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Chapter 4 - Recognizing Artifacts and Medication Effects

from Part I - Introduction

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2024

Neville M. Jadeja
Affiliation:
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Kyle C. Rossi
Affiliation:
University of Massachusetts Medical School
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Summary

Artifacts are EEG waveforms not generated by the brain. The main purpose of recognizing artifacts is to avoid mistaking them from seizures. They may originate from other body organs (internal) or environmental sources (external). Common internal artifacts include ocular (eye movement), glossokinetic (tongue movement), cardiac (ECG), myogenic (muscle activity), or sweat-sway artifact (skin). Common sources of external artifact include electrodes, ventilators, suction devices, bed percussion, chest compression, and various medical devices. Many commonly used medications are associated with EEG changes. These include excessive alpha and beta activity (e.g., barbiturates and benzodiazepines), theta and delta slowing (antiseizure and psychotropic medications), spike and sharp waves (clozapine), and rhythmic and/or periodic patterns (cefepime). EEG patterns of common intravenous and inhalational anesthetic agents are also described in this chapter.

Type
Chapter
Information
Critical Care EEG Basics
Rapid Bedside EEG Reading for Acute Care Providers
, pp. 41 - 70
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2024

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References

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Hughes, NJ, Lyons, JB. Prolonged myoclonus and meningism following propofol. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 1995 Aug 1;42(8):744–6.Google Scholar
Purdon, PL, Sampson, A, Pavone, KJ, Brown, EN. Clinical electroencephalography for anesthesiologists: Part I: Background and basic signatures. Anesthesiology. 2015 Oct;123(4):937–60.Google Scholar

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