Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-b9rrs Total loading time: 0.968 Render date: 2022-12-03T13:17:02.516Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

6 - Climate Change Impacts on Saltwater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers

from Part I - Water-Related Risks under Climate Change

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 March 2022

Qiuhong Tang
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
Guoyong Leng
Oxford University Centre for the Environment
Get access


Saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers menace multiple coastal areas globally, degrading groundwater quality, which poses an important threat to freshwater supply for agricultural, industrial and domestic utilization. Groundwater over-exploitation used to be commonly recognized as the principle factor causing saltwater intrusion, while sea-level rise, intensified storm surges and precipitation change have grown to become important drivers of factors inducing saltwater intrusion as well. In the context of exacerbated human activities such as groundwater over-exploitation due to the ever-increasing water demand because of population growth and economic and social development, as well as sea-level rise and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and warmer temperatures and changing precipitation patterns and regimes resulting from climate change, the phenomenon of saltwater intrusion worldwide has been seriously aggravated recently. A deeper understanding of the theories and multiple pathways of saltwater intrusion, the commonly-used methods to investigate the extent of saltwater intrusion, as well as numerical approaches to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on saltwater intrusion in future are of great importance to mitigate its negative effects.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anderson, M. P., & Woessner, W. W. (1991). Applied Groundwater Modeling: Simulation of Flow and Advective Transport. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Barlow, P. M., & Reichard, E. G. (2010). Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 247260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bear, J. (1979). Hydraulics of Groundwater. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Bear, J., Cheng, A., Sorek, S., et al. (1999). Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers: Concepts, Methods and Practices (Theory and Applications of Transport in Porous Media). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
Bocanegra, E., Da Silva, G. C., Custodio, E., et al. (2010). State of knowledge of coastal aquifer management in South America. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 261267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Custodio, E. (2010). Coastal aquifers of Europe: An overview. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 269280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diersch, H. J. G. (1996). Interactive, graphics-based finite-element simulation system FEFLOW for modeling groundwater flow, contaminant mass and heat transport processes, FEFLOW User’s Manual Version 4.5. Institute for Water Resources Planning and System Research, Ltd.Google Scholar
Drabbe, J., & Badon Ghyben, W. (1888–1889). Notes on the probable results of the proposed well drilling near Amsterdam: The Hague. Koninklijk Instituut Instagram Tijdschrift 822.Google Scholar
Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A. (1979). Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Guo, W., & Langevin, C. D. (2002). User's guide to SEAWAT: A computer program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations 06-A7: 77.Google Scholar
Herzberg, A. (1901). The water supply on parts of the North Sea coast: Munich. Journal of Gasbeleucht and Wasserversorg 44: 815819, 842–844.Google Scholar
Holzbecher, E. (1998). Modeling Density-Driven Flow in Porous Media: Principles, Numerics, Software. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huyakorn, P. S., Anderson, P. F., Mercer, J. W., et al. (1987). Saltwater intrusion in aquifers: Development and testing of a three-dimensional finite-element model. Water Resources Research 23(2): 293312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kipp, K. L. (1986). HST3D – A computer code for simulation of heat and solute transport in three-dimensional groundwater flow systems. International groundwater modeling center, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 86-4095.Google Scholar
Lin, J., Snodsmith, B., Zheng, C., et al. (2006). A modeling study of seawater intrusion in Alabama Gulf coast, USA. Environmental Geology 57: 119130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oude Essink, G. H. P. (1998). Simulating density dependent groundwater flow: The adapted MOC3D. In Proceedings of the 15th Saltwater Intrusion Meeting, Ghent, Belgium.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C., Horton, R. M., Bader, D. A., et al. (2014). Enhancing climate resilience at NASA centers: A collaboration between science and stewardship. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95(9): 13511363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sauter, F. J., Leijnse, A., & Beusen, A. H. W. (1993). METROPOL’s User Guide. Netherlands: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection.Google Scholar
Sherif, M. M., & Singh, V. P. (1999). Effect of climate change on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Hydrological Processes 13(8): 12771287.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shi, L., & Jiao, J. J. (2014). Seawater intrusion and coastal aquifer management in China: A review. Environmental Earth Sciences 72: 28112819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steyl, G., & Dennis, I. (2010). Review of coastal-area aquifers in Africa. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 217225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Biersel, T. P., Carlson, D. A., & Milner, L. R. (2007). Impact of hurricane storm surges on the groundwater resources. Environmental Geology 53: 813826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voss, C. I. (1984). A finite element simulation model for saturated-unsaturated, fluid-density-dependent groundwater flow with energy transport or chemically-reactive single species solute transport. Water Resources Investigation Report 84-4369, U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
Ward, D. S. (1991). Date input for SWIFT/386 (version 2.50). Geo-trans Technical Report, Sterling, VA.Google Scholar
Werner, A. D. (2010). A review of seawater intrusion and its management in Australia. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 281285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, I., & Falkland, T. (2010). Management of freshwater lenses on small Pacific islands. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 227246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, H., Wang, D., Hagen, S. C., et al. (2016). Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA). Hydrogeology Journal 24(7): 17911806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, H., Wang, D., Medeiros, S. C., et al. (2019). Exploration of the effects of storm surge on the extent of saltwater intrusion into the surficial aquifer in coastal east-central Florida (USA). Science of the Total Environment 648: 10021017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zienkiewicz, O. C. (1977). The Finite Element Method (3rd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats