Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-84b7d79bbc-tsvsl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-25T08:10:33.570Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 11 - Seizures and Epileptiform Discharges

from Part II - Case-Based Approach to Specific Conditions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2024

Neville M. Jadeja
Affiliation:
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Kyle C. Rossi
Affiliation:
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Get access

Summary

This chapter describes recognizing seizures, brief potentially ictal rhythmic discharges (BIRDs), and sporadic epileptiform discharges using a case-based approach. Electrographic seizures are patterns 10 seconds or longer of epileptic activity occurring at >2.5 Hz or other evolving patterns. If these patterns are associated with a clinical correlate, they are called electroclinical seizures, even if they are less than 10 seconds in duration. A high seizure burden may be associated with neurological decline. Patterns of rhythmic activity too short to qualify as seizures are termed BIRDs. Sporadic epileptiform discharges such as spikes or sharp waves are associated with increased seizure risk and epilepsy. Epilepsy itself is a clinical diagnosis of recurrent and unprovoked seizures.

Type
Chapter
Information
Critical Care EEG Basics
Rapid Bedside EEG Reading for Acute Care Providers
, pp. 160 - 168
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2024

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Laccheo, I, Sonmezturk, H, Bhatt, AB, et al. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and non-convulsive seizures in neurological ICU patients. Neurocritical Care. 2015 Apr;22(2):202–11.Google Scholar
Hirsch, LJ, Fong, MW, Leitinger, M, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society’s Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology: 2021 version. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021 Jan 1;38(1):1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Payne, ET, Zhao, XY, Frndova, H, et al. Seizure burden is independently associated with short term outcome in critically ill children. Brain. 2014 May 1;137(5):1429–38.Google Scholar
Yoo, JY, Rampal, N, Petroff, OA, Hirsch, LJ, Gaspard, N. Brief potentially ictal rhythmic discharges in critically ill adults. JAMA Neurology. 2014 Apr 1;71(4):454–62.Google Scholar
Yoo, JY, Jetté, N, Kwon, CS, et al. Brief potentially ictal rhythmic discharges and paroxysmal fast activity as scalp electroencephalographic biomarkers of seizure activity and seizure onset zone. Epilepsia. 2021 Mar;62(3):742–51.Google Scholar
Smith, SJ. EEG in the diagnosis, classification, and management of patients with epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1;76(suppl 2):ii2–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sam, MC, So, EL. Significance of epileptiform discharges in patients without epilepsy in the community. Epilepsia. 2001 Oct 29;42(10):1273–8.Google Scholar
Sanchez Fernandez, I, Loddenkemper, T, Galanopoulou, AS, Moshé, SL. Should epileptiform discharges be treated? Epilepsia. 2015 Oct;56(10):1492–504.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×