Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-kw98b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-24T09:14:35.675Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

1 - What Is a Concussive Brain Injury?

from Part I - What Is a Concussion?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2019

Jeff Victoroff
University of Southern California, Torrance
Erin D. Bigler
Brigham Young University, Utah
Get access


A concussion is an abrupt rattling force. For more than 100 years, that straightforward term has been pressed into service by competing authorities who differ in their conceptualization of the correct medical application of this word for a commonplace physical phenomenon. This chapter will review the intriguing history of that somewhat distracting debate. If an English- speaking medical community wishes to employ the term, it is urged that: (1) its medical meaning comport with its fundamental meaning; (2) its medical meaning fulfill the semantic and taxonomic standards for a natural kind -- a discrete and specifiable phenomenon; and (3) its medical meaning be amenable to operationalization. A tentative, preliminary, logically defensible definition is proposed for consideration.
Concussion and Traumatic Encephalopathy
Causes, Diagnosis and Management
, pp. 33 - 92
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Hippocrates, . On wounds in the head. In Hippocrates, Vol. III (translated by Withington ET). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931, pp. 751.Google Scholar
Courville, CB. Commotio cerebri: Cerebral concussion and the postconcussion syndrome in their medical and legal aspects. Los Angeles, CA: San Lucas Press, 1953.Google Scholar
Lane, LC. Concussion of the brain. JAMA 1894 4852.Google Scholar
Erichsen, JE. On railway and other injuries of the nervous system. London: Walton and Maberly, 1866.Google Scholar
Erichsen, JE. On concussion of the spine: Nervous shock and other obscure injuries to the nervous system in their clinical and medico-legal aspects. New York: W. Wood, 1883.Google Scholar
Erichsen, JE. The science and art of surgery: Being a treatise on surgical injuries, diseases, and operations. London: Walton & Maberly, 1853.Google Scholar
Ingvar, S. Centrifugation of the nervous system: An investigation of cellular changes in commotion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1923;10:267287.Google Scholar
Menon, DK, Schwab, K, Wright, DW, Maas, AI. Position statement: Definition of traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:16371640.Google Scholar
Laor, N, Agassi, J. Diagnosis: Philosophical and medical perspectives (episteme). Dordrecht: Springer, 1990.Google Scholar
Thagard, P. How scientists explain disease. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Murphy, D. Concepts of disease and health. In Standford encyclopedia of philosophy, 2008. Available at Scholar
Rajkomar, A, Dhaliwal, G. Improving diagnostic reasoning to improve patient safety. Permanente J 2011;15:6873.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rates of TBI-related emergency department visits by age group – United States, 2001–2010. Available at Scholar
Pott, P. Observations on the nature and consequences of those injuries to which the head is liable from external violence. London: L. Hawes, W. Clarke, and R. Collins, 1768.Google Scholar
Singer, C, Underwood, EA. Short history of medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Finger, S. Origins of neuroscience: A history of explorations into brain function. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Hippocrates, . The genuine works of Hippocrates, translated by Francis Adams. London: Sydenham Society, 1849.Google Scholar
Liddell, HG, Scott, R. An intermediate Greek-English lexicon, founded upon the seventh edition of Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English lexicon. Oxford: 1889.Google Scholar
Hippocrates, . On wounds in the head. Withington, ET, editor. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1928.Google Scholar
Mettler, FA, Mettler, CC. Historic development of knowledge relating to cranial trauma. In: Browder, J, Rabiner, AM, Mettler, FA, editors. Trauma of the central nervous system: Proceedings of the Association, December 17 and 18, 1943. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1943 (pp. 1–47).Google Scholar
Boyer, A. Traité des maladies chirurgicales, et des opérations qui leur conviennent, vol. 5, 3rd edition. Paris: Migneret, 1822.Google Scholar
Dupuytren, G. Leçons orales de clinique chirurgicale faites a l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, vol. V, 2nd edition. Paris: Germer-Bailliere, 1839.Google Scholar
Culley, MT, Furnivall, FJ. Caxton’s eneydos, 1490; English from the French Liuee des Eneydes, 1483. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1890.Google Scholar
Oxford English dictionary. Available at Scholar
Breasted, JH (transl). The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1930.Google Scholar
Wickens, AP. A history of the brain from Stone Age surgery to modern neuroscience. London: Psychology Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Homer, . The Iliad. The Project Gutenberg ebook of The Iliad of Homer by Homer. Available at Scholar
Ballance, CA. The Thomas Vicary lecture: A glimpse into the history of the surgery of the brain. London: MacMillan, 1922.Google Scholar
Celsus, . De medicina (translated by Spencer WG). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1938, pp. 475518.Google Scholar
Halstead, ME. Historical perspectives on concussion. In: Apps, JN, Walter, KD, editors. Pediatric and adolescent concussion. New York, NY: Springer, 2012, pp. 19.Google Scholar
Lafranchi, G. Chirurgia magna et parva. Venice, 1498.Google Scholar
Courville, CB. The ancestry of neuropathology: Hippocrates and “de vulneribus capitis.” Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 1946;11:119.Google Scholar
Henry, LC. Microstructural and metabolic changes in the brains of concussed athletes. Montreal: Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, 2011.Google Scholar
da Carpi, B. On fracture of the skull or cranium,1517; translated by Lind, LR. Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society, 1990.Google Scholar
Symonds, JA. The autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini. New York, NY: P.F. Collier & Son, 1910.Google Scholar
Feinsod, M, Langer, KG. The philosopher’s swoon – the concussion of Michel de Montaigne: A historical vignette. World Neurosurg 2012;78:371374.Google Scholar
Coiter, V. Externarum et internarum principalium humani coproris partiumtabulae atque anatomicae exercitationes observationesqe variae. Norbergae: T. Gerlatzeni, 1573.Google Scholar
Paré, A. Les oeuvres d’Ambroise Paré. Conseiller, et premier chirurgien du roy. Paris: Chez Gabriel Buon, 1585.Google Scholar
Paré, A. On the moving of concussion of the brain. Johnson T, transl. London: Th. Cotes & R. Young, 1634.Google Scholar
Luzzatti, C, Whitaker, H. Johannes Schenck and Johannes Jakob Wepfer: Clinical and anatomical observations in the prehistory of neurolinguistics and neuropsychology. Neuroling 1995–1996;9:157164.Google Scholar
Aquapendente, FA. Frankfurt, Germany: N. Hoffmanni; 1604. In Opera omnia anatomica et physiologica. Leipzig: 1687.Google Scholar
Fabry, W. Observationum et curationum chirurgicum. Basel: 1606, 1611, 1614, 1619.Google Scholar
Paaw, P. Amsteldamensis succenturiatus anatomicus continens commentary in hippocretem de capitis vulbneribus. Lugduni Batavorum: Ioducum & Colster, 1616.Google Scholar
Horst, G. Observationum medicalium singularium. Ulm: J. Saurii, 1625.Google Scholar
Read, A. Chirurgorum comes: Or the whole practice of chirurgery. London: E. Jones for C. Wilkinson, 1687.Google Scholar
Bonet, T. Sepulchretum, sive anatomia practica ex cadaverbius morbobdenatis. Geneva: L. Chouet, 1679.Google Scholar
Pigray, P. Epitome des preceptes de medecine et chirurgie: avec ample déclaration des remèdes propres aux maladies. Paris: P. Mettayer, 1609. Rouen: Chez Jean Manneville, 1642.Google Scholar
Chauliac, G de. La grande chirurgie. Joubert, RL, editor. Lyon: J. Ollier, 1659.Google Scholar
Marchetti, P. Observationum medico-chirurgicarum rariorum sylloge. Amsterdam: P. Le Grand, 1665.Google Scholar
Boirel, A. Traité de playes de la tête. Alençon: M. de la Moire et père Malassis, 1674.Google Scholar
Wiseman, R. Eight chirurgical treatises, 6th edition. London: J. Walthoe et al., 1734.Google Scholar
Turner, D. The art of surgery, 5th edition. London: C. Rivington & J. Clarke, 1736.Google Scholar
Petit, JL. Des plaies de la tete: Un traité des maladies chirurgicales et des opérations qui leur conviennent. Paris: Didot le Jeune, 1774, pp. 4360.Google Scholar
Littré, A. Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. Paris: Gabriel Martin, Jena-Baptists Coignard fils, Hippolyte Guerin, 1730.Google Scholar
Best, AE. Pourfour du Petit’s experiments on the origin of the sympathetic nerve. Med Hist 1969;13:154174.Google Scholar
Rouhault, PS. Traité des playes de tête. Turin: 1720.Google Scholar
Morgagni, JB. De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis. Venetis: Typographia Remondiniana, 1761.Google Scholar
Morgagni, JB. The seats and causes of diseases investigated by anatomy, in five books, containing a great variety of dissections, with remarks; translated by Benjamin Alexander. London: A. Millarj, T. Cadeli, Johnson and Payne, 1769.Google Scholar
Le Dran, HF. The operations in surgery of Mons. Le Dran. Gataker T, translator. London: printed for C. Hitch in Paternoster Row, and R. Dodsley in Pall Mall, 1749.Google Scholar
Heister, L. A general system of surgery in three parts (translated into English from Latin by anonymous). London: W. Innys, C. Davis, J. Clark, R. Manby, J. Whiston, 1743.Google Scholar
Petit, JL. Des plaies de la tete: Un traité des maladies chirurgicales et des opérations qui leur conviennent. Paris: Didot le Jeune, 1774, pp. 4360.Google Scholar
Frowein, RA, Firsching, R. Classification of head injury. In: Braakman, R, editor. Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 13. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990, pp. 101122.Google Scholar
Feinsod, MA. Flask full of jelly: The first in vitro model of concussive head injury – 1830. Neurosurg 2002;50:386391.Google Scholar
Henry, LC. Microstructural and metabolic changes in the brains of concussed athletes. Montreal: Département de Psychologie, Faculté des Arts et Sciences, Université de Montréal, 2011.Google Scholar
Beckett, W. Practical surgery, illustrated and improved. London: 1739.Google Scholar
Kirkland, T. A commentary on apoplectic and paralytic affections and on diseases connected with the subject. London: William Dawson, 1792.Google Scholar
Manne, LF. Observation de chirurgie, au sujet d’une playe à la tête fracas, et une pièce d’os implantée dans le cerveau pendant un mois sans aucune symptome; accompagnée d’une dissertation au sujet des playes de tête avec fracture; suivie des lettres des scavans (Chicoyneau, de la Peyronie, Petit, et Morand) qui ont été consulté à ce sujet par l’auteur. Avignon: 1729.Google Scholar
Dease, W. Observations on wounds of the head. London: G. Robinson, 1776.Google Scholar
Bell, B. A system of surgery, 3rd edition. Edinburgh: J. & J. Robinson, 1788.Google Scholar
Hewett, P. Lecture on the anatomy, injuries, and diseases of the head, lecture VI: Concussion of the brain. Med Times Gaz 1858:235237, 287289.Google Scholar
Guthrie, GJ. On injuries of the head affecting the brain. London: John Churchill, 1842.Google Scholar
Hutchinson, J. Three lectures on the compression of the brain. Clin Lect Rep London Hosp 1867;4:1055.Google Scholar
Delpeche, JM. Précis élémentaire des maladies réputées chirurgicales. Paris: Méquignon-Marvis, 1816.Google Scholar
Brodie, BC. Injuries of the brain. Med-Surg Trans 1828;14:337.Google Scholar
Dupuytren, G. Traité théorique et pratique des blessures par armes de guerre; Brussels, 1835 cited by Tonnis and Loew’s Einteilung der gedeckten Hirnschadigungen. Arztl Prax 1953;36:1314.Google Scholar
Miles, A. On the mechanism of brain injuries. Brain 1892;15:153189.Google Scholar
Lane, LC. The surgery of the head and neck. Washington, DC: Levi Cooper Lane, 1896.Google Scholar
Fano, S. Mémoire sur la commotion du cerveau. Mem Soc Chir Paris 1853;3:163199.Google Scholar
Savory, WS. Severe concussion of the brain, followed by singular mental phenomena, recovery: Reports of medical and surgical practice in the hospitals of Great Britain. Br Med J 1869;376.Google Scholar
Duplay, M. Concussion of the brain. Med Surg Reporter 1882;46:253256.Google Scholar
MacPherson, J. Vacuolation of nerve-cell nuclei in the cortex in two cases of cerebral concussion. Lancet 1892;11271129.Google Scholar
Walton, GL, Brooks, WA. Observations on brain surgery suggested by a case of multiple cerebral hemorrhage. Boston Med Surg J 1897;36:301305.Google Scholar
Palmer, JF, editor. Collected works of Hunter, Vol. I: Articles on injuries of the head and fractures of the skull. London, UK: Richard Taylor, 1835.Google Scholar
Bryant, T. Cranial and intracranial injuries: Hunterian lecture. Lancet 1888;2:405408, 507508.Google Scholar
Ommaya, AK. Trauma to the nervous system: Hunterian lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of UK on 29 July 1965. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1966;39:317347.Google Scholar
Abernethy, J. Surgical observations on injuries of the head: And on miscellaneous subjects. Philadelphia, PA: Thomas Dobson, 1811.Google Scholar
Anonymous, . On concussion of the brain by M Fano, with a report by M. Chassaignac. Br Foreign Medico-Chirurg Rev 1854;13:469470. Citing Chassaignac, M. Mem Soc Chir Paris 1852–1853; book 3, sections 2 and 3:121376.Google Scholar
Bright, R. Reports of medical cases selected with a view of illustrating the symptoms and cure of diseases by reference to morbid anatomy: Diseases of the brain and nervous system. London: Longman, 1831.Google Scholar
Holmes, T. Treatise on surgery, its principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Henry C. Lea, 1876.Google Scholar
Duret, H. Expérimentales et clinique sur les traumatismes cérébreaux: Thèse pour le doctorat en médicine. Paris: De la Haye, 1878.Google Scholar
Obersteiner, H. Ueber Erschütterung des Rückenmarks. Wien Med Jahrb 1879;3–4:531.Google Scholar
Kocher, T. Chirurgische Operationslehre. Jena, Germany: Fischer Verlag, 1892.Google Scholar
Kocher, . Die Verletzungen der Wirbelsäule, zugleich ein Beitrag zur Physiologie des menschlichen Rückenmarks. Mitt Grenzgeb Med Chir 1896;1:415.Google Scholar
Gama, JP. Traité des plaies de tête et de l’encéphalite, principalement de celle: Qui leur est consécutive; ouvrage dans lequel sont discutées plusieurs questions relatives aux fonctions du système nerveux en générale [Treatise of head injuries and of encephalitis in which many questions concerning the functions of the nervous system are discussed]. Paris: Sedillot, 1830.Google Scholar
Alquié, A. Étude clinique et expérimentale de la commotion traumatique ou ébranlement de l’encéphale. Gaz Med Paris 1865;20:226230; 254256; 314319; 382385; 396398; 463466; 500504.Google Scholar
Goodwin, J. Brainstem trauma, NANOS 1989. Available at…Google Scholar
Koch, W, Filehne, W. Beiträge zur experimentellen Chirurgie, 3: Ueber die Commotio cerebri. Arch f Klin Chir 1874;17:190231.Google Scholar
Kramer, SP. A contribution to the theory of cerebral concussion. Ann Surg 1896;23:163173.Google Scholar
La Faye, Gd. Principes de chirurgie. Paris: Cavlier, 1761.Google Scholar
Baudens, ML. Clinique plaies d’armes à feu. Paris: Bailliere, 1836.Google Scholar
Kocher, T. Die Therapie des Hirndrucks . In:Hoelder, A, editor. Hirnerschuetterung, Hirndruck und chirurgische Eingriffe bei Hirnkrankheiten. Vienna: 1901.Google Scholar
Hooke, R. Micrographia, or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. With observations and inquiries thereupon. London: Jo. Martyn and Ja. Allestry, 1665.Google Scholar
Ehrenberg, CG. Notwendigkeit einer feineren mechanischen Zerlegung des Gehirns und der Nerven vor der chemischen, dargestellt aus Beobachtungen. Ann Physik Chem 1833;28:449473.Google Scholar
Baillarger, J. Recherches sur la structure de la couche corticale des circonvolutions du cerveau. Mem Acad R Med 1840;8:149183.Google Scholar
Kushchayev, SV, Moskalenko, VF, Wiener, PC, Tsymbaliuk VI, Cherkasov VG, Dzyavulska IV, et al. The discovery of the pyramidal neurons: Vladimir Betz and a new era of neuroscience. Brain 2011;135:285300.Google Scholar
Verplaetse, J. Moritz Benedikt’s (1835–1920) localization of morality in the occipital lobes: Origin and background of a controversial hypothesis. Hist Psychiatry 2004;15:305328.Google Scholar
Meynert, T. Vom Gehirn der Saugetiere. In: Stricker, S, editor. Handbuch der Lehre von den Geweben des Menschen und Tiere. Leipzig, Germany: Engelmann, 1872.Google Scholar
Betz, W. Die Untersuchungsmethode des Centrainervensystems beim Menschen. M Schultez’s Arch Micr Anat 1872;9:101117.Google Scholar
Betz, W. Anatomischer Nachweis zweier Gehirncentra. Centralbl med Wissensch 1874;12:578580, 595599.Google Scholar
Betz, W. Methods of investigating the central nervous system in man. Q J Microsc Sci 1873;s2–13:343350.Google Scholar
Betz, W. Morphology of osteogenesis (in old Russian). Kiev, Russia: Kulzhenko Publishing, 1887.Google Scholar
Golgi, C. Sulla struttura della sostanza grigia del cervelo. Gazz Med Ital 1873:33:244246.Google Scholar
Golgi, C. Opera Omnia. VoI II Istologia normale. Milano: Ulrico Hoepli; Editore Libraio Dell Real Casa 1883–1902.Google Scholar
Witkowski, L. Ueber Gehirnerschutterung. ArchPath Anat 1877;69:498516.Google Scholar
Strich, SJ. Shearing of nerve fibers as a cause of brain damage due to head injury, a pathological study of 20 cases. Lancet 1961;2:443448.Google Scholar
Scagliosi, G. Uber die Gehirnerschiitterung und die daraus im Gehim und Rückenmark hervorgerufenen histologischen Veränderungen. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 1898;152: 487525.Google Scholar
Luzenberger, Ad. Su d’una special alterazione delle cellule gangliari prodotta da trauma sperimentale. Neurol Centralbl 1898;17:363.Google Scholar
Tillman, . Die Theorie der Gehirn- und Rückenmarkserschütterung. Arch Klin Chir 1899;59.Google Scholar
Rosenblath, W. Uber einen bemerkenswerten Fall von Hirnerschutterung. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 1899;64:406424.Google Scholar
Skae, FMT. Facuolation of the nuclei of nerve cells in the cortex. Br Med J 1894;19:10751076.Google Scholar
Harrison, B. First annual message to the Senate and House of Representatives. (December 3, 1889). Available at Scholar
Savory, WS. Hysteria, 2nd edition. London: Longmans, Green, 1870.Google Scholar
Putnam, JJ. Recent investigations into the pathology of so-called concussion of the spine, with cases illustrating the importance of seeking for evidences of typical hysteria in the chronic as well as in the acute stages of the disease. Boston Med Surg J 1883;109:217220.Google Scholar
Walton, GL. Possible cerebral origin of the symptoms usually classed under “railway spine.” Boston Med Surg J 1883;109:337305.Google Scholar
Friedmann, M. Ueber eine besondere schwere Form von Folgezustanden nach Gehirnerschtitterung und über den vasomotorischen Symptomencomplex bei derselben im allgemeinen. Arch Psychiatry 1892;23:230267.Google Scholar
Hodges, RM. So-called concussion of the spinal cord. Boston Med Surg J 1881;104:361365.Google Scholar
Page, HW. Injuries of the spine and spinal cord without apparent mechanical lesion, and nervous shock, in their surgical and medico-legal aspects. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1883.Google Scholar
Charcot, JM. Clinical lectures on diseases of the nervous system, vol. III. London: Sydenham Society, 1889.Google Scholar
Gray, LC. A treatise on nervous and mental diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Lea Brothers, 1893, pp. 570571.Google Scholar
Micale, M. Charcot and les névroses traumatiques. J Hist Neurosci 1995;4:101119.Google Scholar
Evans, RW. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury. Neurol Clin 1992;10:815847.Google Scholar
Evans, RW. The post-concussion syndrome: 130 years of controversy. Semin Neurol 1994;14:3239.Google Scholar
Evans, RW. Persistent post-traumatic headache, postconcussion syndrome, and whiplash injuries: The evidence for a non-traumatic basis with an historical review. Headache 2010; 50(4):716724.Google Scholar
Guyton, GP. A brief history of workers’ compensation. Iowa Orthop J 1999;19:106110.Google Scholar
Brooks, JG. Compulsory insurance in Germany: Including an appendix relating to compulsory insurance in other countries in Europe. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1893.Google Scholar
Bikeles, G. Zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hirn- und Rückenmarkserschütterung. Neurol Centralbl 1895;14:463464.Google Scholar
Luzenberger, Ad. Anatomie pathologique du traumatisme nerveux. Arch Neurol 1897.Google Scholar
Kirchgasser, G. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Rückenmarkserschütterung. Deutsch Ztschr f Nervenh 1897;11:406; 1898;13:422.Google Scholar
Jakob, A. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die traumatischen Schädigungen des Zentralnervensystems. Histol Histopathol Arb Grosshirnrinde 1912;5:182.Google Scholar
Tscherbak, AE. On the value of anatomy and pathology of nervous system for physiological psychology. Rev Psychiatry Neurol Exp Psychol (Russian) 1898;10:809810.Google Scholar
Cornil, L. Commotion méduallaire directe. Paris: Librairie le François, 1921.Google Scholar
Schmauss, H. Commotio spinalis. Ergeb allg Pathol Pathol Anat 1897;1:594.Google Scholar
Schterbach, H. Des alterations de la moelle épinière chez le lapin sous l’influence de la vibration intensive. Encéphale. 1907;2:521.Google Scholar
Mott, FW. The microscopic examination of the brains of two men dead of commotio cerebri (shell shock) without visible external injury. BMJ 1917;2:612.Google Scholar
Tanzi, E, Lugaro, G. Malattie mentali, 2nd edition. Milan, Italy: Società Editrice Libraria, 1914.Google Scholar
Osnato, M, Giliberti, N. Postconcussion neurosis-traumatic encephalitis: A conception of postconcussion phenomena. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1927;18:181214.Google Scholar
Cannon, WB. Cerebral pressure following trauma. Am J Physiol 1901;6:91121.Google Scholar
Obersteiner, H. Diseases of the spinal cord. In: Sajous, CH, editor. Annual of the universal medical sciences and analytical index: A yearly report of the progress of general sanitary sciences throughout the world. Vol. II. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 1896 (p. B53).Google Scholar
Meyer, A. The anatomical facts and clinical varieties of traumatic insanity. Am J Insanity 1904;60:373441.Google Scholar
Wrightson, P. The development of a concept of mild head injury. J Clin Neurosci 2000;7:384388.Google Scholar
Strich, SJ. Diffuse degeneration of cerebral white matter in severe dementia following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1956;19:163185.Google Scholar
Aldich, M. Death rode the rails: American railroad accidents and safety, 1828–1965. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Schaller, WF. Diagnosis in traumatic neurosis. JAMA 1918; 71:338344.Google Scholar
Silverman, RA. Law and urban growth: Civil litigation in the Boston trial courts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
Bergstrom, RE. Courting danger: Injury and law in New York City, 1870–1910. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
Hale, NG. The rise and crisis of psychoanalysis in the United States: Freud and the Americans, 1917–1985. London: Oxford University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Dercum, FX. Hysteria and accident compensation. Philadelphia, PA: G.T. Bisel, 1916.Google Scholar
Jefferson, G. Gunshot wounds of the scalp, with special reference to the neurological signs presented. Brain 1919;42:93112.Google Scholar
Ferraro, A. Experimental medullary concussion of the spinal cord in rabbits: Histologic study of the early stages. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1927;18:357373.Google Scholar
Army, . Report of the war office committee of enquiry into “shell-shock.” London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1922.Google Scholar
Elliott, TR. Biographical memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society vol. 3, no. 9 (Jan., 1941), pp. 325344.Google Scholar
Trotter, W. Certain minor injuries of the brain. Lancet 1924;1:935939.Google Scholar
Phelps, C. A clinico-pathological study of injuries of the head, with special reference to lesions of the brain’s substance (read before the New York State Medical Association 4 Nov 1892). N Y Med J 1893;57:198.Google Scholar
Russell, WR. Cerebral involvement in head injury: A study based on the examination of two hundred cases. Brain 1932;55:549603.Google Scholar
Trotter, W. Shell wound of head, 1915; persistent headache four years; operation; free opening of skull and dura in region of injury; contusion of brain found; relief of headache. Brain 1920;42:353355.Google Scholar
Mohr, JC. Doctors and the law: Medical jurisprudence in nineteenth century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Romanis, WHC, Mitchener, PH. The science and practice of surgery. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1930.Google Scholar
Symonds, CP. Functional or organic? Some points of view. Lancet 1926;207(5341):6467.Google Scholar
Armour, D. Some considerations on head injuries. Brain 1928;51:427439.Google Scholar
Strauss, I, Savitsky, N. Head injury, neurologic and psychiatric aspects. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1934;31:893.Google Scholar
Hall, GW, MacKay, RP. The posttraumatic neuroses. JAMA 1934;102:510513.Google Scholar
Russel, CK. The nature of the war neuroses. Can Med Assoc J 1939;41:549554.Google Scholar
Munro, D. The late effects of crania-cerebral injuries. Ann Surg 1943;117:544.Google Scholar
Munro, D. The diagnosis and therapy of so-called posttraumatic neurosis following craniocerebral injuries. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1939;68:587592.Google Scholar
Rand, CW, Courville, CB. Histological changes in the brain in cases of fatal injury to the head, part iii: Reactions of microglia and oligodendroglia. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1932;27:605644.Google Scholar
Rand, CW, Courville, CB. Histological changes in the brain in cases of fatal injury to the head, part vi: Cytoarchitectonic alterations. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1936;36:12771293.Google Scholar
Rand, CW, Courville, CB. Histological changes in the brain in cases of fatal injury to the head, part vi: Cytoarchitectonic alterations. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1936;36:12771293.Google Scholar
Rand, CW, Courville, CB. Histologic changes in the brain in cases of fatal injury to the head; alterations in nerve cells. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1946;55:79110.Google Scholar
Symonds, CP. Mental disorder following head injury. Proc R Soc Med 1937;30:1081.Google Scholar
Goldstein, K. Brain concussion: Evaluation of the after effects by special tests. Dis Nerv Syst 1943;4:325334.Google Scholar
Greenwald, RM, Chu, JJ, Beckwith, JG, Crisco, JJ. A proposed method to reduce underreporting of brain injury in sports. Clin J Sport Med 2012;22:8385.Google Scholar
Denny-Brown, DE, Russell, WR. Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 1941;64:93164.Google Scholar
Denny-Brown, DE. Cerebral concussion. Physiol Rev 1945;25: 296325.Google Scholar
Marinesco, G. Lésions commotionelles expérimentales. Rev Neurol 1918;34:329.Google Scholar
Carver, A, Dinsley, A. Some biological effects of high explosives. Brain 1919;42:113.Google Scholar
Mairet, A, Durante, G. Contribution a l’étude expérimentale de lesions commotionnelles. Revue Neurol 1919;36:97.Google Scholar
Zuckerman, S. Discussion on the problem of blast injury. Proc R Soc Med 1941;34:171.Google Scholar
Tedeschi, CG. Cerebral injury by blunt mechanical trauma. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1945;53:333.Google Scholar
Eden, K, Turner, JW. Loss of consciousness in different types of head injury. Proc R Soc Med 1941;34:685.Google Scholar
Walker, AE, Kollros, JJ, Case, TJ. The physiological basis of cerebral concussion: Trauma of the nervous system. Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1945;24:437472.Google Scholar
Tönnis, W, Loew, F. Einteilung der gedeckten Hirnschädigungen. Arztl Prax 1953;36:1314.Google Scholar
Groat, RA, Windle, WF, Magoun, IW. Functional and structural changes in the monkey’s brain during and after concussion. J Neurosurg 1945;2:26.Google Scholar
Frey, E. Commotio cerebri: Beitrage zur Frage der traumatischen Schwellung und Ödembildung des Gehrins. Confin Neurol 1947–1948;8:5372.Google Scholar
Groat, RA, Simmons, JQ. Loss of nerve cells in experimental cerebral concussion. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1950;9:150163.Google Scholar
Symonds, CP. Concussion and its sequelae. Lancet 1962;1:15.Google Scholar
Groat, RA, Windle, WF, Magoun, IW. Functional and structural changes in the monkey’s brain during and after concussion. J Neurosurg 1945;2:26.Google Scholar
Meerloo, AM. Cerebral concussion: A psychosomatic survey. J Nerv Ment Dis 1949;110(4):347−53.Google Scholar
Windle, WF, Groat, RA, Fox, CA. Structural changes in the brain in experimental concussion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1946;55:162164.Google Scholar
Windle, WF, Groat, RA, Fox, CA. Experimental structural alterations in the brain during and after concussion. J Gynecol Surg 1944;79:561572.Google Scholar
Miller Fisher, C. Concussion amnesia. Neurol 1966;16:826830.Google Scholar
Trotter, W. Instincts of the herd in peace and war. London: T.F. Unwin, 1916.Google Scholar
Goldstein, K. Das psycho-physische Problem in seiner Bedeutung fuer aerztliches Handeln. Ther Gegenw 1931 special issue, no. 1:"111.Google Scholar
Goldstein, K. Aftereffects of brain injuries in war. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1942.Google Scholar
Saucier, J. Concussion: A misnomer. J Can Med Assoc 1955;72: 816820.Google Scholar
Johnson, B, Zhang, K, Gaya, M, Neuberger, T, Horovitz, S, Hallett, M, et al. Metabolic alterations in corpus callosum may compromise brain functional connectivity in MTBI patients: An 1H-MRS study. Neurosci Lett 2012;509:58.Google Scholar
Giza, CC, Hovda, DA. The neurometabolic cascade of concussion. J Athl Train 2001;36:228235.Google Scholar
Anonymous, . Microscopic lesions in head injury. Lancet 1968; 292:1069.Google Scholar
Chen, Y, Sutton, B, Conway, C, Broglio, SP, Ostoja-Starzewski, A. Brain deformation under mild impact: Magnetic resonance imaging-based assessment and finite element study. Int J Numer Anal Model, Series B Comput Info 2012;3:2035.Google Scholar
Holbourn, AHS. Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet 1943;2:438441.Google Scholar
Holbourn, AHS. The mechanics of brain injuries. Br Med Bull 1945;3:147149.Google Scholar
Pudenz, RH, Shelden, CH. The lucite calvarium – a method for direct observation of the brain, part ii: Cranial trauma and brain movement. J Neurosurg 1946;3:487505.Google Scholar
Peerless, SJ, Rewcastle, NB. Shear injuries of the brain. Can Med Assoc J 1967;96:577582.Google Scholar
Signoretti, S, Vagnozzi, R, Tavazzi, B, Lazzarino, G. Biochemical and neurochemical sequelae following mild traumatic brain injury: Summary of experimental data and clinical implications. Neurosurg Focus 2010;29:E1.Google Scholar
Signoretti, S, Lazzarino, G, Tavazzi, B, Vagnozzi, R. The pathophysiology of concussion. PM&R 2011;3:S359S368.Google Scholar
Hicks, R, Soares, H, Smith, D, McIntosh, T. Temporal and spatial characterization of neuronal injury following lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat. Acta Neuropathol 1996;91:236246.Google Scholar
Barkhoudarian, G, Hovda, DA, Giza, CC. The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury. Clin Sports Med 2011;30:3348.Google Scholar
Giza, CC, Prins, ML, Hovda, DA, Herschman, HR, Feldman, JD. Genes preferentially induced by depolarization after concussive brain injury: Effects of age and injury severity. J Neurotrauma 2002;19:387402.Google Scholar
Tang-Schomer, MD, Johnson, VE, Baas, PW, Stewart, W, Smith, DH. Partial interruption of axonal transport due to microtubule breakage accounts for the formation of periodic varicosities after traumatic axonal injury. Exp Neurol 2012;233:364372.Google Scholar
Creed, JA, DiLeonardi, AM, Fox, DP, Tessler, AR, Raghupathi, R. Concussive brain trauma in the mouse results in acute cognitive deficits and sustained impairment of axonal function. J Neurotrauma 2011;28:547563.Google Scholar
Kasahara, K, Hashimoto, K, Abo, M, Senoo, A. Voxel- and atlas-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging may reveal focal axonal injuries in mild traumatic brain injury: Comparison with diffuse axonal injury. Magn Reson Imaging 2012;30:496505.Google Scholar
Inglese, M, Makani, S, Johnson, G, Cohen, BA, Silver, JA, Gonen, O, et al. Diffuse axonal injury in mild traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study. J Neurosurg 2005 103:298303.Google Scholar
Niogi, SN, Mukherjee, P, Ghajar, J, Johnson C, Kolster RA, Sarkar R, et al. Extent of microstructural white matter injury in postconcussive syndrome correlates with impaired cognitive reaction time: A 3T diffusion tensor imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008;29:967973.Google Scholar
Rutgers, DR, Toulgoat, F, Cazejust, J, Fillard, P, Lasjaunias, P, Ducreux, D. White matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study. AJNR 2008;29:514519.Google Scholar
Ling, JM, Pena, A, Yeo, RA, Merideth FL, Klimaj S, Gasparovic C, et al. Biomarkers of increased diffusion anisotropy in semi-acute mild traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal perspective. Brain 2012;135(Pt 4):12811292.Google Scholar
Lipton, ML, Kim, N, Park, YK, Hulkower MB, Gardin TM, Shifteh K, et al. Robust detection of traumatic axonal injury in individual mild traumatic brain injury patients: Intersubject variation, change over time and bidirectional changes in anisotropy. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6: 329342.Google Scholar
Mayer, AR, Ling, JM, Yang, Z, Pena, A, Yeo, RA, Klimaj, S. Diffusion abnormalities in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci 2012;32:1796117969.Google Scholar
Shenton, ME, Hamoda, HM, Schneiderman, JS, Bouix S, Pasternak O, Rathi Y, et al. A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:137192.Google Scholar
Niogi, SN, Mukherjee, P. Diffusion tensor imaging of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2010;25:241255.Google Scholar
McAllister, TW, Ford, JC, Flashman, LA, Maerlender, A, Greenwald, RM, Beckwith, JG, et al. Effect of head impacts on diffusivity measures in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes. Neurology 2014;82:6369.Google Scholar
Niogi, SN, Mukherjee, P, Ghajar, J, Johnson CE, Kolster R, Lee H, et al. Structural dissociation of attentional control and memory in adults with and without mild traumatic brain injury. Brain 2008;131:32093221.Google Scholar
Lo, C, Shifteh, K, Gold, T, Bello, JA, Lipton, ML. Diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in patients with mild traumatic brain injury and neurocognitive impairment. J Comput Assist Tomog 2009;33:293297.Google Scholar
Geary, EK, Kraus, MF, Rubin, LH, Pliskin, NH, Deborah, M, Little, DM. Verbal learning differences in chronic mild traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2010;16:506516.Google Scholar
Cubon, VA, Putukian, M. A diffusion tensor imaging study on the white matter skeleton in individuals with sports-related concussion. J Neurotrauma 2011;28:189201.Google Scholar
Rutgers, DR, Fillard, P, Paradot, G, Tadié, M, Lasjaunias, P, Ducreux, D, Diffusion tensor imaging characteristics of the corpus callosum in mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury. AJNR 2008;29:17301735.Google Scholar
Slobounov, S, Gay, M, Johnson, B, Zhang, K. Concussion in athletics: Ongoing clinical and brain imaging research controversies. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:224243.Google Scholar
Giza, CC, Hovda, DA. The neurometabolic cascade of concussion. J Athletic Train 2001;36:228235.Google Scholar
Tavazzi, B, Signoretti, S, Lazzarino, G, Amorini AM, Delfini R, Cimatti M, et al. Cerebral oxidative stress and depression of energy metabolism correlate with severity of diffuse brain injury in rats. Neurosurg 2005;56:582589.Google Scholar
Dashnaw, ML, Petraglia, AL, Bailes, JE. An overview of the basic science of concussion and subconcussion: Where we are and where we are going. Neurosurg Focus 2012;33:E5:19.Google Scholar
Kan, EM, Ling, EA, Lu, J. Microenvironment changes in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Res Bull 2012;87:359372.Google Scholar
Shrey, DW, Griesbach, GS, Giza, CC. The pathophysiology of concussions in youth. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2011;22:577602.Google Scholar
Giza, CC, Hovda, DA. The new neurometabolic cascade of concussion. Neurosurgery 2014;75:S24S33.Google Scholar
Giza, CC, Hovda, DA. Ionic and metabolic consequences of concussion. In: Cantu, RC, Cantu, RI, editors. Neurologic athletic and spine injuries. St Louis, MO: WB Saunders, 2000, pp. 80100.Google Scholar
Biegon, A, Fry, PA, Paden, CM, Alexandrovich, A, Tsenter, J, Shohami, E. Dynamic changes in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors after closed head injury in mice: Implications for treatment of neurological and cognitive deficits. PNAS 2004;101:51175122.Google Scholar
Macleod, GHB. Notes on the surgery of the war in Crimea with remarks on the treatment of gunshot wounds. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1862.Google Scholar
Bass, CR, Panzer, MB, Rafaels, KA, Wood, G, Shridharani, J, Capehart, B. Brain injuries from blast. Ann Biomed Engineer 2012;40:185202.Google Scholar
Blennow, K, Hardy, J, Zetterberg, H. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron 2012;76:886899.Google Scholar
Rowbotham, GF. Acute injuries of the head: Their diagnosis, treatment, complications, and sequels. Edinburgh, UK: E. & S. Livingstone, 1942.Google Scholar
Oppenheimer, DR. Microscopic lesions in the brain following head injury. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1968;31:299306.Google Scholar
Anonymous, . Microscopical sequelae of head injury. Br Med J 1969;7:169.Google Scholar
Clark, JM. Distribution of microglial clusters in the brain after head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1974;37:463474.Google Scholar
Engel, S, Wehner, HD, Meyermann, R. Expression of microglial markers in the human CNS after closed head injury. Acta Neurochirurg 1996;66:8795.Google Scholar
Schmidt, OI, Heyde, CE, Ertel, W, Stahel, PF. Closed head injury – an inflammatory disease? Brain Res Rev 2005;48:388399.Google Scholar
Czigner, A, Mihály, A, Farkas, O, Büki, A, Krisztin-Péva, B, Dobó, E, et al. Kinetics of the cellular immune response following closed head injury. Acta Neurochir 2007;149:281289.Google Scholar
Morganti-Kossmann, MC, Satgunaseelan, L, Bye, N, Kossmann, T. Modulation of immune response by head injury. Injury Int J Care Injured 2007;38:13921400.Google Scholar
Cederberg, D, Siesjö, P. What has inflammation to do with traumatic brain injury? Childs Nerv Syst 2010;26:221226.Google Scholar
Helmy, A, De Simoni, MG, Guilfoyle, MR, Carpenter, KL, Hutchinson, PJ. Cytokines and innate inflammation in the pathogenesis of human traumatic brain injury. Prog Neurobiol 2011;352372.Google Scholar
Tsai, Y-D, Liliang, P-C, Cho, C-L, Chen, J-S, Lu, K, Liang, C-L, et al. Delayed neurovascular inflammation after mild traumatic brain injury in rats. Brain Inj 2013;27:361365.Google Scholar
Yang, SH, Gangidine, M, Pritts, TA, Goodman, MD, Lentsch, AB. Interleukin 6 mediates neuroinflammation and motor coordination deficits after mild traumatic brain injury and brief hypoxia in mice. Shock 2013;40:471475.Google Scholar
Weil, ZM, Gaier, KR, Karelina, K. Injury timing alters metabolic, inflammatory and functional outcomes following repeated mild traumatic brain injury. Neurobiol Dis 2104;70:108116.Google Scholar
Khuman, J, Meehan, WP, Zhu, X, Qiu, J, Hoffmann, U, Zhang, J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and Fas receptor contribute to cognitive deficits independent of cell death after concussive traumatic brain injury in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2011;31:778789.Google Scholar
Das, M, Subhra Mohapatra, S, Mohapatra, SS. New perspectives on central and peripheral immune responses to acute traumatic brain injury. J Neuroinflamm 2012;9:236.Google Scholar
Acosta, SA, Tajiri, N, Shinozuka, K, Ishikawa, H, Grimmig, B, Diamond, D. et al. Long-term upregulation of inflammation and suppression of cell proliferation in the brain of adult rats exposed to traumatic brain injury using the controlled cortical impact model. PLoS One 2013;8:e53376.Google Scholar
Abdul-Muneer, PM, Chandra, N, Haorah, J. Interactions of oxidative stress and neurovascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury. Mol Neurobiol 2014. Available at…Abdul_Muneer/…Interactions…/5417a3770cf22…Google Scholar
Corps, KN, Roth, TL, McGavern, DB. Inflammation and neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury. JAMA Neurol 2015;72:355362.Google Scholar
Karve, IP, Taylor, JM, Crack, PJ. The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to traumatic brain injury. Br J Pharmacol 2016;173:692702.Google Scholar
Lozano, D, Gonzales-Portillo, GS, Acosta, S, de la Pena, I, Tajiri, N, Kaneko, Y, Borlongan, CV. Neuroinflammatory responses to traumatic brain injury: Etiology, clinical consequences, and therapeutic opportunities. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015;11: 97106.Google Scholar
Shoamenesh, A, Pries, SR, Beiser, AS, Vasan, RS, Benjamin, EJ, Kase, CS, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers, cerebral microbleeds, and small vessel disease: Framingham Heart Study. Neurology 2015;84:825832.Google Scholar
Woodcock, T, Morganti-Kossmann, MC. The role of markers of inflammation in traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol 2013;4:18.Google Scholar
Coughlin, JM, Wang, Y, Munro, CA, Ma, S, Yue, C, Chen, S, et al. Neuroinflammation and brain atrophy in former NFL players: An in vivo multimodal imaging pilot study. Neurobiol Dis 2015;74:5865.Google Scholar
Kreisl, WC, Jenko, KJ, Hines, CS, Lyoo, CH, Corona, W, Morse, CL, et al. A genetic polymorphism for translocator protein 18 kDa affects both in vitro and in vivo radioligand binding in human brain to this putative biomarker of neuroinflammation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013;33:5358.Google Scholar
Kumar, A, Loane, DJ. Neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury: Opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Brain Behav Immun 2012;26:11911201.Google Scholar
Patterson, ZR, Holahan, MR. Understanding the neuroinflammatory response following concussion to develop treatment strategies. Front Cell Neurosci 2012;6:110.Google Scholar
Hawrylycz, MJ, Lein, ES, Guillozet-Bongaarts, AL, Shen, EH, Ng, L, Jeremy, A, et al. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome. Nature 2012;489:391399.Google Scholar
Barr, TL, Alexander, S, Conley, Y. Gene expression profiling for discovery of novel targets in human traumatic brain injury. Biol Res Nurs 2011;13:140153.Google Scholar
Poulsen, CB, Penkowa, M, Borup, R, Nielsen, FC, Caceres, M, Quintana, A, et al. Brain response to traumatic brain injury in wild-type and interleukin-6 knockout mice: A microarray analysis. J Neurochem 2005;92:417432.Google Scholar
Colak, T, Cine, N, Bamac, B, Kurtas, O, Ozbek, A, Bicer, U, et al. Microarray-based gene expression analysis of an animal model for closed head injury. Injury Int J Care Injured 2012;43:12641270.Google Scholar
Michael, DB, Byers, DM, Irwin, LN. Gene expression following traumatic brain injury in humans: Analysis by microarray. J Clin Neurosci 2005;12:284290.Google Scholar
Di Pietro, V, Amin, D, Pernagallo, S, Lazzarino, G, Tavazzi, B, Vagnozzi, R, et al. Transcriptomics of traumatic brain injury: gene expression and molecular pathways of different grades of insult in a rat organotypic hippocampal culture model. J Neurotrauma 2010;27:349359.Google Scholar
Di Pietro, V, Amorini, AM, Tavazzi, B, Hovda, DA, Signoretti, S, Giza, CC, et al. Potentially neuroprotective gene modulation in an in vitro model of mild traumatic brain injury. Mol Cell Biochem 2013;375:185198.Google Scholar
Barnes, DE, Kaup, A, Kirby, KA, Byers, AL, Diaz-Arrastia, R, Yaffe, K. Traumatic brain injury and risk of dementia in older veterans. Neurology 2014;83:312319.Google Scholar
Cushing, H. A study of a series of wounds involving the brain and its enveloping structures. Br J Surg 1917;5:558684.Google Scholar
Martland, HS. Punch drunk. JAMA 1928;19:11031107.Google Scholar
Van Den Heuvel, C, Thornton, E, Vink, R. Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer’s disease. In: Weber, JT, Maas, AIR, editors. Progress in brain research, vol. 161. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007 (pp. 303316).Google Scholar
Parker, HL. Traumatic encephalopathy (‘punch drunk’) of professional pugilists. J Neurol Psychopathol 1934;15:2028.Google Scholar
Victoroff, J. Traumatic encephalopathy: Review and provisional research diagnostic criteria. NeuroRehab 2013;32:211224.Google Scholar
Stern, RA, Daneshvar, DH, Baugh, CM, Seichepine, DR, Montenigro, PH, Riley, DO, et al. Clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Neurology 2013;81:11221129.Google Scholar
McKee, AC, Stein, TD, Nowinski, CJ, Stern, RA, Daneshvar, DH, Victor, E, et al. The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain 2012;122.Google Scholar
Mondello, S, Schmid, K, Berger, R, Kobeissy F, Italiano D, Jeromin A, et al. The challenge of mild traumatic brain injury: Role of biochemical markers in diagnosis of brain damage. Med Res Rev 2014;34:503531.Google Scholar
Kang, JH, Lin, HC. Increased risk of multiple sclerosis after traumatic brain injury: A nationwide population-based study. J Neurotrauma 2012;29:9095.Google Scholar
Ling, H, Hardy, J, Zetterberg, H. Neurological consequences of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Mol Cell Neurosci 2015;S1044S7431Google Scholar
Beauchamp, MH, Ditchfield, M, Maller, JJ, Catroppa, C, Godfrey, C, Rosenfeld, JV, et al. Hippocampus, amygdala and global brain changes 10 years after childhood traumatic brain injury. Int J Dev Neurosci 2011;29:137143.Google Scholar
Bigler, ED, Farrer, TJ, Pertab, JL, James, K, Petrie, JA, Hedges, DW. Reaffirmed limitations of meta-analytic methods in the study of mild traumatic brain injury: A response to Rohling et al. Clin Neuropsychol 2013;27:176214.Google Scholar
Dean, PJA, Sato, JR, Vieira, G, McNamara, A, Sterr, A. Multimodal imaging of mild traumatic brain injury and persistent postconcussion syndrome. Brain Behav 2015;5:e00292.Google Scholar
Al-Samsam, RH, Alessandri, B, Ross Bullock, R. Extracellular N-acetyl-aspartate as a biochemical marker of the severity of neuronal damage following experimental acute traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:3139.Google Scholar
Garnett, MR, Blamire, AM, Rajagopalan, B, Styles, P, Cadoux-Hudson, TA. Evidence for cellular damage in normal-appearing white matter correlates with injury severity in patients following traumatic brain injury: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Brain 2000;123:14031409.Google Scholar
Johnson, B, Zhang, K, Gaya, M, Neuberger, T, Horovitz, S, Hallett, M, et al. Metabolic alterations in corpus callosum may compromise brain functional connectivity in MTBI patients: An 1H-MRS study. Neurosci Lett 2012;509:58.Google Scholar
George, EO, Roys, S, Sours, C, Rosenberg, J, Zhuo, J, Shanmuganathan, K, et al. Longitudinal and prognostic evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury: A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Neurotrauma 2014;31:10181028.Google Scholar
Vagnozzi, R, Signoretti, S, Cristofori, L, Alessandrini, F, Floris, R, Isgro, E, et al. Assessment of metabolic brain damage and recovery following mild traumatic brain injury: A multicentre, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study in concussed patients. Brain 2010;133:32323242.Google Scholar
Cohen, BA, Inglese, M, Rusinek, H, Babb, JS, Grossman, RI, Gonen, O. Proton MR spectroscopy and MRI-volumetry in mild traumatic brain injury. AJNR 2007;28:907913.Google Scholar
Dean, PJA, Otaduy, MCG, Harris, LM, McNamara, A, Seiss, E, Sterr, A. Monitoring long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury with magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A pilot study. NeuroRep 2013;24:677681.Google Scholar
Johnson, B, Gay, M, Zhang, K, Neuberger, T, Horovitz, SG, Hallett, M, et al. The use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the subacute evaluation of athletes recovering from single and multiple mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2012;29:22972304.Google Scholar
Chen, JK, Johnston, KM, Frey, S, Petrides, M, Worsley, K, Ptito, A. Functional abnormalities in symptomatic concussed athletes: An fMRI study. NeuroImage 2004;22:6882.Google Scholar
Chen, JK, Johnston, KM, Collie, A, McCrory, P, Ptito, A. A validation of the post concussion symptom scale in the assessment of complex concussion using cognitive testing and functional MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:12311238.Google Scholar
Keightley, ML, Sinopoli, KJ, Davis, KD, Mikulis, DJ. Is there evidence for neurodegenerative change following traumatic brain injury in children and youth? A scoping review. Front Human Neurosci 2014;8:16.Google Scholar
McAllister, TW, Sparling, MB, Flashman, LA, Guerin, SJ, Mamourian, AC, Saykin, AJ. Differential working memory load effects after mild traumatic brain injury. NeuroImage 2001;14:10041012.Google Scholar
Jantzen, KJ, Anderson, B, Steinberg, FL, Kelso, JAS. A prospective functional MR imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury in college football players. Am J Neuroradiol 2004;25:738745.Google Scholar
Scheibel, RS, Newsome, MR, Troyanskaya, M, Lin X, Steinberg JL, Radaideh M, et al. Altered brain activation in military personnel with one or more traumatic brain injuries following blast. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2012;18:89100.Google Scholar
Jantzen, KJ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2010;25:256266.Google Scholar
McAllister, TW, Flashman, LA, McDonald, BC, Saykin, AJ. Mechanisms of working memory dysfunction after mild and moderate TBI: Evidence from functional MRI and neurogenetics. J Neurotrauma 2006;23:14501467.Google Scholar
Witt, ST, Lovejoy, DW, Pearlson, GD, Stevens, MC. Decreased prefrontal cortex activity in mild traumatic brain injury during performance of an auditory oddball task. Brain Imaging Behav 2010;4:232247.Google Scholar
Gosselin, N, Bottari, C, Chen, JK, Petrides, M, Tinawi, S, de Guise, E, et al. Electrophysiology and functional MRI in postacute mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2011;28:329341.Google Scholar
Matthews, S, Simmons, A, Strigo, I. The effects of loss versus alteration of consciousness on inhibition-related brain activity among individuals with a history of blast-related concussion. Psychiatry Res 2011;191:7679.Google Scholar
Matthews, SC, Strigo, IA, Simmons, AN, O’Connell, RM, Reinhardt, LE, Moseley, SA. A multimodal imaging study in U.S. Veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom with and without major depression after blast-related concussion. NeuroImage 2011;54:6975.Google Scholar
McDonald, BC, Saykin, AJ, McAllister, TW. Functional MRI of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): Progress and perspectives from the first decade of studies. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:193207.Google Scholar
Chen, J-K, Johnston, KM, Petrides, M, Ptito, A. Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting postconcussion symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:8189.Google Scholar
Slobounov, SM, Gay, M, Zhang, K, Johnson, B, Pennell, D, Sebastianelli, W, et al. Alteration of brain functional network at rest and in response to YMCA physical stress test in concussed athletes: RsFMRI study. NeuroImage 2011;55:17161727.Google Scholar
Chen, C-J, Wu, C-H, Liao, Y-P, Hsu, H-L, Tseng, Y-C, Liu, H-L, et al. Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: Functional MR imaging analysis. Radiology 2012;264:844851.Google Scholar
Dettwiler, A, Murugavel, M, Putukian, M, Cubon, V, Furtado, J, Osherson, D. Persistent differences in patterns of brain activation after sports-related concussion: A longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurottrauma 2014;31:180188.Google Scholar
Hillary, FG. Neuroimaging of working memory dysfunction and the dilemma with brain reorganization hypotheses. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2008;14:526534.Google Scholar
Hillary, FG, Genova, HM, Medaglia, JD, Fitzpatrick, NM,Chiou, KS, Wardecker, BM et al. The nature of processing speed deficits in traumatic brain injury: Is less brain more? Brain Imaging Behav 2010;4:141154.Google Scholar
Fazio, VC, Lovell, MR, Pardini, JE, Collins, MW. The relation between post concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance in concussed athletes. NeuroRehab 2007;22:207216.Google Scholar
Mayer, AR, Yang, Z, Yeo, RA, Pena, A, Ling, JM, Mannell, MV, et al. A functional MRI study of multimodal selective attention following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:343354.Google Scholar
Slobounov, S, Sebastianelli, W, Hallett, M. Residual brain dysfunction observed one year post-mild traumatic brain injury: Combined EEG and balance study. Clin Neurophysiol 2012;123:17551761.Google Scholar
Abbas, K, Shenk, TE, Poole, VN, Robinson, ME, Leverenz, LJ, Nauman, EA, et al. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain Connect 2015;5:91101.Google Scholar
Bigler, ED, Maxwell, WL. Neuropathology of mild traumatic brain injury: Relationship to neuroimaging findings. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:108136.Google Scholar
Jennett, B, Bond, M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. A practical scale. Lancet 1975;1:480484.Google Scholar
Alexander, MP. Mild traumatic brain injury: Pathophysiology, natural history, and clinical management. Neurol 1995;45: 12531260.Google Scholar
Pertab, JL, James, KM, Bigler, ED. Limitations of mild traumatic brain injury meta-analyses. Brain Inj 2009;23:498508.Google Scholar
Ruff, RM, Crouch, JA, Tröster, AI, Marshall LF, Buchsbaum MS, Lottenberg S, et al. Selected cases of poor outcome following a minor brain trauma: Comparing neuropsychological and positron emission tomography assessment. Brain Inj 1994;8:297308.Google Scholar
Ruff, RM, Camenzuli, L, Mueller, J. Miserable minority: Emotional risk factors that influence the outcome of a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 1996;10:551565.Google Scholar
Binder, LM, Rohling, ML, Larrabee, GJ. A review of mild head trauma, part i: Meta-analytic review of neuropsychological studies. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1997;19:421431.Google Scholar
Frencham, KA, Fox, AM, Maybery, MT. Neuropsychological studies of mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analytic review of research since 1995. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2005;27:334351.Google Scholar
Rohling, ML, Binder, LM, Demakis, GJ, Larrabee, GJ, Ploetz, DM, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: Re-analyses and reconsiderations of Binder et al. Clin Neuropsychol 2011;25:608623.Google Scholar
Committee on Head Injury Nomenclature of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Glossary of head injury, including some definitions of injury to the cervical spine. Clin Neurosurg 1966;12:386394.Google Scholar
American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee. Neurology 1997;48:581585.Google Scholar
Miller Fisher, C. Concussion amnesia. Neurology 1966;16;826830.Google Scholar
Aubry, M, Cantu, RC, Dvorak, J, Graf-Baumann T, Johnston K, Kelly J, et al. Summary and agreement statement of the First International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Vienna 2001: Recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who may suffer concussive injuries. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:610.Google Scholar
McAllister, TW. Evaluation and treatment of neurobehavioral complications of traumatic brain injury – have we made any progress? Neurorehabil 2002;17:263264.Google Scholar
Alves, WM, Coloban, ART, O’Leary, TJ, Rimel, RW, Jane, JA. Understanding posttraumatic symptoms after minor head injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1986;1:112.Google Scholar
Guskiewicz, KM, Bruce, SL, Cantu, RC, Ferrara MS, Kelly JP, McCrea M, et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Management of sport-related concussion. J Athl Train 2004;39:280297.Google Scholar
Herring, SA, Bergfeld, JA, Boland, A, Boyajian-O’Neill, LA, Cantu, RC, Hershman, E. Concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) and the team physician: A consensus statement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38:395399.Google Scholar
McCrory, P, Johnston, KM, Meeuwisse, W, Aubry M, Cantu R, Dvorak J, et al. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport in Prague. Br J Sports Med 2005;39: 196204.Google Scholar
McCrory, P, Meeuwisse, W, Johnston, KM, Dvorak J, Aubry M, Molloy M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: The 3rd international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich. J Sci Med Sport 2009;12:340351.Google Scholar
McCrory, P, Meeuwisse, W, Aubry, M, Cantu RC, Dvorak J, Echemendia RJ, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:250258.Google Scholar
McCrory, P, Meeuwisse, W, Dvorak, J, Aubry, M, Bailes, J, Broglio, S, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport – the 5th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Berlin, October 2016. Br J Sports Med 2017;51:838847.Google Scholar
Cantu, RC. An overview of concussion consensus statements since 2000. Neurosurg Focus 2006;21:15.Google Scholar
Makdissi, M. Is the simple versus complex classification of concussion a valid and useful differentiation? Br J Sports Med 2009;43:i23-i127.Google Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury prevention and control: Traumatic brain injury. 2013. Available at Scholar
Brain Injury Association of America. Sports concussions fact sheet. 2010. Available at Scholar
Bodin, D, Yeates, KO, Klamar, K. Definition and classification of concussion. In Apps, JN, Walter, KD, editors. Pediatric and adolescent concussion: Diagnosis, management, and outcomes. New York: Springer, 2012.Google Scholar
Peloso, PM, Carroll, LJ, Cassidy, D. Borg, J. von Holst, H, Holm, L, Yates, D. Critical evaluation of the existing guidelines on mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med 2004;Suppl. 43: 106112.Google Scholar
Carroll, LJ, Cassidy, JD, Holm, L, Kraus, J, Coronado, VG. Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: The WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med 2004;Suppl. 43:113125.Google Scholar