 197–218Google Scholar
Davis, D. E. (1942). The phylogeny of social nesting habits in the Crotophaginae. Q. Rev. Biol., 17, 115–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1979). Twelve misunderstandings of kin selection. Z. Tierpsychol., 51, 184–200Google Scholar
Dawson, J. W. and Mannan, R. W. (1991). Dominance hierarchies and helper contributions in Harris' hawks. Auk, 108, 649–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, W. R. J. and Williams, J. B. (1999). Sunning behaviour and its possible influence on digestion in the white-backed mousebird Colius colius. Ostrich, 70, 239–241Google Scholar
Decoux, J. P. (1988a). Order Coliiformes, Coliidae, mousebirds or colies. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. C. H. Fry, S. Keith and E. K. Urban. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 243–254
Decoux, J. P. (1988b). Régime comportement alimentaire et régulation écologique du métabolisme chez Colius striatus. Terre et la Vie, 30, 395–420Google Scholar
DeGange, A. R., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Layne, J. N. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1989). Acorn harvesting by Florida scrub jays. Ecology, 70, 348–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
del Hoya, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J. and Cabot, J. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions
DeLay, L. S., Faaborg, J., Naranjo, J., Paz, S. M., DeVries, T. and Parker, P. G. (1996). Paternal care in the cooperatively polyandrous Galápagos hawk. Condor, 98, 300–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dement, M. W. and van Soest, P. J. (1983). Body Size, Digestive Capacity and Feeding Strategies of Herbivores. Morilton, AR: Winrock International
Dhondt, A. A. and Hochachka, W. M. (2001). Adaptive sex ratios and parent–offspring conflict. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 61–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, J. L. (2001). Extrapair copulations in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana): female receptivity favors older males. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, J. L. (2004). Facultative sex ratio adjustment by western bluebird mothers with stay-at-home helpers at the nest. Anim Behav., in pressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, J. L. and Akre, J. J. (1998). Extrapair paternity, inclusive fitness, and within-group benefits of helping in western bluebirds. Mol. Ecol., 7, 95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, J. L. and Weathers, W. W. (1999). Replacement males in the western bluebird: opportunity for parentage, chick-feeding rules, and the importance of male parental care. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 45, 201–209Google Scholar
Dickinson, J. L., Haydock, J., Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T. and Pitelka, F. A. (1995). Genetic monogamy in single-male groups of acorn woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Mol. Ecol., 4, 765–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, J. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1996). Fitness consequences of helping behavior in the western bluebird. Behav. Ecol., 7, 168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dietz, J. M. and Baker, A. J. (1993). Polygyny and female reproductive success in golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim. Behav., 46, 1067–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dijkstra, C., Daan, S. and Pen, I. (1998). Fledgling sex ratios in relation to brood size in size-dimorphic altricial birds. Behav. Ecol., 9, 287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, A. F. (1992). Prolactin and parental behaviour in a male new world primate. Nature, 299, 551–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobson, F. S., Chesser, R. K., Hoogland, J. L., Sugg, D. W. and Foltz, D. W. (1997). Do black-tailed prairie dogs minimize inbreeding? Evol. Ecol., 51, 970–978Google Scholar
Doerr, V. A. J. and Doerr, E. D. (2001). Brown treecreeper. In: Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 5, ed. P. J. Higgins, J. M. Peter and W. K. Steele. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Doncaster, C. P. and Woodroffe, R. (1993). Den site can determine shape and size of badger territories: implications for group-living. Oikos, 66, 88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Pre-dawn infidelity: females control extra-pair mating in superb fairy-wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2003). Subordinate superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) parasitize the reproductive success of attractive dominant males. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 270, 379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dow, D. D. (1980). Communally breeding Australian birds with an analysis of distributional and environmental factors. Emu, 80, 121–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dow, D. D. and Whitmore, M. J. (1990). Noisy miners: variations on the theme of communality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 561–592CrossRef
Du Plessis, M. A. (1989). Behavioural ecology of the red-billed woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus in South Africa. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Du Plessis, M. A. (1992). Obligate cavity-roosting as a constraint on dispersal of green (red-billed) woodhoopoes: consequences for philopatry and the likelihood of inbreeding. Oecologia, 90, 205–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du Plessis, M. A. (1993). Helping behaviour in cooperatively-breeding green woodhoopoes: selected or unselected trait? Behaviour, 127, 49–65Google Scholar
Du Plessis, M. A. and Williams, J. B. (1994). Communal cavity roosting in green woodhoopoes: consequences for energy expenditure and the seasonal pattern of mortality. Auk, 111, 292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du Plessis, M. A., Weathers, W. W. and Koenig, W. D. (1994). Energetic benefits of communal roosting by acorn woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor, 96, 631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du Plessis, M. A., Siegfried, W. R. and Armstrong, A. J. (1995). Ecological and life-history correlates of cooperative breeding in South African birds. Oecologia, 102, 180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunford, C. (1977). Kin selection for ground squirrel alarm calls. Am. Nat., 111, 782–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, P. O. and Cockburn, A. (1996). Evolution of male parental care in a bird with almost complete cuckoldry. Evolution, 50, 2542–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, P. O. and Cockburn, A. (1999). Extrapair mate choice and honest signaling in cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wrens. Evolution, 53, 938–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, P. O., Cockburn, A. and Mulder, R. A. (1995). Fairy-wren helpers often care for young to which they are unrelated. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 259, 339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dyer, M. (1983). Effect of nest helpers on growth of red-throated bee-eaters. Ostrich, 54, 43–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eden, S. F. (1987). When do helpers help? Food availability and helping in the moorhen, Gallinula chloropus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 21, 191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, S. V. and Boles, W. E. (2002). Out of Gondwana: the origin of passerine birds. Trends Ecol. Evol., 17, 347–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, S. V. and Naeem, S. (1993). The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds. Am. Nat., 141, 754–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, S. V. and Naeem, S. (1994). Homology and comparative methods in the study of avian cooperative breeding. Am. Nat., 143, 723–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, T. C. Jr. (1986). Ecological distribution of the grey-breasted jay. Condor, 88, 456–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J. and Griesser, M. (2002). Why offspring delay dispersal: experimental evidence for a role of parental tolerance. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1709–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J. and Hake, M. K. (1990). Monitoring starvation risk: adjustments of greenfinches' body reserves during periods of unpredictable foraging success. Behav. Ecol., 1, 62–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J. and Lilliendahl, K. (1993). Using priority to food access: fattening strategies in dominance-structured willow tit (Parus montanus) flocks. Behav. Ecol., 4, 232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J. and Rosander, B. (1992). Survival enhancement through food sharing: a means for parental control of natal dispersal. Theor. Pop. Biol., 42, 117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J., Sklepkovych, B. and Tegelström, H. (1994). Offspring retention in the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus): the prolonged brood care hypothesis. Behav. Ecol., 5, 245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J., Bylin, A. and Tegelström, H. (1999). Increased lifetime reproductive success for Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus males with delayed dispersal. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 911–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J., Bylin, A. and Tegelström, H. (2000). Parental nepotism enhances survival of retained offspring in the Siberian jay. Behav. Ecol., 11, 416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, J., Baglione, V., Eggers, S. and Griesser, M. (2001a). Delayed dispersal: living under the reign of nepotistic parents. Auk, 118, 1–10Google Scholar
Ekman, J., Eggers, S., Griesser, M. and Tegelstrom, H. (2001b). Queuing for preferred territories: delayed dispersal of Siberian jays. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 317–324Google Scholar
Ekman, J., Eggers, S. and Griesser, M. (2002). Fighting to stay: the role of sibling rivalry for delayed dispersal. Anim. Behav., 64, 453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eltzroth, E. K. and Robertson, S. R. (1984). Violet-green swallows help western bluebirds at the nest. J. Field Ornithol., 55, 259–261Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1982a). The evolution of helping. I. An ecological constraints model. Am. Nat., 119, 29–39Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1982b). The evolution of helping. II. The role of behavioral conflict. Am. Nat., 119, 40–53Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1984). Cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 2nd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 305–339
Emlen, S. T. (1990). White-fronted bee-eaters: helping in a colonially nesting species. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 489–526CrossRef
Emlen, S. T. (1991). Evolution of cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 3rd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 301–337
Emlen, S. T. (1995). An evolutionary theory of the family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 8092–8099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1996). Reproductive sharing in different types of kin associations. Am. Nat., 148, 756–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1997a). Predicting family dynamics in social vertebrates. In Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 4th edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 228–253
Emlen, S. T. (1997b). When mothers prefer daughters over sons. Trends Ecol. Evol., 12, 291–292Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T. (1999). Reproductive skew in cooperatively breeding birds: an overview of the issues. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2922–2931Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1983). Cooperative breeding strategies among birds. In: Perspectives in Ornithology, ed. A. Brush. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 93–120CrossRef
Emlen, S. T. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1985). Cooperative breeding strategies among birds. In: Experimental Behavioral Ecology, ed. B. Hölldobler and M. Lindauer. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer. pp. 359–374
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1986). Forced copulations and intraspecific parasitism: two costs of social living in the white-fronted bee-eater. Ethology, 71, 2–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1988). The role of kinship in helping decisions among white-fronted bee-eaters. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 23, 305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1989). A test of alternate hypotheses for helping behavior in white-fronted bee-eaters of Kenya. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 25, 303–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1991). Breeding biology of white-fronted bee-eaters at Nakuru: the influence of helpers on breeder fitness. J. Anim. Ecol., 60, 309–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T. and Wrege, P. H. (1992). Parent–offspring conflict and the recruitment of helpers among bee-eaters. Nature, 356, 331–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T., Emlen, J. M. and Levin, S. A. (1986). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers-at-the-nest. Am. Nat., 127, 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emlen, S. T., Reeve, H. K., Sherman, P. W. and Wrege, P. H. (1991). Adaptive versus non-adaptive explanations of behavior: the case of alloparental helping. Am. Nat., 138, 259–270Google Scholar
Emlen, S. T., Reeve, H. K. and Keller, L. (1998). Reproductive skew: disentangling concessions from control. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 458–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engh, A. L., Esch, K., Smale, L. and Holekamp, K. E. (2000). Mechanisms of maternal rank “inheritance” in the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Anim. Behav., 60, 323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engh, A. L., Funk, S. M., Horn, R. C., Scribner, K. T., Bruford, M. W., Libants, S., Szykman, M., Smale, L. and Holekamp, K. E. (2002). Reproductive skew among males in a female-dominated mammalian society. Behav. Ecol., 13, 193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ens, B. J., Safriel, U. N. and Harris, M. P. (1993). Divorce in the long-lived and monogamous oystercatcher, Haematopus estralegus: incompatibility or choosing the better option? Anim. Behav., 45, 1199–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ericson, P. G. P., Christidis, L., Cooper, A., Irestedt, M., Jackson, J., Johansson, U. S. and Norman, J. A. (2002). A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, P. G. H. (1988). Intraspecific nest parasitism in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris. Anim. Behav., 36, 1282–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewen, J. G. (2001). Primary sex ratio variation in the Meliphagidae (honeyeaters). Ph. D. dissertation, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Ewen, J. G. and Armstrong, D. P. (2000). Male provisioning is negatively correlated with attempted extrapair copulation frequency in the stitchbird (or hihi). Anim. Behav., 60, 429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewen, J. G. and Armstrong, D. P. (2002). Unusual sexual behaviour in the stitchbird (or hihi) Notiomystis cincta. Ibis, 144, 530–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewen, J. G., Armstrong, D. P. and Lambert, D. M. (1999). Floater males gain reproductive success through extrapair fertilizations in the stitchbird. Anim. Behav., 58, 321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewen, J. G., Clarke, R. H., Moysey, E., Boulton, R. L., Crozier, R. H. and Clarke, M. F. (2001). Primary sex ratio bias in an endangered cooperatively breeding bird, the black-eared miner, and its complications for conservation. Biol. Conserv., 101, 137–145Google Scholar
Ewen, J. G., Crozier, R. H., Cassey, P., Ward-Smith, T., Painter, J. N., Robertson, R. J., Jones, D. A. and Clarke, M. F. (2003). Facultative control of offspring sex in the cooperatively breeding bell miner, Manorina melanophrys. Behav. Ecol., 14, 157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faaborg, J. and Bednarz, J. C. (1990). Galápagos and Harris' hawks: divergent causes of sociality in two raptors. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 359–383CrossRef
Faaborg, J. and Patterson, C. B. (1981). The characteristics and occurrence of cooperative polyandry. Ibis, 123, 477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faaborg, J., Parker, P. G., DeLay, L., DeVries, T., Bednarz, J. C., Paz, S. M., Naranjo, J. and Waite, T. A. (1995). Confirmation of cooperative polyandry in the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 36, 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faaborg, J., Thompson, F. R., III, Robinson, S. R., Donovan, T. M., Whitehead, D. R. and Brawn, J. D. (1998). Understanding fragmented Midwestern landscapes: the future. In: Avian Conservation: Research and Management, ed. J. M. Marzluff and R. Sallabanks. Washington, DC: Island Press. pp. 193–207
Fahrig, L. (2001). How much habitat is enough? Biol. Conserv., 100, 65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farley, G. H. (1995). Thermal, social and distributional consequences of nighttime cavity roosting in Campylorhynchus wrens. Ph. D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
Faulkes, C. G. and Abbott, D. H. (1991). Social control of reproduction in both breeding and non-breeding male naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber. J. Repro. Fert., 93, 427–435Google Scholar
Faulkes, C. G. and Abbott, D. H. (1997). The physiology of a reproductive dictatorship: regulation of male and female reproduction by a single breeding female in colonies of naked mole-rats. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 302–334
Faulkes, C. G. and Bennett, N. C. (2001). Family values: group dynamics and social control of reproduction in African mole-rats. Trends Ecol. Evol., 16, 184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Sherriff, F. E. (1990a). LH responses of female naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber, to single and multiple doses of exogenous GnRH. J. Repro. Fert., 89, 317–323Google Scholar
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H. and Mellor, A. L. (1990b). Investigation of genetic diversity in wild colonies of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) by DNA fingerprinting. J. Zool., 221, 87–97Google Scholar
Faulkes, C. G., Abbott, D. H. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (1991). Social suppression of reproduction in male naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber. J. Repro. Fert., 91, 593–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faulkes, C. G., Trowell, S. N., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Bennett, N. C. (1994). Investigation of numbers and motility of spermatozoa in reproductively active and socially suppressed males of two eusocial African mole-rats, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the Damaraland mole-rat (Cryptomys damarensis). J. Repro. Fert., 100, 411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faulkes, C. G., Bennett, N. C., Bruford, M. W., O'Brien, H. P., Aguilar, G. H. and Jarvis, J. U. M. (1997). Ecological constraints drive social evolution in the African mole-rats. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1619–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feduccia, A. (1996). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Fernández, G. J. and Reboreda, J. C. (1998). Effects of clutch size and timing of breeding on reproductive success of greater rheas. Auk, 115, 340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fessl, B., Kleindorfer, S., Hoi, H. and Lorenz, K. (1996). Extra male parental behaviour: evidence for an alternative mating strategy in the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon. J. Avian Biol., 27, 88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Festa-Bianchet, M. (1996). Offspring sex ratio studies of mammals: does publication depend on the quality of the research or the direction of the results? Ecoscience, 3, 42–44Google Scholar
Ficken, M. S., Weise, C. M. and Popp, J. W. (1990). Dominance rank and resources access in winter flocks of black-capped chickadees. Wilson Bull., 102, 623–633Google Scholar
Firestone, K. B., Thompson, K. V. and Carter, C. S. (1991). Female–female interactions and social stress in prairie voles. Behav. Neural Biol., 55, 31–41Google Scholar
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Ford, H. A., Bell, H., Nias, R. and Noske, R. (1988). The relationship between ecology and the incidence of cooperative breeding in Australian birds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, H. A., Barrett, G. W., Saunders, D. A. and Recher, H. F. (2001). Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biol. Conserv., 97, 71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forsgren, E., Karlsson, A. and Kvarnemo, C. (1996). Female sand gobies gain direct benefits by choosing males with eggs in their nests. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 39, 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraga, R. M. (1979). Helpers at the nest in passerines from Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Auk, 96, 606–608Google Scholar
Frank, S. A. (1987). Individual and population sex allocation patterns. Theor. Pop. Biol., 31, 47–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank, S. A. (1990). Sex allocation theory for birds and mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 21, 13–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franklin, J. F. and Forman, R. T. T. (1987). Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecol., 1, 5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, J. A. (1997). Proximate regulation of singular breeding in callitrichid primates. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–75
French, J. A., Abbott, D. H. and Snowdon, C. T. (1984). The effects of social environment on estrogen excretion, scent marking, and sociosexual behavior in tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Am. J. Primatol., 6, 155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, J. A., Inglett, B. J. and Dethlefs, T. M. (1989). The reproductive status of nonbreeding group members in captive golden lion tamarin social groups. Am. J. Primatol., 18, 73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, J. A., Degraw, W. A., Hendricks, S. E., Wegner, F. and Bridson, W. E. (1992). Urinary and plasma gonadotropin concentrations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus r. rosalia). Am. J. Primatol., 26, 53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frith, C. B., Frith, D. W. and Jansen, A. (1997). The nesting biology of the chowchilla, Orthonyx spaldingii (Orthonychidae). Emu, 97, 18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frith, H. J. and Davies, S. J. J. F. (1961). Ecology of the magpie goose Anseranas semipalmata. CSIRO Wildl. Res., 113, 555–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fry, C. H. (1977). The evolutionary significance of cooperative breeding in birds. In: Evolutionary Ecology, ed. B. Stonehouse and C. M. Perrins. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. pp. 127–136
Fry, C. H. (1980). Survival and longevity among tropical land birds. Proc. Pan-African Ornithol. Congr., 4, 333–343Google Scholar
Fry, C. H., Keith, S. and Urban, E. K. (1988). The Birds of Africa, vol. 3. New York, NY: Academic Press
Garland, T. Jr., Midford, P. E. and Ives, A. R. (1999). An introduction to phylogenetically based statistical methods, with a new method for confidence intervals on ancestral values. Am. Zool., 39, 374–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaston, A. J. (1973). The ecology and behaviour of the long-tailed tit. Ibis, 115, 330–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaston, A. J. (1977). Social behaviour within groups of jungle babblers (Turdoides striatus). Anim. Behav., 25, 828–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaston, A. J. (1978). The evolution of group territorial behavior and cooperative breeding. Am. Nat., 112, 1091–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gayou, D. C. (1986). The social system of the Texas green jay. Auk, 103, 540–547Google Scholar
Getz, L. L., McGuire, B., Pizzuto, T., Hofmann, J. E. and Frase, B. (1993). Social organization of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). J. Mammal., 74, 44–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Getz, L. L., McGuire, B., Hofmann, J. E., Pizzuto, T. and Frase, B. (1994). Natal dispersal and philopatry in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): settlement, survival, and potential reproductive success. Ethol. Ecol. Evol., 6, 267–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbons, D. W. (1986). Brood parasitism and cooperative breeding in the moorhen, Gallinula chloropus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 19, 221–232Google Scholar
Gibbs, H. L., Goldizen, A. W., Bullough, C. and Goldizen, A. R. (1994). Parentage analysis of multi-male social groups of Tasmanian native hens (Tribonyx mortierii): genetic evidence for monogamy and polyandry. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 35, 363–371Google Scholar
Gilchrist, J. S. (2001). Reproduction and pup care in the communal breeding banded mongoose. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Gill, F. B. (1995). Ornithology, 2nd edn. New York: W. H. Freeman
Ginther, A. J., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. (2001). Reproductive biology of captive male cottontop tamarin monkeys as a function of social environment. Anim. Behav., 61, 65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ginther, A. J., Carlson, A. A., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. (2002). Neonatal and pubertal development in males of a cooperatively breeding primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Biol. Repro., 66, 282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gittleman, J. L. (1989). Carnivore group living: comparative trends. In: Carnivore Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, ed. J. L. Gittleman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 183–207CrossRef
Goldizen, A. W. (1987). Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20, 99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldizen, A. W. and Terborgh, J. (1989). Demography and dispersal patterns of a tamarin population: possible causes of delayed breeding. Am. Nat., 134, 208–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldizen, A. W., Putland, D. A. and Goldizen, A. R. (1998). Variable mating patterns in Tasmanian native hens (Gallinula mortierii): correlates of reproductive success. J. Anim. Ecol., 67, 307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldizen, A. W., Buchan, J. C., Putland, D. A., Goldizen, A. R. and Krebs, E. A. (2000). Patterns of mate-sharing in a population of Tasmanian native hens Gallinula mortierii. Ibis, 142, 40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gompper, M. E., Gittleman, J. L. and Wayne, R. K. (1997). Genetic relatedness, coalitions and social behaviour of white-nosed coatis, Nasua nirica. Anim. Behav., 53, 781–797Google Scholar
Gorman, M. L., Mills, M. G., Raath, J. P. and Speakman, J. R. (1998). High hunting costs make African wild dogs vulnerable to kleptoparasitism by hyaenas. Nature, 391, 479–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, S. J. and Vrba, E. S. (1982). Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology, 8, 4–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowaty, P. A. (1993). Differential dispersal, local resource competition, and sex ratio variation in birds. Am. Nat., 141, 263–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowaty, P. A. (1996a). Field studies of parental care in birds: new data focus questions on variation among females. Adv. Study Behav., 26, 477–531Google Scholar
Gowaty, P. A. (1996b). Multiple mating by females selects for males that stay: another hypothesis for social monogamy in passerine birds. Anim. Behav., 51, 482–484Google Scholar
Gowaty, P. A. and Lennartz, M. R. (1985). Sex ratios of nestling and fledgling red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) favor males. Am. Nat., 126, 347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowaty, P. A. and Plissner, J. H. (1998). Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). In: The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA and Washington, DC: Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists' UnionCrossRef
Grant, B. R. and Grant, P. R. (1996). Cultural inheritance of song and its role in the evolution of Darwin's finches. Evolution, 50, 2471–2487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greeff, J. M. and Bennett, N. C. (2000). Causes and consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding mole-rat, Cryptomys darlingi (Bathyergidae). Ecol. Lett., 3, 318–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, D. J. and Cockburn, A. (2001). Post-fledging care, philopatry and recruitment in brown thornbills. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, D. J., Cockburn, A., Hall, M. L., Osmond, H. L. and Dunn, P. O. (1995). Increased opportunities for cuckoldry may be why dominant male fairy-wrens tolerate helpers. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 262, 297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, D. J., Osmond, H. L., Double, M. C. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Display rate by male fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the fertile period of females has little influence on extra-pair mate choice. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 48, 438–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenwood, P. J. (1980). Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim. Behav., 28, 1140–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griesser, M. (2003). Nepotistic vigilance behavior in Siberian jay parents. Behav. Ecol., 14, 246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griesser, M. and Ekman, J. (2004). Nepotistic alarm calling in the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus). Anim. Behav., in pressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith, S. C. (2000). High fidelity on islands: a comparative study of extrapair paternity in passerine birds. Behav. Ecol., 11, 265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, R., Daan, S. and Dijkstra, C. (1996). Sex identification in birds using two CHD genes. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 1251–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, R., Double, M. C., Orr, K. and Dawson, R. J. G. (1998). A DNA test to sex most birds. Mol. Ecol., 7, 1071–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimes, L. G. (1976). The occurrence of cooperative breeding behaviour in African birds. Ostrich, 47, 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimes, L. G. (1980). Observations of group behaviour and breeding biology of the yellow-billed shrike Corvinella corvina. Ibis, 122, 166–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grindstaff, J. L., Buerkle, C. A., Casto, J. M., Nolan, V. Jr. and Ketterson, D. (2001). Offspring sex ratio is unrelated to male attractiveness in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 50, 312–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hager, R. (2003). Reproductive skew models applied to primates. In: Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions, ed. C. B. Jones. Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists. pp. 65–101
Haig, D. (2000). Genomic imprinting, sex-biased dispersal, and social behavior. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 907, 149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haig, S. M., Walters, J. R. and Plissner, J. H. (1994). Genetic evidence for monogamy in the cooperatively breeding red-cockaded woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 34, 295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hailman, J. P., McGowan, K. J. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1994). Role of helpers in the sentinel behaviour of the Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma c. coerulescens). Ethology, 97, 119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1963). The evolution of altruistic behavior. Am. Nat., 97, 354–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I, II. J. Theor. Biol., 7, 1–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1967). Extraordinary sex ratios. Science, 156, 477–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1971). Geometry for the selfish herd. J. Theor. Biol., 31, 295–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammel, E. A., McDaniel, C. K. and Wachter, K. W. (1979). Demographic consequences of incest tabus: a microsimulation analysis. Science, 205, 972–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handford, P. and Mares, M. A. (1985). The mating systems of ratites and tinamous: an evolutionary perspective. J. Linn. Soc., 25, 77–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hannon, S. J., Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1985). Replacement of breeders and within-group conflict in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17, 303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardy, I. C. W. (1997). Possible factors influencing vertebrate sex ratios: an introductory overview. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 51, 217–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, C. J. O. (1969). Helpers at the nest in Australian passerine birds. Emu, 69, 30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harshman, J. (1994). Reweaving the tapestry: what can we learn from Sibley and Ahlquist (1990)? Auk, 111, 377–388Google Scholar
Hartley, I. R. and Davies, N. B. (1994). Limits to cooperative polyandry in birds. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 257, 67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartley, I. R., Davies, N. B., Hatchwell, B. J., Desrochers, A., Nebel, D. and Burke, T. (1995). The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. 2. Multiple paternity and parental effort. Anim. Behav., 49, 789–803Google Scholar
Hartley, I. R., Griffith, S. C., Wilson, K., Shepherd, M. and Burke, T. (1999). Nestling sex ratios in the polygynously breeding corn bunting, Miliaria calancra. J. Avian Biol., 30, 7–14Google Scholar
Hasselquist, D. and Kempenaers, B. (2002). Parental care and adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation in birds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B, 357, 363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasselquist, D. and Sherman, P. W. (2001). Social mating systems and extrapair fertilizations in passerine birds. Behav. Ecol., 12, 457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J. (1999). Investment strategies of breeders in avian cooperative breeding systems. Am. Nat., 154, 205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J. and Davies, N. B. (1992). An experimental study of mating competition in monogamous and polyandrous dunnocks, Prunella modularis. II. Influence of removal and replacement experiments on mating systems. Anim. Behav., 43, 611–622Google Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J. and Komdeur, J. (2000). Ecological constraints, life history traits and the evolution of cooperative breeding. Anim. Behav., 59, 1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J. and Russell, A. F. (1996). Provisioning rules in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus: an experimental study. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 263, 83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., Fowlie, M. K. and Ross, D. J. (1999). Reproductive success and nest-site selection in a cooperative breeder: effect of experience and a direct benefit of helping. Auk, 116, 355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., Ross, D. J. and Fowlie, M. K. (2000). Divorce in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a consequence of inbreeding avoidance? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Anderson, C., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and Blackwell, P. G. (2001a). Social organization of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: kinship and spatial dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 820–830Google Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and McGowan, A. (2001b). Kin discrimination in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 885–890Google Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Ross, D. J., Chaline, N., Fowlie, M. K. and Burke, T. A. (2002). Parentage in the cooperative breeding system of long-tailed tits, Aegithalos caudatus. Anim. Behav., 64, 55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatchwell, B. J., Russell, A. F., MacColl, A. D. C., Ross, D. J., Fowlie, M. K. and McGowan, A. (2003). Helpers increase long-term but not short-term productivity in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits. Behav. Ecol., in pressGoogle Scholar
Haydock, J. (1993). Cooperative breeding in bicolored wrens, Campylorhynchus griseus. Ph. D. dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Haydock, J. and Koenig, W. D. (2002). Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 7178–7183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haydock, J. and Koenig, W. D. (2003). Patterns of reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker. Am. Nat., 162, 277–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haydock, J., Parker, P. G. and Rabenold, K. N. (1996). Extra-pair paternity uncommon in the cooperatively breeding bicolored wren. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haydock, J., Koenig, W. D. and Stanback, M. T. (2001). Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Mol. Ecol., 10, 1515–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedrick, P. W. (1994). Purging inbreeding depression and the probability of extinction. Heredity, 73, 363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heer, L. (1996). Cooperative breeding by alpine accentors Prunella collaris: polygynandry, territoriality and multiple paternity. J. Ornithol., 137, 35–51Google Scholar
Hegner, R. E. and Emlen, S. T. (1987). Territorial organization of the white-fronted bee-eater in Kenya. Ethology, 76, 189–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991a). Kidnapping and reciprocity in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Anim. Behav., 41, 1097–1100Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991b). Slow learning of foraging skills and extended parental care in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Am. Nat., 137, 864–881Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. (1991c). Evolution of obligate cooperative breeding in white-winged choughs: a statistical approach. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 20, 1309–1316Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. (1992). Cooperative enhancement of reproductive success in white-winged choughs. Evol. Ecol., 6, 97–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. (1995). Hatching asynchrony and brood reduction in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs Corcorax melanorhamphos. Emu, 95, 252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. and Cockburn, A. (1994). Helping is costly to young birds in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 256, 293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. and Legge, S. (1999). The cost of helping. Trends Ecol. Evol., 14, 53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G. and Legge, S. (2003). Breeding biology of the reverse-dichromatic, cooperative parrot, Eclectus roratus. J. Zool., 259, 197–208Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G., Cockburn, A. and Cunningham, R. B. (1988). Foraging, delayed maturity and cooperative breeding in white-winged choughs (Corcorax melanorhamphos). Ethology, 77, 177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G., Cockburn, A. and Mulder, R. A. (1990). Avian cooperative breeding: old hypotheses and new directions. Trends Ecol. Evol., 5, 403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G., Legge, S. and Barry, S. (1997). Extreme bias in sex allocation in eclectus parrots. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 1325–1329Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G., Legge, S. and Dunn, P. O. (1999). Extreme reproductive skew in cooperatively-breeding birds: tests of theory in white-winged choughs. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2858–2878Google Scholar
Heinsohn, R. G., Dunn, P. O., Legge, S. and Double, M. C. (2000). Coalitions of relatives and reproductive skew in cooperatively breeding white-winged choughs. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 267, 243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heistermann, M., Kleis, E., Prove, E. and Wolters, H. J. (1989). Fertility status, dominance, and scent marking behavior of family-housed female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in absence of their mothers. Am. J. Primatol., 18, 177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helsper, J. P. F. G., Loon, Y. P. J. and Kwakkel, R. P. (1996). Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of faba bean (Vicia faba). J. Agron. Food Sci., 44, 1070–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heppell, S. S., Walters, J. R. and Crowder, L. B. (1994). Evaluating management alternatives for red-cockaded woodpeckers: a modeling approach. J. Wildl. Manage., 58, 479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbst, M. and Bennett, N. C. (2001). Recrudescence of sexual activity in a colony of the Mashona mole-rat (Cryptomys darlingi): an apparent case of incest avoidance. J. Zool., 254, 163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, P. J., Peter, J. M. and Steele, W. K. (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 5. Tyrant-Flycatchers to Chats. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hillis, D. M., Huelsenbeck, J. P. and Cunningham, C. W. (1994). Application and accuracy of molecular phylogenies. Science, 264, 671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hodge, S. J. (2003). Evolution of cooperation in the communal breeding banded mongoose. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Cambridge
Hodges, K. E., Mech, S. and Wolff, J. O. (2002). Sex and the single vole: effects of social grouping on prairie vole reproductive success. Ethology, 108, 871–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holmes, W. G. and Sherman, P. W. (1983). Kin recognition in animals. Am. Sci., 71, 46–55Google Scholar
Hooge, P. N. (1995). Dispersal dynamics of the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Hoogland, J. L. (1983). Nepotism and alarm calling in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Anim. Behav., 31, 472–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoogland, J. L. (1995). The Black-Tailed Prairie Dog. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Horn, P. L., Rafalski, J. A. and Whitehead, P. J. (1996). Molecular genetic (RAPD) analysis of breeding magpie geese. Auk, 113, 552–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubrecht, R. C. (1989). The fertility of daughters in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) family groups. Primates, 30, 423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurxthal, L. M. (1979). Breeding behaviour of the ostrich, Struthio camelus massaicus, in Nairobi National Park. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Innes, K. E. and Johnston, R. E. (1996). Cooperative breeding in the white-throated magpie-jay. How do auxiliaries influence nesting success? Anim. Behav., 51, 519–533Google Scholar
IUCN (2000). Red List of Threatened Species. Cambridge: IUCN, the World Conservation Union. www.redlist.org
Jakobsson, S. (1988). Territorial fidelity of willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) males and success in competition over territories. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 22, 79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, P. C. and Oliphant, L. W. (1986). Extra birds and helpers at the nest of Richardson's merlin. Condor, 88, 533–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, W. H. (1993). Continuing confusion. Nature, 365, 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1989). Behavioral heterochrony and the evolution of birds' helping at the nest: an unselected consequence of communal breeding? Am. Nat., 133, 394–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1991). The unselected hypothesis for the evolution of helping behavior: too much or too little emphasis on natural selection? Am. Nat., 138, 271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1997). Testing reproductive skew models in a communally breeding bird, the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 264, 335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1999). Reproductive skew models and inter-species variation in adjustment of individual clutch sizes in joint-nesting birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2894–2909Google Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987a). Critique of helping behaviour in birds: a departure from functional explanations. In: Perspectives in Ethology, vol. 7, ed. P. P. G. Bateson and P. Klopfer. New York, NY: Plenum. pp. 79–98
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987b). Dominance and mating in a communal polygynandrous bird: cooperation or indifference towards mating competitors? Ethology, 75, 317–327Google Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. and Craig, J. L. (1987c). Male–male and female–female courtship and copulation behaviour in a communally breeding bird. Anim. Behav., 35, 1251–1253Google Scholar
Jamieson, I. G., Quinn, J. S., Rose, P. A. and White, B. N. (1994). Shared paternity among non-relatives is a result of an egalitarian mating system in a communally breeding bird, the pukeko. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 257, 271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen, A. (1999). Home ranges and group-territoriality in chowchillas Orthonyx spaldingii. Emu, 99, 280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarman, P. J. (1974). The social organisation of antelopes in relation to their ecology. Behaviour, 48, 215–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarvis, J. U. M. and Bennett, N. C. (1993). Eusociality has evolved independently in two genera of bathyergid mole-rats – but occurs in no other subterranean mammal. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 33, 353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarvis, J. U. M., Oriain, M. J., Bennett, N. C. and Sherman, P. W. (1994). Mammalian eusociality: a family affair. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarvis, J. U. M., Bennett, N. C. and Spinks, A. C. (1998). Food availability and foraging by wild colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis): implications for sociality. Oecologia, 113, 290–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennions, M. D. and Macdonald, D. W. (1994). Cooperative breeding in mammals. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennions, M. D. and Petrie, M. (2000). Why do females mate multiply? A review of the genetic benefits. Biol. Rev., 75, 21–64Google Scholar
Johnson, K. J. (2001). Taxon sampling and the phylogenetic position of passeriformes: evidence from 916 avian cytochrome b sequences. Syst. Biol., 50, 128–136Google Scholar
Johnson, M. L. and Gaines, M. S. (1990). Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 21, 449–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnstone, R. A. (2000). Models of reproductive skew: a review and synthesis. Ethology, 106, 5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnstone, R. A. and Cant, M. A. (1999). Reproductive skew and the threat of eviction: a new perspective. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnstone, R. A., Woodroffe, R., Cant, M. A. and Wright, J. (1999). Reproductive skew in multimember groups. Am. Nat., 153, 315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, C. S., Lessells, C. M. and Krebs, J. R. (1991). Helpers-at-the-nest in European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster): a genetic analysis. In: DNA Fingerprinting Approaches and Applications, ed. T. Burke, G. Dolf, A. J. Jeffreys and R. Wolff. Basel: Birkhauser. pp. 169–192CrossRef
Jones, D. A. (1998). Parentage, mate removal experiments and sex allocation in the co-operatively breeding bell miner, Manorina melanophrys. M.Sc. dissertation, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada
Jones, R. E. (1969). Hormonal control of incubation patch development in the California quail, Lophortyx californicus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 13, 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, R. E. (1971). The incubation patch of birds. Biol. Rev., 46, 315–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joste, N. E., Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1982). Intra-group dynamics of a cooperative breeder: an analysis of reproductive roles in the acorn woodpecker. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 11, 195–201Google Scholar
Kattan, G. (1988). Food habits and social organization of acorn woodpeckers in Colombia. Condor, 90, 100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keane, B., Waser, P. M., Creel, S. R., Creel, N. M., Elliott, L. F. and Minchella, D. J. (1994). Subordinate reproduction in dwarf mongooses. Anim. Behav., 47, 65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keane, B., Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1996). No evidence of inbreeding avoidance or inbreeding depression in a social carnivore. Behav. Ecol., 7, 480–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, L. (1997). Indiscriminate altruism: unduly nice parents and siblings. Trends Ecol. Evol., 12, 99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, L. and Chapuisat, M. (1999). Cooperation among selfish individuals in insect societies. BioScience, 49, 899–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, L. and Reeve, H. K. (1994). Partitioning of reproduction in animal societies. Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, 98–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, L. F. (1998). Inbreeding and its fitness effects in an insular population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Evolution, 52, 240–250Google Scholar
Keller, L. F. and Arcese, P. (1998). No evidence for inbreeding avoidance in a natural population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Am. Nat., 152, 380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, A. C. (2001). Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6, ed. J. del Hey, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 436–523
Kempenaers, B., Congdon, B., Boag, P. and Robertson, R. J. (1999). Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis? Behav. Ecol., 10, 304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ketterson, E. D. and Nolan, V. (1994). Male parental behavior in birds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 25, 601–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, M. Z. and Walters, J. R. (1997). Is helping a beneficial learning experience for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) helpers? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 69–73Google Scholar
Khan, M. Z. and Walters, J. R. (2002). Effects of helpers on breeder survival in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 52, 336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, M. Z., McNabb, F. M. A., Walters, J. R. and Sharp, P. J. (2001). Patterns of testosterone and prolactin concentrations and reproductive behavior of helpers and breeders in the cooperatively breeding red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Horm. Behav., 40, 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kilner, R. (1998). Primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation by zebra finches. Anim. Behav., 56, 155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimwele, C. N. and Graves, J. A. (2003). A molecular genetic analysis of the communal nesting of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Mol. Ecol., 12, 229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, D. I., Champlin, T. B. and Champlin, P. J. (2000). An observation of cooperative breeding in the ovenbird. Wilson Bull., 112, 287–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knapp, R. A. and Kovach, J. T. (1991). Courtship as an honest indicator of male parental quality in the bicolor damselfish, Stegaster partitus. Behav. Ecol., 2, 295–300Google Scholar
Koenig, W. D. (1981). Space competition in the acorn woodpecker: power struggles in a cooperative breeder. Anim. Behav., 29, 396–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. (1990). Opportunity of parentage and nest destruction in polygynandrous acorn woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Behav. Ecol., 1, 55–61Google Scholar
Koenig, W. D. (1991). The effects of tannins and lipids on digestion of acorns by acorn woodpeckers. Auk, 108, 79–88Google Scholar
Koenig, W. D. and Benedict, L. S. (2002). Size, insect parasitism and energetic value of acorns stored by acorn woodpeckers. Condor, 104, 539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. and Dickinson, J. L. (1996). Nestling sex-ratio variation in western bluebirds. Auk, 113, 902–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. and Heck, M. K. (1988). Ability of two species of oak woodland birds to subsist on acorns. Condor, 90, 705–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. and Mumme, R. L. (1987). Population Ecology of the Cooperatively Breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Koenig, W. D. and Mumme, R. L. (1990). Levels of analysis and the functional significance of helping behavior. In: Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior. Vol. 2: Explanation, Evolution, and Adaptation, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 268–303
Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1979). Relatedness and inbreeding avoidance: counterploys in the communally nesting acorn woodpecker. Science, 206, 1103–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1981). Ecological factors and kin selection in the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds. In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York, NY: Chiron Press. pp. 261–280
Koenig, W. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1990). Acorn woodpeckers: group living and food storage under contrasting ecological conditions. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 413–454CrossRef
Koenig, W. D. and Walters, J. R. (1999). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers at the nest: the repayment model revisited. Am. Nat., 153, 124–130Google Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983). Female roles in cooperatively breeding acorn woodpeckers. In: Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, ed. S. K. Wasser. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 235–261
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L. and Pitelka, F. A. (1984). The breeding system of the acorn woodpecker in central coastal California. Z. Tierpsychol., 65, 289–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Pitelka, F. A., Carmen, W. J., Mumme, R. L. and Stanback, M. T. (1992). The evolution of delayed dispersal in cooperative breeders. Q. Rev. Biol., 67, 111–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L., Stanback, M. T. and Pitelka, F. A. (1995). Patterns and consequences of egg destruction among joint-nesting acorn woodpeckers. Anim. Behav., 50, 607–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Vuren, D. and Hooge, P. N. (1996). Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates. Trends Ecol. Evol., 11, 514–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Haydock, J. and Stanback, M. T. (1998). Reproductive roles in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker: incest avoidance versus reproductive competition. Am. Nat., 151, 243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T. and Haydock, J. (1999). Demographic consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Anim. Behav., 57, 1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Hooge, P. N., Haydock, J. and Stanback, M. T. (2000). Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker. Condor, 102, 492–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Stanback, M. T., Haydock, J. and Kraaijeveld-Smit, F. (2001). Nestling sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 49, 357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koford, R. R., Bowen, B. S. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1986). Habitat saturation in groove–billed anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Am. Nat., 127, 317–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koford, R. R., Bowen, B. S. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1990). Groove-billed anis: joint nesting in a tropical cuckoo. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–356CrossRef
Kokko, H. (1999). Cuckoldry and the stability of biparental care. Ecol. Lett., 2, 247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H. (2003). Are reproductive skew models evolutionarily stable? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 270, 265–270Google Scholar
Kokko, H. and Ekman, J. (2002). Delayed dispersal as a route to breeding: territorial inheritance, safe havens, and ecological constraints. Am. Nat., 160, 468–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H. and Johnstone, R. A. (1999). Social queuing in animal societies: a dynamic model of reproductive skew. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H. and Lundberg, P. (2001). Dispersal, migration, and offspring retention in saturated habitats. Am. Nat., 157, 188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H., Johnstone, R. A. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2001). The evolution of cooperative breeding through group augmentation. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H., Johnstone, R. A. and Wright, J. (2002). The evolution of parental and alloparental effort in cooperatively breeding groups: when should helpers pay to stay? Behav. Ecol., 13, 291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kölliker, M., Heeb, P., Werner, I., Mateman, A. C., Lessells, C. M. and Richner, H. (1999). Offspring sex ratio is related to male body size in the great tit (Parus major). Behav. Ecol., 10, 68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J. (1992). Importance of habitat saturation and territory quality for evolution of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler. Nature, 358, 493–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J. (1994a). The effect of kinship on helping in the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 256, 47–52Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. (1994b). Experimental evidence for helping and hindering by previous offspring in the cooperative-breeding Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 34, 175–186Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. (1996). Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler: a translocation experiment. Behav. Ecol., 7, 326–333Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. (1998). Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler. Ecol. Lett., 1, 56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J. (2001). Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 2103–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J. and Edelaar, P. (2001a). Evidence that helping at the nest does not result in territory inheritance in the Seychelles warbler. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 268, 2007–2012Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. and Edelaar, P. (2001b). Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment. Behav. Ecol., 12, 706–715Google Scholar
Komdeur, J. and Hatchwell, B. J. (1999). Kin recognition: function and mechanism in avian societies. Trends Ecol. Evol., 14, 237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J. and Pen, I. (2002). Adaptive sex allocation in birds: the complexities of linking theory and practice. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B, 357, 373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J., Huffstadt, A., Prast, W., Castle, G., Mileto, R. and Wattel, J. (1995). Transfer experiments of Seychelles warblers to new islands: changes in dispersal and helping behaviour. Anim. Behav., 49, 695–708Google Scholar
Komdeur, J., Daan, S., Tinbergen, J. and Mateman, A. C. (1997). Extreme adaptive modification in sex ratio of Seychelles warbler's eggs. Nature, 385, 522–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J., Magrath, M. J. L. and Krackow, S. (2002). Pre-ovulation control of hatchling sex ratio in the Seychelles warbler. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 1067–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Komdeur, J., Piersma, T., Kraaijeveld, K., Kraaijeveld-Smit, F. and Richardson, D. S. (2004). Why Seychelles warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands: unwilling or unable to fly there? Ibis, in pressGoogle Scholar
Kossenko, S. M. and Fry, C. H. (1998). Competition and coexistence of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster and the blue-cheeked bee-eater Merops persicus in Asia. Ibis, 140, 2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köster, F. (1971). Zum Nistverhalten des Ani, Crotophaga ani. Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 22, 4–27Google Scholar
Kraaijeveld, K. and Dickinson, J. L. (2001). Family-based winter territoriality in western bluebirds: the structure and dynamics of winter groups. Anim. Behav., 61, 109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krackow, S. (1995). Potential mechanisms for sex ratio adjustment in mammals and birds. Biol. Rev., 70, 225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krackow, S. (1999). Avian sex ratio distortions: the myth of maternal control. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 425–433Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. (1982). Territorial defense in the great tit (Parus major): do residents always win? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 11, 185–194Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B., eds. (1993). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell
Kruuk, H. (1975). Functional aspects of social hunting in carnivores. In: Function and Evolution in Behavior, ed. G. Baerends, C. Beer and A. Manning. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 119–141
Lacey, E. A. and Sherman, P. W. (1997). Cooperative breeding in naked mole-rats: implications for vertebrate and invertebrate sociality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–301
Lack, D. (1968). Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. London: Chapman and Hall
Lacy, R. C. and Ballou, J. D. (1998). Effectiveness of selection in reducing the genetic load in populations of Peromyscus polionotus during generations of inbreeding. Evol. Ecol., 52, 900–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, D. M., Millar, C. D., Jack, K., Anderson, S. and Craig, J. L. (1994). Single- and multilocus DNA fingerprinting of communally breeding pukeko: do copulations or dominance ensure reproductive success? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 9641–9645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancaster, D. A. (1964a). Biology of the brushland tinamou, Nothoprocta cinerascens. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 127, 269–314Google Scholar
Lancaster, D. A. (1964b). Life history of the Boucard tinamou in British Honduras: II. breeding biology. Condor, 66, 253–276Google Scholar
Langen, T. A. (1996a). The mating system of the white-throated magpie-jay Calocitta formosa and Greenwood's hypothesis for sex-biased dispersal. Ibis, 138, 506–513Google Scholar
Langen, T. A. (1996b). Skill acquisition and the timing of natal dispersal in the white-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta formosa. Anim. Behav., 51, 575–588Google Scholar
Langen, T. A. (2000). Prolonged offspring dependence and cooperative breeding in birds. Behav. Ecol., 11, 367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langen, T. A. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1999). How white-throated magpie-jay helpers contribute during breeding. Auk, 116, 131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langham, G. M., Hite, J. M. and DaCosta, J. M. (2003). Sex-biased territoriality, movement patterns, and helping behavior in rufous-tailed jacamars. Auk, 120 (2, suppl.), 34AAGoogle Scholar
Legge, S. (2000a). The effect of helpers on reproductive success in the laughing kookaburra. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 714–724Google Scholar
Legge, S. (2000b). Helper contributions in the cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburra: feeding young is no laughing matter. Anim. Behav., 59, 1009–1018Google Scholar
Legge, S. and Cockburn, A. (2000). Social and mating system of cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburras (Dacelo novaeguineae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legge, S., Heinsohn, R. G., Double, M. C., Griffiths, R. and Cockburn, A. (2001). Complex sex allocation in the laughing kookaburra. Behav. Ecol., 12, 524–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leimar, O. (1996). Life-history analysis of the Trivers and Willard sex-ratio problem. Behav. Ecol., 7, 316–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leonard, M. L., Horn, A. G. and Eden, S. F. (1989). Does juvenile helping enhance breeder reproductive success? A removal experiment on moorhens. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 25, 357–361Google Scholar
Lessells, C. M. (1990). Helping at the nest in European bee-eaters: who helps and why? In: Population Biology of Passerine Birds, an Integrated Approach, ed. J. Blondel, A. Gosler, J. D. Lebreton and R. McCleery. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 357–368
Lessells, C. M. (1991). The evolution of life histories. In: Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, 3rd edn., ed. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 32–68
Lessells, C. M. and Avery, M. I. (1987). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers at the nest: some extensions of the repayment model. Am. Nat., 129, 610–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessells, C. M. and Mateman, A. C. (1996). Molecular sexing of birds. Nature, 383, 761–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessells, C. M. and Mateman, A. C. (1998). Sexing birds using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Mol. Ecol., 7, 187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessells, C. M. and Quinn, J. S. (1999). Primary sex ratios: variation, causes and consequences. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 422–424Google Scholar
Lessells, C. M., Avery, M. I. and Krebs, J. R. (1994). Nonrandom dispersal of kin: why do European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) brothers nest close together? Behav. Ecol., 5, 105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessells, C. M., Mateman, A. C. and Visser, J. (1996). Great tit hatchling sex ratios. J. Avian Biol., 27, 135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Letcher, B. H., Priddy, J. A., Walters, J. R. and Crowder, L. B. (1998). An individual-based, spatially-explicit simulation model of the population dynamics of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Biol. Conserv., 86, 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, D. M. (1982). Cooperative breeding in a population of white-browed sparrow-weavers. Ibis, 124, 511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, S. E. and Pusey, A. E. (1997). Factors influencing the occurrence of communal care in plural breeding mammals. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 335–363
Li, S.-H. and Brown, J. L. (2000). High frequency of extrapair fertilization in a plural breeding bird, the Mexican jay, revealed by DNA microsatellites. Anim. Behav., 60, 867–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S.-H. and Brown, J. L. (2002). Reduction of maternal care: a new benefit of multiple mating? Behav. Ecol., 13, 87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lifson, N. and McClintock, R. (1966). Theory of use of the turnover rates of body water for measuring energy and material balance. J. Theor. Biol., 180, 803–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. (1970). Behavior and breeding biology of the red-cockaded woodpecker. Auk, 87, 255–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. (1978). Reproductive interdependence of pinyon jays and pinyon pines. Ecol. Monogr., 48, 111–126Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D. (1981). Demographic patterns and communal breeding in the green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus). In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, ed. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York, NY: Chiron Press. pp. 231–243
Ligon, J. D. (1985). [Book review] The Florida scrub jay: demography of a cooperative-breeding bird. Science, 227, 1573–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. (1993). The role of phylogenetic history in the evolution of contemporary avian mating and parental care systems. Curr. Ornithol., 10, 1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. (1999). The Evolution of Avian Breeding Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ligon, J. D. (2001). Family Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6, ed. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 412–435
Ligon, J. D. and Davidson, N. K. (1988). Order Coraciiformes, Phoeniculidae, Woodhoopoes. In: The Birds of Africa, vol. 3, ed. E. K. Urban, C. H. Fry and S. Keith. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 356–370
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1978a). Communal breeding in green woodhoopoes as a case for reciprocity. Nature, 276, 496–498Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1978b). The communal social system of the green woodhoopoe in Kenya. Living Bird, 17, 159–197Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1983). Reciprocity in the green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus). Anim. Behav., 31, 480–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1988). Territory quality: key determinant of fitness in the group-living green woodhoopoe. In: The Ecology of Social Behavior, ed. C. Slobodchikoff. New York, NY: Academic Press. pp. 229–254CrossRef
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1990a). Female-biased sex ratio at hatching in the green woodhoopoe. Auk, 107, 765–771Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Ligon, S. H. (1990b). Green woodhoopoes: life history traits and sociality. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–66
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1989). On the significance of helping behavior in birds. Auk, 106, 700–705Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1991). The origin and maintenance of helping behavior in birds. Am. Nat., 138, 254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D. and Stacey, P. B. (1996). Land use, lag times and the detection of demographic change: the case of the acorn woodpecker. Conserv. Biol., 10, 840–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ligon, J. D., Carey, C. and Ligon, S. H. (1988). Cavity roosting, philopatry and cooperative breeding in the green woodhoopoe may reflect a physiological trait. Auk, 105, 123–127Google Scholar
Ligon, J. D., Ligon, S. H. and Ford, H. A. (1991). An experimental study of the basis of male philopatry in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. Ethology, 87, 134–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindström, E. (1986). Territory inheritance and the evolution of group-living in carnivores. Anim. Behav., 34, 1825–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loflin, R. K. (1983). Communal behaviors of the smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani). Ph. D. dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
Lucas, J. R., Creel, S. R. and Waser, P. M. (1997). Dynamic optimization and cooperative breeding: an evaluation of future fitness effects. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–198
Lundy, K. J., Parker, P. G. and Zahavi, A. (1998). Reproduction by subordinates in cooperatively breeding Arabian babblers is uncommon but predictable. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 43, 173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyon, B. E. (1993a). Conspecific brood parasitism as a flexible female reproductive tactic in American coots. Anim. Behav., 46, 911–928Google Scholar
Lyon, B. E. (1993b). Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 33, 87–100Google Scholar
MacColl, A. and Hatchwell, B. J. (2002). Temporal variation in fitness payoffs promotes cooperative breeding in long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus. Am. Nat., 160, 186–194Google Scholar
Macedo, R. H. F. (1992). Reproductive patterns and social organization of the communal guira cuckoo (Guira guira) in central Brazil. Auk, 109, 786–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macedo, R. H. F. and Bianchi, C. A. (1997). Communal breeding in tropical guira cuckoos Guira guira: sociality in the absence of a saturated habitat. J. Avian Biol., 28, 207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macedo, R. H. F. and Melo, C. (1999). Confirmation of infanticide in the communally breeding guira cuckoo. Auk, 116, 847–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macedo, R. H. F., Cariello, M. and Muniz, L. (2001). Context and frequency of infanticide in communally breeding guira cuckoos. Condor, 103, 170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macgregor, N. A. and Cockburn, A. (2002). Sex differences in parental response to begging nestlings in superb fairy-wrens. Anim. Behav., 63, 923–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macnamee, M. C., Sharp, P. J., Lea, R. W., Sterling, R. J. and Harvey, S. (1986). Evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is a physiological prolactin-releasing factor in the bantam hen. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 62, 470–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1976). Social organization and behavior of the acorn woodpecker in central coastal California. Ornithol. Monogr., 21, 1–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddison, D. R. and Maddison, W. P. (2000). MacClade 4: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
Maddison, W. P. (1990). A method for testing the correlated evolution of two binary characters: are gains or losses concentrated on certain branches of a phylogenetic tree? Evolution, 44, 539–557Google Scholar
Maddison, W. P. (1995). Calculating the probability distribution of ancestral states reconstructed by parsimony on phylogenetic trees. Syst. Biol., 44, 474–481Google Scholar
Magrath, R. D. (1999). Problems of distinguishing among models of reproductive skew within populations of cooperatively-breeding birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 2879–2893Google Scholar
Magrath, R. D. (2001). Group breeding dramatically increases reproductive success of yearling but not older female scrubwrens: a model for cooperatively breeding birds? J. Anim. Ecol., 70, 370–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magrath, R. D. and Heinsohn, R. G. (2000). Reproductive skew in birds: models, problems and prospects. J. Avian Biol., 31, 247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magrath, R. D. and Whittingham, L. A. (1997). Subordinate males are more likely to help if unrelated to the breeding female in cooperatively breeding white-browed scrubwrens. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magrath, R. D. and Yezerinac, S. M. (1997). Facultative helping does not influence reproductive success or survival in cooperatively breeding white-browed scrubwrens. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 658–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malan, G. (1998). Solitary and social hunting in pale chanting goshawk (Melierax canorus) families: why use both strategies? J. Raptor Res., 32, 195–201Google Scholar
Malan, G., Crowe, T. M., Biggs, R. and Herholdt, J. J. (1997). The social system of the pale chanting goshawk Melierax canorus, monogamy vs. polyandry and delayed dispersal. Ibis, 139, 313–321Google Scholar
Maney, D. L., Hahn, T. P., Schoech, S. J., Sharp, P. J., Morton, M. L. and Wingfield, J. C. (1999). Effects of ambient temperature on photo-induced prolactin secretion in three subspecies of white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 113, 445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manser, M. B. (1999). Response of foraging group members to sentinel calls in suricates Suricata suricatta. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 266, 1013–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchant, S. and Higgins, P. J. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Martín-Vivaldi, M., Martínez, J. G., Palomino, J. J. and Soler, M. (2002). Extrapair paternity in the hoopoe Upupa epops: an exploration of the influence of interactions between breeding pairs, non-pair males and strophe length. Ibis, 144, 236–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marzluff, J. M. and Balda, R. P. (1990). Pinyon jays: making the best of a bad situation by helping. In: Cooperative Breeding in Birds, ed. P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–237CrossRef
Marzluff, J. M., Woolfenden, G. E., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and Balda, R. P. (1996). Breeding partnerships of two New World jays. In: Partnerships in Birds: the Study of Monogamy, ed. J. M. Black. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 138–161
Maswanganye, K. A., Bennett, N. C., Brinders, J. and Cooney, R. (1999). Oligospermia and azoospermia in non-reproductive male Damaraland mole-rats Cryptomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae). J. Zool., 248, 411–418Google Scholar
Mateo, J. M. (2002). Kin-recognition abilities and nepotism as a function of sociality. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 269, 721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthysen, E. (1999). Nuthatches (Sitta europaea: Aves) in forest fragments: demography of a patchy population. Oecologia, 119, 501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1979). Game theory and the evolution of behaviour. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 205, 475–488Google Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. and Parker, G. A. (1976). The logic of asymmetric contests. Anim. Behav., 24, 159–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayr, G. (2000). Tiny hoopoe-like birds from the middle Eocene of Messel (Germany). Auk, 117, 964–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayr, G. (2001). A new specimen of the tiny middle Eocene bird Gracilitarsus mirabilis (New Family: Gracilitarsidae). Condor, 103, 78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mays, N. A., Vleck, C. M. and Dawson, J. (1991). Plasma luteinizing hormone, steroid hormones, behavioral role, and nest stage in cooperatively breeding Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk, 108, 619–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGowan, K. J. and Woolfenden, G. E. (1989). A sentinel system in the Florida scrub jay. Anim. Behav., 37, 1000–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuire, B., Getz, L. L., Hofmann, J. E., Pizzuto, T. and Frase, B. (1993). Natal dispersal and philopatry in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) in relation to population density, season, and natal social environment. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 32, 293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKechnie, A. E. and Lovegrove, B. G. (2001a). Thermoregulation and the energetic significance of clustering behavior in the white-backed mousebird (Colius colius). Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 74, 238–249Google Scholar
McKechnie, A. E. and Lovegrove, B. G. (2001b). Heterothermic responses in the speckled mousebird (Colius striatus). J. Comp. Physiol. B, 171, 507–518Google Scholar
McLennan, D. A. and Brooks, D. R. (1993). The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds: a commentary. Am. Nat., 141, 790–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, J. C. and Houston, A. I. (1990). The value of fat reserves and the trade-off between starvation and predation. Acta Biotheor., 38, 37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McRae, S. B. (1995). Temporal variation in responses to intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen. Anim. Behav., 49, 1073–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McRae, S. B. (1996a). Brood parasitism in the moorhen: brief encounters between parasites and hosts and the significance of an evening laying hour. J. Avian Biol., 27, 311–320Google Scholar
McRae, S. B. (1996b). Family values: costs and benefits of communal nesting in the moorhen. Anim. Behav., 52, 225–245Google Scholar
McRae, S. B. (1997). A rise in nest predation enhances the frequency of intraspecific brood parasitism in a moorhen population. J. Anim. Ecol., 66, 143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McRae, S. B. and Amos, W. (1999). Can incest within cooperative breeding groups be detected using DNA fingerprinting? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 47, 104–107Google Scholar
McRae, S. B. and Burke, T. (1996). Intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen: parentage and parasite-host relationships determined by DNA fingerprinting. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38, 115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meng, H. (1951). The Cooper's hawk. Ph. D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Messier, F. and Barrette, C. (1982). The social system of the coyote (Canis latrans) in a forested habitat. Can. J. Zool., 60, 1743–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millar, C. D., Anthony, I., Lambert, D. M., Stapleton, P. M., Bergmann, C. C., Bellamy, A. R. and Young, E. C. (1994). Patterns of reproductive success determined by DNA fingerprinting in a communally breeding oceanic bird. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 52, 31–48Google Scholar
Miller, A. H. (1964). Social parasites among birds. Sci. Monthly, 42, 238–246Google Scholar
Mindell, D. P., Sorenson, M. D., Dimcheff, D. E., Hasegawa, M., Ast, J. C. and Yuri, T. (1999). Interordinal relationships of birds and other reptiles based on whole mitochondrial genomes. Syst. Biol., 48, 138–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moehlman, P. D. and Hofer, H. (1997). Cooperative breeding, reproductive suppression, and body mass in canids. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 76–128
M⊘ller, A. P. (1987). Intraspecific nest parasitism and anti-parasite behaviour in swallows, Hirundo rustica. Anim. Behav., 35, 247–254Google Scholar
M⊘ller, A. P. (1992). Frequency of female copulations with multiple males and sexual selection. Am. Nat., 139, 1089–1101Google Scholar
Moore, F. L. and Zoeller, R. T. (1985). Stress-induced inhibition of reproduction: evidence of suppressed secretion of LH-RH in an amphibian. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 60, 252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, J. and Ali, R. (1984). Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related? Anim. Behav., 34, 94–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, M. C., Thompson, C. W. and Marler, C. A. (1991). Reciprocal changes in corticosterone and testosterone levels following acute and chronic handling stress in the tree lizard, Urosaurus ornatus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 81, 217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mota, M. T. and Sousa, M. B. C. (2000). Prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Folia Primatol., 71, 22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. A. (1995). Natal and breeding dispersal in a co-operative, extra-group-mating bird. J. Avian Biol., 26, 234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. A. (1997). Extra-group courtship displays and other reproductive tactics of superb fairy-wrens. Aust. J. Zool., 45, 131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. A. and Cockburn, A. (1993). Sperm competition and the reproductive anatomy of male superb fairy-wrens. Auk, 110, 588–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. A. and Langmore, N. E. (1993). Dominant males punish helpers for temporary defection in superb fairy-wrens. Anim. Behav., 45, 830–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, R. A., Dunn, P. O., Cockburn, A., Lazenby-Cohen, K. A. and Howell, M. J. (1994). Helpers liberate female fairy-wrens from constraints on extra-pair mate choice. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 255, 223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumme, R. L. (1992a). Delayed dispersal and cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler. Trends Ecol. Evol., 7, 330–331Google Scholar
Mumme, R. L. (1992b). Do helpers increase reproductive success? An experimental analysis in the Florida scrub jay. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 31, 319–328Google Scholar
Mumme, R. L. (1997). A bird's-eye view of mammalian cooperative breeding. In: Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 364–388
Mumme, R. L. and Queiroz, A. (1985). Individual contributions to cooperative behaviour in the acorn woodpecker: effects of reproductive status, sex, and group size. Behaviour, 95, 290–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983a). Reproductive competition in the communal acorn woodpecker: sisters destroy each other's eggs. Nature, 305, 583–584Google Scholar
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1983b). Mate guarding in the acorn woodpecker: within-group reproductive competition in a cooperative breeder. Anim. Behav., 31, 1094–1106Google Scholar
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Ratnieks, F. L. W. (1989). Helping behaviour, reproductive value, and the future component of indirect fitness. Anim. Behav., 38, 331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mumme, R. L., Koenig, W. D. and Pitelka, F. A. (1990). Individual contributions to cooperative nest care in the acorn woodpecker. Condor, 92, 360–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Myers, J. H. (1978). Sex ratio adjustment under food stress: maximization of quality or numbers of offspring. Am. Nat., 112, 381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagy, K. A., Girard, I. A. and Brown, T. K. (1999). Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles and birds. Annu. Rev. Nutrition, 19, 247–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, M. (1990). Cloacal protuberance and copulatory behavior of the alpine accentor (Prunella collaris). Auk, 107, 284–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, M. (1998a). Multiple mating and cooperative breeding in polygynandrous alpine accentors. I. Competition among females. Anim. Behav., 55, 257–273Google Scholar
Nakamura, M. (1998b). Multiple mating and cooperative breeding in polygynandrous alpine accentors. II. Male mating tactics. Anim. Behav., 55, 275–287Google Scholar
Nakamura, M., Yamagishi, S. and Nishiumi, I. (2001). Cooperative breeding of the white-headed vanga Leptopterus viridis, and endemic species in Madagascar. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol., 33, 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Negro, J. J., Villarroel, M., Tella, J. L., Kuhnlein, U., Hiraldo, F., Donazar, J. A. and Bird, D. M. (1996). DNA fingerprinting reveals a low incidence of extra-pair fertilizations in the lesser kestrel. Anim. Behav., 51, 935–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newton, I., ed. (1989). Lifetime Reproduction in Birds. New York, NY: Academic Press
Nilsson, J.-A. (1989). Causes and consequences of natal dispersal in the marsh tit, Parus palustris. J. Anim. Ecol., 58, 619–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nocedal, J. and Ficken, M. S. (1998). Bridled titmouse, Baeolophus wollweberi (Passeriformes; Paridae). In Check-List of North American Birds, 7th edn. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union. p. 466
Nolan, J. V. and Thompson, C. F. (1975). The occurrence and significance of anomalous reproductive activities in two North American non-parasitic cuckoos Coccyzus spp. Ibis, 117, 496–503Google Scholar
Noske, R. A. (1991). A demographic comparison of cooperatively breeding and non-cooperative treecreepers (Climacteridae). Emu, 91, 73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oddie, K. R. (1998). Sex discrimination before birth. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 130–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oddie, K. R. (2000). Size matters: competition between male and female great tit offspring. J. Anim. Ecol., 69, 903–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Riain, M. J. and Braude, S. (2001). Inbreeding versus outbreeding in captive and wild populations of naked mole-rats. In: Dispersal, ed. J. Clobert, E. Danchin, A. A. Dhondt and J. D. Nichols. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 143–154
O'Riain, M. J., Jarvis, J. U. M. and Faulkes, C. G. (1996). A dispersive morph in the naked mole-rat. Nature, 380, 619–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Riain, M. J., Bennett, N. C., Brotherton, P. N. M., McIlrath, G. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2000a). Reproductive suppression and inbreeding avoidance in wild populations of co-operatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 48, 471–477Google Scholar
O'Riain, M. J., Jarvis, J. U. M., Alexander, R., Buffenstein, R. and Peeters, C. (2000b). Morphological castes in a vertebrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 13194–13197Google Scholar
Ostlund, S. and Ahnesjo, I. (1998). Female fifteen-spined sticklebacks prefer better fathers. Anim. Behav., 56, 1177–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otter, K., Ramsay, S. M. and , L., R. (1999). Enhanced reproductive success of female black-capped chickadees mated to high-ranking males. Auk, 116, 345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owens, D. D. and Owens, M. J. (1984). Helping behaviour in brown hyenas. Nature, 308, 843–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owens, I. P. F. and Bennett, P. M. (1995). Ancient ecological diversification explains life-history variation among living birds. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 261, 227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Packer, C. and Pusey, A. E. (1982). Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions: kinship or game theory? Nature, 55, 163–169Google Scholar
Packer, C. and Ruttan, L. (1988). The evolution of cooperative hunting. Am. Nat., 132, 159–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Packer, C., Scheel, D. and Pusey, A. E. (1990). Why lions form groups: food is not enough. Am. Nat., 136, 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Packer, C., Gilbert, D. A., Pusey, A. E. and O'Brian, S. J. (1991). A molecular genetic analysis of kinship and cooperation in African lions. Nature, 351, 562–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Packer, C., Pusey, A. E. and Eberly, L. E. (2001). Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science, 293, 690–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar