Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-s82fj Total loading time: 1.239 Render date: 2022-10-02T13:18:40.211Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

5 - Water Erosion and Its Controlling Factors in the Anthropocene

from Part I - Water-Related Risks under Climate Change

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 March 2022

Qiuhong Tang
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
Guoyong Leng
Oxford University Centre for the Environment
Get access


Water erosion is one of most important global environmental problems which has been widely researched but remains poorly understood because of the complexity of its underlying mechanisms driven by interacting environmental factors. Water erosion is highly sensitive to climate change and associated events such as increasing extreme rainfall events and global warming. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the research progress on water erosion processes, as well as how they can be influenced by the natural and anthropogenic factors. The main water erosion control practices are introduced, which need better spatial and temporal allocations under future climate risk. We also reviewed the literature that has quantified direct and indirect climate change impacts on water erosion. Future avenues of research might include: deeper investigation of the natural and anthropogenic factors associated with water erosion, high resolution predictions of water erosion at larger scale and evaluation of economic models associated with erosion control practices to help policymakers develop and implement measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abedini, M., Said, M. A. M., & Ahmad, F. (2012). Effectiveness of check dam to control soil erosion in a tropical catchment (The Ulu Kinta Basin). Catena 97: 6370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alberts, E. E., & Neibling, W. H. (1994). Influence of crop residues on water erosion. In Unger, P. W. (ed.), Managing Agricultural Residues (pp. 1939). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
Alewell, C., Borelli, P., Meusburger, K., & Panagos, P. (2019). Using the USLE: Chances, challenges and limitations of soil erosion modelling. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 7(3): 203225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, P. M., Arnold, J. G., Auguste, L., White, J., & Dunbar, J. (2018). Application of a simple headcut advance model for gullies. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43(1): 202217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
An, J., Zheng, F., Lu, J., & Li, G. (2012). Investigating the role of raindrop impact on hydrodynamic mechanism of soil erosion under simulated rainfall conditions. Soil Science 177(8): 517526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bakr, N., Elbana, T. A., Arceneaux, A., et al. (2015). Runoff and water quality from highway hillsides: Influence compost/mulch. Soil & Tillage Research 150: 158170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, S. J., Casalí, J., Robinson, K. M., & Kadavy, K. C. (2000). Characteristics of actively eroding ephemeral gullies in an experimental channel. Transactions of the ASAE 43(3): 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birkinshaw, S. J., & Bathurst, J. C. (2006). Model study of the relationship between sediment yield and river basin area. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31(6): 750761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blevins, R. L., Lal, R., Doran, J. W., Langdale, G. W., & Frye, W. W. (2018). Conservation tillage for erosion control and soil quality. In Pierce, F. J., & Frye, W. W. (eds.), Advances in Soil and Water Conservation (pp. 5168). Boca Raton, FL: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bocco, G. (1991). Gully erosion: Processes and models. Progress in Physical Geography 15(4): 392406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borrelli, P., Robinson, D. A., Fleischer, L. R., et al. (2017). An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion. Nature Communications 8(1): 2013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buendia, C., Bussi, G., Tuset, J., et al. (2016). Effects of afforestation on runoff and sediment load in an upland Mediterranean catchment. Science of the Total Environment 540: 144157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullard, J. E., & McTainsh, G. H. (2003). Aeolian-fluvial interactions in dryland environments: Examples, concepts and Australia case study. Progress in Physical Geography 27(4): 471501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capra, A., & La Spada, C. (2015). Medium-term evolution of some ephemeral gullies in Sicily (Italy). Soil and Tillage Research 154: 3443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capra, A., Porto, P., & Scicolone, B. (2009). Relationships between rainfall characteristics and ephemeral gully erosion in a cultivated catchment in Sicily (Italy). Soil and Tillage Research 105(1): 7787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casalí, J., Giménez, R., & Bennett, S. (2009). Gully erosion processes: Monitoring and modelling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34(14): 18391840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casalí, J., López, J. J., & Giráldez, J. V. (1999). Ephemeral gully erosion in southern Navarra (Spain). Catena 36(1–2): 6584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castillo, C., & Gómez, J. A. (2016). A century of gully erosion research: Urgency, complexity and study approaches. Earth-Science Reviews 160: 300319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castillo, V. M., Mosch, W. M., García, C. C., et al. (2007). Effectiveness and geomorphological impacts of check dams for soil erosion control in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment: El Cárcavo (Murcia, Spain). Catena 70(3): 416427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C., Park, T., Wang, X., et al. (2019). China and India lead in greening of the world through land-use management. Nature Sustainability 2(2): 122129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, D., Wei, W., & Chen, L. (2017). Effects of terracing practices on water erosion control in China: A meta-analysis. Earth-Science Reviews 173: 109121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, S. K., Liu, C. W., & Chen, Y. R. (2012). Assessing soil erosion in a terraced paddy field using experimental measurements and universal soil loss equation. Catena 95: 131141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Y., Wu, J., Wang, H., et al. (2019). Evaluating the soil quality of newly created farmland in the hilly and gully region on the Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 29(5): 791802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, H., Zou, X., Wu, Y., et al. (2007). Morphology parameters of ephemeral gully in characteristics hillslopes on the Loess Plateau of China. Soil & Tillage Research 94(1): 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CTIC (Conservation Technology Information Center) (2002). National Crop Residue Management Survey. West Lafayette, IN: CTIC.Google Scholar
Deng, L., Shangguan, Z. P., & Li, R. (2012). Effects of the grain-for-green program on soil erosion in China. International Journal of Sediment Research 27(1): 120127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derpsch, R. (2003). Conservation tillage, no-tillage and related technologies. In Luis, G. T., José, B., Armando, M. V., & Antonio, H. C. (eds.), Conservation Agriculture (pp. 181190). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, J., Zhang, K., & Guo, Z. (2012). Runoff and soil erosion from highway construction spoil deposits: A rainfall simulation study. Transportation Research Part D-transport and Environment 17(1): 814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellison, W. D. (1944). Studies of raindrop erosion. Agricultural Engineering 25(4): 131136.Google Scholar
Erpul, G., Gabriels, D., Cornelis, W. M., Samray, H., & Guzelordu, T. (2009). Average sand particle trajectory examined by the Raindrop Detachment and Wind‐driven Transport (RD‐WDT) process. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34(9): 12701278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, K. G., Loch, R. J., Aspinall, T. O., & Bell, L. C. (1997). Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland. Soil Research 35(1): 1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández-Raga, M., Palencia, C., Keesstra, S., et al. (2017). Splash erosion: A review with unanswered questions. Earth-Science Reviews 171: 463477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foster, G. R. (1986). Understanding ephemeral gully erosion. In National Research Council, Board on Agriculture (ed.), Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Research Inventory (pp. 90118). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
Foster, G. R., & Meyer, L. D. (1972). A closed-form soil erosion equation for upland areas. In Shen, H. W. (ed.), Sedimentation: Symposium to Honor Professor H.A. Einstein (pp. 12.112.19). Fort Collins, CO: Einstein.Google Scholar
Foster, G. R., Meyer, L. D., & Onstad, C. A. (1977). An erosion equation derived from basic erosion principles. Transactions of the ASAE 20(4): 678682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goebes, P., Seitz, S., Geißler, C., et al. (2014). Momentum or kinetic energy – How do substrate properties influence the calculation of rainfall erosivity? Journal of Hydrology 517: 310316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grossi, C. M., Brimblecombe, P., & Harris, I. (2007). Predicting long term freeze–thaw risks on Europe built heritage and archaeological sites in a changing climate. Science of the Total Environment 377(2–3): 273281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guerra, A. J. T., Fullen, M. A., Jorge, M. D. C. O., Bezerra, J. F. R., & Shokr, M. S. (2017). Slope processes, mass movement and soil erosion: A review. Pedosphere 27(1): 2741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gyssels, G., & Poesen, J. (2003). The importance of plant root characteristics in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: The Journal of the British Geomorphological Research Group 28(4): 371384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, Y., Zheng, F. L., & Xu, X. M. (2017). Effects of rainfall regime and its character indices on soil loss at loessial hillslope with ephemeral gully. Journal of Mountain Science 14(3): 527538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hancock, G. R., & Evans, K. G. (2006). Gully position, characteristics and geomorphic thresholds in an undisturbed catchment in northern Australia. Hydrological Processes 20(14): 29352951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatfield, J. L., Allmaras, R. R., Rehm, G. W., & Lowery, B. (1998). Ridge tillage for corn and soybean production: Environmental quality impacts. Soil and Tillage Research 48(3): 145154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heede, B. H. (1990). Vegetation Strips Control Erosion in Watersheds (Vol. 499). Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.Google Scholar
Holland, J. M. (2004). The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: Reviewing the evidence. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 103(1): 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horton, R. E., Leach, H. R., & Van Vliet, R. (1934). Laminar sheet‐flow. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 15(2): 393404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hürlimann, M., Coviello, V., & Bel, C. (2019). Debris-flow monitoring and warning: Review and examples. Earth-Science Reviews 199(1): 102981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurni, H., Herweg, K., Portner, B., & Liniger, H. (2008). Soil erosion and conservation in global agriculture. In Braimoh, A. K., & Vlek, P. L. G. (eds.), Land Use and Soil Resources (pp. 4171). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Forth Assessment Report of IPCC. Cambridge: IPCC.Google Scholar
Jin, Z., Cui, B., Song, Y., et al. (2012). How many check dams do we need to build on the Loess Plateau? Environmental Science & Technology 46(16): 85278528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., & Gil, J. (2010). Effects of mulching on soil physical properties and runoff under semi-arid conditions in southern Spain. Catena 81(1): 7785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinnell, P. I. A. (2005). Raindrop‐impact‐induced erosion processes and prediction: A review. Hydrological Processes: An International Journal 19(14): 28152844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R. (1990). Ridge-tillage. Soil & Tillage Research 18(2–3): 107111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laws, J. O., & Parsons, D. A. (1943). The relation of raindrop‐size to intensity. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 24(2): 452460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenzi, M. A., & Comiti, F. (2003). Local scouring and morphological adjustments in steep channels with check-dam sequences. Geomorphology 55(1–4): 97109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, X., Niu, J., & Xie, B. (2014). The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China. PloS One 9(9): e107789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, Z., & Fang, H. (2016). Impacts of climate change on water erosion: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 163: 94117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, Z., & Fang, H. (2017). Modeling the impact of climate change on watershed discharge and sediment yield in the black soil region, northeastern China. Geomorphology 293: 255271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Litschert, S. E., Theobald, D. M., & Brown, T. C. (2014). Effects of climate change and wildfire on soil loss in the Southern Rockies Ecoregion. Catena 118: 206219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, B., Zhang, K., & Xie, Y. (2002). An empirical soil loss equation. In 12th International Soil Conservation Organization Conference, May 2002 (pp. 2125). Beijing, China: Tsinghua University Press.Google Scholar
Liu, Q. J., Shi, Z. H., Yu, X. X., & Zhang, H. Y. (2014). Influence of microtopography, ridge geometry and rainfall intensity on soil erosion induced by contouring failure. Soil and Tillage Research 136: 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Y., Fu, B., Liu, Y., Zhao, W., & Wang, S. (2019). Vulnerability assessment of the global water erosion tendency: Vegetation greening can partly offset increasing rainfall stress. Land Degradation & Development 30(9): 10611069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maeda, E. E., Pellikka, P. K., Siljander, M., & Clark, B. J. (2010). Potential impacts of agricultural expansion and climate change on soil erosion in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya. Geomorphology 123(3–4): 279289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maetens, W., Poesen, J., & Vanmaercke, M. (2012). How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean? Earth-Science Reviews 115(1–2): 2136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martınez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., & Poesen, J. (2004). Assessment of sidewall erosion in large gullies using multi-temporal DEMs and logistic regression analysis. Geomorphology 58(1–4): 305321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meng, L., Feng, Q., Wu, K., & Meng, Q. (2012). Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion of land subsided by coal mining using RUSLE. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology 22(1): 711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, L. D., & Monke, E. J. (1965). Mechanics of soil erosion by rainfall and overland flow. Transactions of the ASAE 8(4): 572577.Google Scholar
Meyer, L. D., Foster, G. R., & Romkens, M. J. M. (1975). Source of soil eroded by water from upland slopes. In ARS-S-40 (ed.), Present and Prospective Technology for Predicting Sediment Yields and Sources (pp. 177189). Oxford, MS: US Department of Agriculture, National Sedimentation Laboratory.Google Scholar
Mondal, A., Khare, D., & Kundu, S. (2016). Change in rainfall erosivity in the past and future due to climate change in the central part of India. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 4(3): 186194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montanarella, L. (2015). Agricultural policy: Govern our soils. Nature 528: 3233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(33): 1326813272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Navarrohevia, J., Limafarias, T. R., De Araujo, J. C., Osoriopelaez, C., & Pando, V. (2016). Soil erosion in steep road cut slopes in Palencia (Spain). Land Degradation & Development 27(2): 190199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nearing, M. A. (2001). Potential changes in rainfall erosivity in the US with climate change during the 21st century. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 56(3): 229232.Google Scholar
Nearing, M. A., Foster, G. R., Lane, L. J., & Finkner, S. C. (1989). A process-based soil erosion model for USDA-Water Erosion Prediction Project technology. Transactions of the ASAE 32(5): 15871593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nearing, M. A., Jetten, V., Baffaut, C., et al. (2005). Modeling response of soil erosion and runoff to changes in precipitation and cover. Catena 61(2–3): 131154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nearing, M. A., Pruski, F. F., & O’Neal, M. R. (2004). Expected climate change impacts on soil erosion rates: A review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 59(1): 4350.Google Scholar
Nichols, M. H., Nearing, M., Hernandez, M., & Polyakov, V. O. (2016). Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography. Geomorphology 265: 107116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunes, J. P., Seixas, J., & Keizer, J. J. (2013). Modeling the response of within-storm runoff and erosion dynamics to climate change in two Mediterranean watersheds: A multi-model, multi-scale approach to scenario design and analysis. Catena 102: 2739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyssen, J., Vandenreyken, H., Poesen, J., et al. (2005). Rainfall erosivity and variability in the Northern Ethiopian highlands. Journal of Hydrology 311(1–4): 172187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyssen, J., Veyret‐Picot, M., Poesen, J., et al. (2004). The effectiveness of loose rock check dams for gully control in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Soil Use and Management 20(1): 5564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Neal, M. R., Nearing, M. A., Vining, R. C., Southworth, J., & Pfeifer, R. A. (2005). Climate change impacts on soil erosion in midwest United States with changes in crop management. Catena 61(2–3): 165184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ouimet, W. B., Whipple, K. X., Royden, L. H., Sun, Z., & Chen, Z. (2007). The influence of large landslides on river incision in a transient landscape: Eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (Sichuan, China). Geological Society of America Bulletin 119(11–12): 14621476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panagos, P., Ballabio, C., Meusburger, K., et al. (2017). Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets. Journal of Hydrology 548: 251262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paroissien, J. B., Darboux, F., Couturier, A., et al. (2015). A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France). Journal of Environmental Management 150: 5768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peigné, J., Vian, J. F., Payet, V., & Saby, N. P. (2018). Soil fertility after 10 years of conservation tillage in organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research 175: 194204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., et al. (1995). Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation. Science 267(5201): 11171123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pittelkow, C. M., Linquist, B. A., Lundy, M. E., et al. (2015). When does no-till yield more? A global meta-analysis. Field Crops Research 183: 156168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poesen, J. (2018). Soil erosion in the Anthropocene: Research needs. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43(1): 6484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G., & Valentin, C. (2003). Gully erosion and environmental change: Importance and research needs. Catena 50(2–4): 91133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prosdocimi, M., Tarolli, P., & Cerdà, A. (2016). Mulching practices for reducing soil water erosion: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 161: 191203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pruski, F. F., & Nearing, M. A. (2002). Climate‐induced changes in erosion during the 21st century for eight US locations. Water Resources Research 38(12): 34-1–34-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qin, C., Zheng, F., Wilson, G. V., Zhang, X. J., & Xu, X. (2019). Apportioning contributions of individual rill erosion processes and their interactions on loessial hillslopes. Catena 181: 104099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramos, M. C., & Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A. (2015). Climate change influence on runoff and soil losses in a rainfed basin with Mediterranean climate. Natural Hazards 78(2): 10651089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rauws, G., & Covers, G. (1988). Hydraulic and soil mechanical aspects of rill generation on agricultural soils. Journal of Soil Science 39(1): 111124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renard, K. G., Foster, G. R., Weesies, G. A., McCool, D. K., & Yoder, D. C. (1997). Predicting Soil Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Agricultural Handbook 703. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing.Google Scholar
Reubens, B., Poesen, J., Danjon, F., Geudens, G., & Muys, B. (2007). The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: A review. Trees 21(4): 385402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryżak, M., Bieganowski, A., & Polakowski, C. (2015). Effect of soil moisture content on the splash phenomenon reproducibility. PloS One 10(3): 115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sartori, M., Philippidis, G., Ferrari, E., et al. (2019). A linkage between the biophysical and the economic: Assessing the global market impacts of soil erosion. Land Use Policy 86: 299312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segura, C., Sun, G., McNulty, S., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion vulnerability across the conterminous United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 69(2): 171181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seitz, S., Goebes, P., Puerta, V. L., et al. (2019). Conservation tillage and organic farming reduce soil erosion. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 39(1): 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serpa, D., Nunes, J. P., Santos, J., et al. (2015). Impacts of climate and land use changes on the hydrological and erosion processes of two contrasting Mediterranean catchments. Science of the Total Environment 538: 6477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shao, H., Baffaut, C., Nelson, N. O., et al. (2013). Development and application of algorithms for simulating terraces within SWAT. Transactions of the ASABE 56(5): 17151730.Google Scholar
Shen, W., Zou, C., Liu, D., et al. (2015). Climate-forced ecological changes over the Tibetan Plateau. Cold Regions Science and Technology 114: 2735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shrestha, N. K., & Wang, J. (2018). Predicting sediment yield and transport dynamics of a cold climate region watershed in changing climate. Science of the Total Environment 625: 10301045.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sidorchuk, A. (1999). Dynamic and static models of gully erosion. Catena 37(3–4): 401414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, A., & Rinaldi, M. (2006). Disturbance, stream incision, and channel evolution: The roles of excess transport capacity and boundary materials in controlling channel response. Geomorphology 79(3–4): 361383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonneaux, V., Cheggour, A., Deschamps, C., et al. (2015). Land use and climate change effects on soil erosion in a semi-arid mountainous watershed (High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Arid Environments 122: 6475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) (2003). Conservation Implications of Climate Change: Soil Erosion and Runoff from Cropland. Ankeny, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society.Google Scholar
Soil Science Society of America (2008). Glossary of Soil Science Terms. Madison, WI: ASA-CSSA-SSSA.Google Scholar
Song, Y., Yan, P., & Liu, L. (2006). A review of the research on complex erosion by wind and water. Journal of Geographical Sciences 16(2): 231241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southworth, J., Randolph, J. C., Habeck, M., et al. (2000). Consequences of future climate change and changing climate variability on maize yields in the midwestern United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 82(1–3): 139158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stavi, I., Perevolotsky, A., & Avni, Y. (2010). Effects of gully formation and headcut retreat on primary production in an arid rangeland: Natural desertification in action. Journal of Arid Environments 74(2): 221228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, C. J., Quinton, J. N., Bailey, A. P., et al. (2009). The effects of minimal tillage, contour cultivation and in-field vegetative barriers on soil erosion and phosphorus loss. Soil and Tillage Research 106(1): 145151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, L., Fang, H., Qi, D., Li, J., & Cai, Q. (2013). A review on rill erosion process and its influencing factors. Chinese Geographical Science 23(4): 389402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, Q. (2020). Global change hydrology: Terrestrial water cycle and global change. Science China Earth Sciences 63(3): 459462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tien Bui, D., Shirzadi, A., Shahabi, H., et al. (2019). A novel ensemble artificial intelligence approach for gully erosion mapping in a semi-arid watershed (Iran). Sensors 19(11): 2444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trenberth, K. E., Jones, P. D., Ambenje, P., et al. (2007). Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. In Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (pp. 235336). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Trimble, S. W. (1997). Contribution of stream channel erosion to sediment yield from an urbanizing watershed. Science 278(5342): 14421444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valentin, C., Poesen, J., & Li, Y. (2005). Gully erosion: Impacts, factors and control. Catena 63(2–3): 132153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Putte, A., Govers, G., Diels, J., Gillijns, K., & Demuzere, M. (2010). Assessing the effect of soil tillage on crop growth: A meta-regression analysis on European crop yields under conservation agriculture. European Journal of Agronomy 33(3): 231241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vanmaercke, M., Maetens, W., Poesen, J., et al. (2012). A comparison of measured catchment sediment yields with measured and predicted hillslope erosion rates in Europe. Journal of Soils and Sediments 12(4): 586602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Vente, J., Poesen, J., Bazzoffi, P., Rompaey, A. V., & Verstraeten, G. (2006). Predicting catchment sediment yield in Mediterranean environments: The importance of sediment sources and connectivity in Italian drainage basins. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31(8): 10171034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walling, D. E., & Collins, A. L. (2005). Suspended sediment sources in British rivers. Sediment Budgets 1 IAHS Publication 291.Google Scholar
Wang, Y., Fu, B., Chen, L., , Y., & Gao, Y. (2011). Check dam in the Loess Plateau of China: Engineering for environmental services and food security. Environmental Science & Technology 45(24): 1029810299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Kou, Q., et al. (2007). Definition of arsenic rock zone borderline and its classification. Science of Soil and Water Conservation 5(1): 48.Google Scholar
Wei, W., Chen, D., Wang, L., et al. (2016). Global synthesis of the classifications, distributions, benefits and issues of terracing. Earth-Science Reviews 159: 388403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, G. (2011). Understanding soil‐pipe flow and its role in ephemeral gully erosion. Hydrological Processes 25(15): 23542364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wischmeier, W. H. (1959). A rainfall erosion index for a universal soil-loss equation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 23(3): 246249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wischmeier, W. H. (1962). Rainfall erosion potential. Agricultural Engineering 43(4): 212225.Google Scholar
Wischmeier, W. H., & Smith, D. D. (1960). A universal soil-loss equation to guide conservation farm planning. Transactions of the 7th International Congress on Soil Sciences, 1: 418425.Google Scholar
Wu, H., Xu, X., Zheng, F., Qin, C., & He, X. (2018). Gully morphological characteristics in the loess hilly–gully region based on 3D laser scanning technique. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43(8): 17011710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wuepper, D., Borrelli, P., & Finger, R. (2020). Countries and the global rate of soil erosion. Nature Sustainability 3: 5155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiong, M., Sun, R., & Chen, L. (2018). Effects of soil conservation techniques on water erosion control: A global analysis. Science of the Total Environment 645: 753760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xiong, M., Sun, R., & Chen, L. (2019). A global comparison of soil erosion associated with land use and climate type. Geoderma 343: 3139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X., Zhang, H., & Zhang, O. (2004). Development of check-dam systems in gullies on the Loess Plateau, China. Environmental Science & Policy 7(2): 7986.Google Scholar
Xu, X., Zheng, F., Qin, C., Wu, H., & Wilson, G. V. (2017). Impact of cornstalk buffer strip on hillslope soil erosion and its hydrodynamic understanding. Catena 149: 417425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X., Zheng, F., Wilson, G. V., et al. (2018). Comparison of runoff and soil loss in different tillage systems in the Mollisol region of Northeast China. Soil and Tillage Research 177: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X., Zheng, F., Wilson, G. V., et al. (2019). Quantification of upslope and lateral inflow impacts on runoff discharge and soil loss in ephemeral gully systems under laboratory conditions. Journal of Hydrology 579: 124174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X. Z., Xu, Y., Chen, S. C., Xu, S. G., & Zhang, H. W. (2010). Soil loss and conservation in the black soil region of Northeast China: A retrospective study. Environmental Science & Policy 13(8): 793800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, D., Kanae, S., Oki, T., Koike, T., & Musiake, K. (2003). Global potential soil erosion with reference to land use and climate changes. Hydrological Processes 17(14): 29132928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, P., Yao, W., Liu, G., & Xiao, P. (2019). Research progress and prospects of complex soil erosion. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 35(24): 154161.Google Scholar
Zhang, X. C., & Nearing, M. A. (2005). Impact of climate change on soil erosion, runoff, and wheat productivity in central Oklahoma. Catena 61(2–3): 185195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X. H., Zheng, F. L., & Li, J. (2007). Current situation and existing problems of gully erosion research. Research of Soil Water Conservation 14(4): 3132.Google Scholar
Zhang, Y. G., Nearing, M. A., Zhang, X. C., Xie, Y., & Wei, H. (2010). Projected rainfall erosivity changes under climate change from multimodel and multiscenario projections in Northeast China. Journal of Hydrology 384(1–2): 97106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y. G., Wu, Y. Q., Liu, B. Y., Zheng, Q. H., & Yin, J. Y. (2007). Characteristics and factors controlling the development of ephemeral gullies in cultivated catchments of black soil region, Northeast China. Soil & Tillage Research 96(1–2): 2841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, Y., Wang, E., Cruse, R. M., & Chen, X. (2012). Characterization of seasonal freeze–thaw and potential impacts on soil erosion in northeast China. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92(3): 567571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, F., Xu, X., & Qin, C. (2016). A review of gully erosion process research. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 47(8): 4859.Google Scholar
Zhu, X. M. (1956). Classification on the soil erosion in the loess region. Acta Pedologica Sinica 4(2): 99115.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats