Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-l8tfn Total loading time: 1.33 Render date: 2022-06-28T12:50:45.314Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Part III - Social, Legal, and Technological Change: Impact on Children

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2019

Ross D. Parke
University of California, Riverside
Glen H. Elder, Jr.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Get access


The goal of this chapter is to address how urban dynamics at the neighborhood level are linked to children’s development. We first review trends in the spatial concentration of poverty and inequality in the United States in recent decades. Then, we turn to theoretical models describing how local communities, with a focus on urban settings, influence children’s development. We then cover methodological issues and focus on one critical issue, selection bias, and then briefly review study designs as related to this challenge. Finally, we provide an overview of empirical studies linking neighborhood, socioeconomic conditions, and children’s development, notably their educational, behavioral, and socioemotional outcomes.

Children in Changing Worlds
Sociocultural and Temporal Perspectives
, pp. 163 - 274
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Olson, L. (2014). The Long Shadow: Family background, disadvantaged urban youth, and the transition to adulthood. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
Anderson, S., Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2014). Exposure to neighborhood affluence and poverty in childhood and adolescence and academic achievement and behavior. Applied Developmental Science, 18(3), 123138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 7578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bazemore, G. & Schiff, M. (2015). Restorative Community Justice: Repairing harm and transforming communities. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bischoff, K. & Reardon, S. F. (2014). Residential segregation by income, 1970–2009. In Logan, J. R. (Ed.), Diversity and Disparities: America enters a new century (pp. 208233). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Bishaw, A. (2014). Changes in Areas with Concentrated Poverty: 2000 to 2010. Washington, DC: United State Census Bureau, American Community Survey Reports.Google Scholar
Blair, A., Ross, N. A., Gariepy, G., & Schmitz, N. (2014). How do neighborhoods affect depression outcomes? A realist review and a call for the examination of causal pathways. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(6), 873887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boggess, L. N. & Hipp, J. R. (2010). Violent crime, residential instability and mobility: Does the relationship differ in minority neighborhoods? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(3), 351370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonnie, R. J., Johnson, R. L., Chemers, B. M., & Schuck, J. (Eds.). (2013). Reforming Juvenile Justice: A developmental approach. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P. A. (2007). The bioecological model of human development. In Lerner, R. M. & Damon, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (6th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 793828). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Burchinal, M., Magnuson, K., Powell, D., & Hong, S. S. (2015). Early childcare and education. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 223267). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Burton, L. M., Lichter, D. T., Baker, R. S., & Eason, J. M. (2013). Inequality, family processes, and health in the “new” rural America. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(May), 11281151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capps, R. & Fortuny, K. (2006). Immigration and Child and Family Policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
Cauffman, E., Shulman, E., Bechtold, J., & Steinberg, L. (2015). Children and the law. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science,Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 616–653). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Chang, L.-Y., Wang, M.-Y., & Tsai, P.-S. (2016). Neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of multilevel studies. Aggressive Behavior, 42(5), 441454. ScholarPubMed
Charis, E. K. & Scott, A. D. (2014). The power of place revisited: Why immigrant communities have lower levels of adolescent violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(4), 345366. doi:10.1177/1541204014547590Google Scholar
Chetty, R. & Hendren, N. (2018). The effects of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility I: Childhood exposure effects. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 133(3), 1107–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. F. (2016). The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: New evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. American Economic Review, 106(4), 90, 855902. ScholarPubMed
Clampet-Lundquist, S., Edin, K., Kling, J. R., & Duncan, G. J. (2011). Moving at-risk teenagers out of high-risk neighborhoods: How girls fare better than boys. American Journal of Sociology, 116, 11541189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conger, R., Conger, K. J., & Martin, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 685704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conger, R. & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 175199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conger, R. & Elder, G. H.(1994). Families in Troubled Times. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Corder, G. (2014). Community policing. In Reisig, M. D. & Kane, R. J. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing (pp. 148171). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cortright, J. & Mahmoudi, D. (2014). Lost in Place: Why the persistence and spread of concentrated poverty – not gentrification – is our biggest urban challenge. City Observatory (December). Retrieved from Scholar
Coulton, C. J., Crampton, D. S., Irwin, M., Spilsbury, J. C., & Korbin, J. E. (2007). How neighborhoods influence child maltreatment: A review of the literature and alternative pathways. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 11171142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crosnoe, R. (2009). Low-income students and the socioeconomic composition of public high schools. American Sociological Review, 74, 709730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crosnoe, R. & Benner, A. D. (2015). Children at school. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 268304). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Scholar
Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2011). Spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhood effects on high school graduation. Social Science Research, 40(1), 87106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curran, F. C. (2017). The law, policy, and portrayal of zero tolerance school discipline: Examining prevalence and characteristics across levels of governance and school districts. Educational Policy, online first, 139. doi:10.1177/0895904817691840Google Scholar
DePaoli, J. L., Balfanz, R., & Bridgeland, J. (2016). Building a Grad Nation: Progress and challenge in raising high school graduation rates. Washington, DC: America’s Promise.Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W., & Crosby, L. (1995). Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: Relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process. Child Development, 66, 139151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dobbie, W. & Fryer Jr., R. G. (2011). Are high-quality schools enough to increase achievement among the poor? Evidence from the Harlem Children’s Zone. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3, 158187.Google Scholar
Dodge, K. A., Dishion, T. J., & Lansford, J. E. (2006). Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth: Problems and solutions. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Dolcini, M. M., Harper, G. W., Watson, S. E., Catania, J. A., & Ellen, J. M. (2005). Friends in the ’hood: Should peer-based health promotion programs target nonschool friendship networks? Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 267. e6–267.e15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, G. J. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.Google Scholar
Dupere, V., Leventhal, T., Crosnoe, R., & Dion, E. (2010). Understanding the positive role of neighborhood socioeconomic advantage in achievement: The contribution of the home, child care, and school environments. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 12271244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, G. H., Jr., Shanahan, M. J., & Jennings, J. A. (2015). Human development in time and place. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 654). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Scholar
Elder, G. H., Jr., Wang, V., Spence, N. J., Adkins, D. E., & Brown, T. H. (2010). Pathways to the All-Volunteer Military. Social Science Quarterly, 91(2), 455–75. PMCID: PMC3181144CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33(4), 389426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Welcome to the neighborhood? Long-term impacts of moving to low-poverty neighborhoods on poor children’s and adolescents’ outcomes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(2), 249284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foster, E. M. & McLanahan, S. (1996). An illustration of the use of instrumental variables: Do neighborhood conditions affect a young person’s chance of finishing high school? Psychological Methods, 1(3), 249260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franco, L. M., Pottick, K. J., & Huang, C.-C. (2010). Early parenthood in a community context: Neighborhood conditions, race-ethnicity, and parenting stress. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(5), 574590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedson, M. & Sharkey, P. T. (2015). Violence and neighborhood disadvantage after the crime decline. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 660, 341358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galster, G. C. (2012). The mechanism(s) of neighbourhood effects: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. In van Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N., Simpson, L., & Maclennan, D. (Eds.), Neighbourhood Effects Research: New perspectives (pp. 2356). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galster, G. C. & Santiago, A. (2017). Neighbourhood ethnic composition and outcomes for low-income Latino and African American children, Urban Studies, 54(2), 482500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gennetian, L. A., Sanbonmatsu, L., Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., Sciandra, M., Ludwig, J., … Kessler, R. (2012). The long-term effects of Moving to Opportunity on youth outcomes. Cityscape, 14(2), 137168.Google Scholar
Goering, J. & Feins, J. D. (Eds.). (2003). Choosing a Better Life? Evaluating the moving to opportunity social experiment. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
Granger, R. C. (2008). After-school programs and academics: Implications for policy, practice, and research. Social Policy Report, 22, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenman, E., Bodovski, K., & Reed, K. (2011). Neighborhood characteristics, parental practices and children’s math achievement in elementary school. Social Science Research, 40(5), 14341444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grigorenko, E. L. & Takanishi, R. (Eds.). (2010). Immigration, Diversity, and Education. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Guterman, N. B., Lee, S. J., Taylor, C. A., & Rathouz, P. J. (2009). Parental perceptions of neighborhood processes, stress, personal control, and risk for physical child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Neglect, 33(12), 897906. ScholarPubMed
Harding, D. J. (2011). Rethinking the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods: From deviant subculture to cultural heterogeneity. Sociology of Education, 84(4), 322339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harlem Children’s Zone. (2009). The HCZ Project. Retrieved from
Hill, M. (1991). The Panel Study of Income Dynamics: The Sage series guides to major social science data bases (Vol. 2). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Hook, J. Van, Brown, S. L., & Kwenda, M. N. (2004). Decomposition of trends in poverty among children of immigrants. Demography, 41(4), 649670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulsey, L., Esposito, A. M., Boller, K., & Osborn, S. (2015). Promise Neighborhoods Case Studies. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research.Google Scholar
Jackson, A. L., Browning, C. R., Krivo, L. J., Kwan, M.-P., & Washington, H. M. (2016). The role of immigrant concentration within and beyond residential neighborhoods in adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(1), 1734.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jargowsky, P. A. (1997). Poverty and Place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Jargowsky, P. A. (2003). Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems: The dramatic decline of concentrated poverty in the 1990s. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Jargowsky, P. A. (2013). Concentration of Poverty in the New Millennium: Changes in the prevalence, composition, and location of high-poverty neighborhoods, 129. New York: Century Foundation and Rutgers Center for Urban Research and Education.Google Scholar
Jargowsky, P. A. (2015). The Architecture of Segregation: Civil unrest, the concentration of poverty, and public policy. New York: Century Foundation and Rutgers Center for Urban Research and Education.Google Scholar
Jencks, C. & Mayer, S. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In Lynn, L. E. & McGeary, M. F. H. (Eds.), Inner-city Poverty in the United States (pp. 111186). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
Johnson, O. (2013). Is concentrated advantage the cause? The relative contributions of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational inequality. Urban Review, 45(5), 561585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, C. Y., Losen, D. J., & Hewitt, D. (2010). The School-to-Prison Pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New York: New York University.Google Scholar
Kirk, D. S. & Sampson, R. J. (2013). Juvenile arrest and collateral educational damage in the transition to adulthood. Sociology of Education, 86(1), 3662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kneebone, E. (2014). The Growth and Spread of Concentrated Poverty, 2000 to 2008–2012. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Kneebone, E. (2017). The Changing Geography of US Poverty. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Kneebone, E. & Holmes, N. (2016). US Concentrated Poverty in the Wake of the Great Recession. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Kneebone, E., Nadeau, C., & Berube, A. (2011). The Re-emergence of Concentrated Poverty: Metropolitan trends in the 2000s. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
Kohen, D. E., Leventhal, T., Dahinten, V. S., & McIntosh, C. N. (2008). Neighborhood disadvantage: Pathways of effects for young children. Child Development, 79(1), 156169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Lerner, R. M. & Overton, W. F. (2008). Exemplifying the integrations of the relational developmental system. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23(3), 245255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leventhal, T. (2018). Neighborhood context and children’s development: When do neighborhoods matter most. Child Development Perspectives, 12(40), 258–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leventhal, T. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leventhal, T., (2011). Changes in neighborhood poverty from 1990 to 2000 and youth’s problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 16801698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leventhal, T., Dupéré, V., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Neighborhood influences on adolescent development. In Lerner, R. M. & Steinberg, L. (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 411443). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Leventhal, T., Dupéré, V., & Shuey, E. (2015). Children in neighborhoods. In Bornstein, M. H & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 493533). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., Taquino, M. C., & Grice, S. M. (2010). Residential segregation in new Hispanic destinations: Cities, suburbs, and rural communities compared. Social Science Research, 39(2), 215230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lleras, C. (2008). Race, racial concentration, and the dynamics of educational inequality across urban and suburban schools. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 886912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., Genettian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., Kling, J. R., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2012). Neighborhood effects on the long-term well-being of low-income adults. Science, 337, 15051510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludwig, J., Sanbonmatsu, L., Genettian, L. A., Adam, E., Duncan, G. J., Katz, L. F., … McDade, T. W. (2011). Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes: A randomized social experiment. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(16), 15091519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, T. J. & Dearing, E. (2013). Is growing up affluent risky for adolescents or is the problem growing up in an affluent neighborhood? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 274282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luthar, S. S. & Barkin, S. H. (2012). Are affluent youth truly “at risk”? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 429449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luthar, S. S. & Latendresse, S. J. (2005). Comparable “risks” at the SES extremes: Pre-adolescents’ perceptions of parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 207230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marks, A. K., Ejesi, K., & García Coll, C. (2014). Understanding the US immigrant paradox in childhood and adolescence. Child Development Perspectives, 8(2), 5964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massey, D. S. (1996). The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century. Demography, 33(4), 395412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Massey, D. S. (2016). Residential segregation is the linchpin of racial stratification. City and Community, 15(1), 47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Massey, D. S., Albright, L., Casciano, R., Derickson, E., & Kinsey, D. (2013). Climbing Mount Laurel: The struggle for affordable housing and social mobility in an American suburb. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Massey, D. S. & Denton, N. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Massey, D. S., Fischer, M. J., Dickens, W. T., & Levy, F. (2003). The geography of inequality in the United States, 1950–2000. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., Brennan, R. T., Holton, J. K., & Earls, F. (2003). A multilevel study of neighborhoods and parent-to-child physical aggression: Results from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Child Maltreatment, 8(2), 8497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, J., Farrington, D. P., & Sekol, I. (2012). Children’s antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 175210. ScholarPubMed
Oreopoulos, P. (2008). Neighbourhood effects in Canada: A critique. Canadian Public Policy, 34(2), 237258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orfield, G. & Lee, C. (2005). Why Segregation Matters: Poverty and educational inequality. Race, Class, and Gender: An anthology (pp. 416426). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University: Civil Rights Project.Google Scholar
Overton, W. F. (2015). Processes, relations, and relational-developmental-systems. In Overton, F. & Molenaar, P. C. M. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 1: Theory and Method (7th ed., pp. 154). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Paschall, M. J. & Hubbard, M. L. (1998). Effects of neighborhood and family stressors on African American male adolescents’ self-worth and propensity for violent behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 825831.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raikes, H., Torquati, J., Wang, C., & Shjegstad, B. (2012). Parent experiences with state child care subsidy systems and their perceptions of choice and quality in care selected. Early Education & Development, 23(4), 558582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reardon, S. F. & Bischoff, K. (2011). Growth in the Residential Segregation of Families by Income, 1970–2009. US 2010 Project. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
Reardon, S. F., Fox, L., & Townsend, J. (2015). Neighborhood income composition by household race and income, 1990–2009. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 660(1), 7897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Bowker, J. C. (2015). Children in peer groups. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 175222). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rubinowitz, L. S. & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2000). Crossing the Class and Color Lines: From public housing to White suburbia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ryan, J. E. (2010). Five Miles Away, a World Apart: One city, two schools, and the story of educational opportunity in modern America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sampson, R. J. (2011). Great American City: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Sampson, R. J. & Loeffler, C. (2010). Punishment’s place: The local concentration of mass incarceration. Daedalus, 139, 2031.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Earls, F. (1999). Beyond social capital: Spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. American Sociological Review, 64, 633660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing “neighborhood effects”: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28(1), 443478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sampson, R. J., Sharkey, P. T., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2008). Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 845852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Sharkey, P. T. (2013). Stuck in Place: Urban neighborhoods and the end of progress toward racial equality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharkey, P. T. & Faber, J. W. (2014). Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects. Annual Review of Sociology, 40(1), 559579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharkey, P. T., Tirado-Strayer, N., Papachristos, A. V., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The effect of local violence on children’s attention and impulse control. American Journal of Public Health, 102(12), 22872293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities. JAMA, 301(21), 2252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shortt, J. W., Capaldi, D. M., Dishion, T. J., Bank, L., & Owen, L. D. (2003). The role of adolescent friends, romantic partners, and siblings in the emergence of the adult antisocial lifestyle. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 521533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shuey, E. A. & Leventhal, T. (2017). Pathways of risk and resilience between neighborhood socioeconomic conditions and parenting. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 5259. Scholar
Shuey, E. A. & Leventhal, T. (in press). Neighborhoods and parenting. In Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), Handbook of Parenting (3rd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press.
Small, M. L. (2009). Unanticipated Gains: Origins of network inequality in everyday life. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Small, M. L. & Feldman, J. (2012). Ethnographic evidence, heterogeneity, and neighborhood effects after Moving to Opportunity. In van Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N. Simpson, L., & Maclennan, D. (Eds.), Neighborhood Effect Research: New perspectives (pp. 5777). Springer: Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
South, S. J. & Crowder, K. (2010). Neighborhood poverty and nonmarital fertility: Spatial and temporal dimensions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(1), 89104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stolle, D., Soroka, S., & Johnston, R. (2008). When does diversity erode trust? Neighborhood diversity, interpersonal trust and the mediating effect of social interactions. Political Studies, 56(1), 5775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timberlake, J. M. (2007). Racial and ethnic inequality in the duration of children’s exposure to neighborhood poverty and affluence. Social Problems, 54(3), 319342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turley, R. N. L. (2003). When do neighborhoods matter? The role of race and neighborhood peers. Social Science Research, 32, 6179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandell, D. L., Larson, R. W., Mahoney, J. L., & Watts, T. W. (2015). Children’s organized activities. In Bornstein, M. H. & Leventhal, T. (Eds.) & Lerner, R. M. (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems (7th ed., pp. 305344). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Verdugo, R. R. (2002). Race-ethnicity, social class, and zero-tolerance policies: The cultural and structural wars. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 5075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wacquant, L. (2008). Urban Outcasts: A comparative sociology of advanced marginality. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
Wadhwa, A. (2017). Restorative Justice in Urban Schools. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wakefield, S. & Apel, R. (2016). Criminal justice and the life course. In Shanahan, M. J., Mortimer, J. T., & Johnson, M. K. (Eds.), Handbook of the Life Course (Vol. 2, pp. 301319). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheaton, B. & Clarke, P. (2003). Space meets time: Integrating temporal and contextual influences on mental health in early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 68(5), 680706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, R. M. B., Knight, G. P., Jensen, M., & Gonzales, N. A. (2017). Ethnic socialization in neighborhood contexts: Implications for ethnic attitude and identity development among Mexican-Origin adolescents. Child Development, 89(3), 1004–1021. doi:10.1111/cdev.12772Google ScholarPubMed
Wilmoth, J. M. & London, A. S. (Eds.) (2013). Life-Course Perspectives on Military Service. New York: Routledge Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, W. J. (1996). When Work Disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Alfred A Knopf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, W. J. (2015). Understanding the emergence and persistence of concentrated urban poverty. In Chowkwanyun, M. & Serhan, R. (Eds.), American Democracy and the Pursuit of Equality (pp. 127141). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wodtke, G. T., Harding, D. J., & Elwert, F. (2011). Neighborhood effects in temporal perspective. American Sociological Review, 76(5), 713736.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zaff, J. F., Donlan, A. E., Pufall Jones, E., Lin, E. S., & Anderson, S. (2016). Comprehensive community initiatives creating supportive youth systems: A theoretical rationale for creating youth-focused CCIs. In Zaff, J. F., Pufall Jones, E., Donlan, A. E., & Anderson, S. (Eds.), Community Initiatives for Positive Youth Development (pp. 116). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amato, P. R. (2014). The consequences of divorce for adults and children: An update. Drustvena Istrazivanja, 23, 524.Google Scholar
Amato, P. R. & Boyd, L. M. (2014). Children and divorce in world perspective. Contemporary Issues in Family Studies: Global perspectives on partnerships, parenting and support in a changing world (pp. 227243). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Bem, S. L. (1993). The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Berkowitz, D. & Marsiglio, W. (2007). Gay men negotiating procreative, father, and family identities. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 69, 366381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianchi, S. M., Robinson, J. P., & Milkie, M. (2006). Changing Rhythms of American Family Life. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Biblarz, T. J. & Stacey, J. (2010). How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanchfield, B. V. & Patterson, C. J. (2015). Racial and sexual minority women’s receipt of medical assistance to become pregnant. Health Psychology, 34, 571579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumstein, P. & Schwartz, P. (1983). American Couples: Money, work, sex. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
Bos, H. M. W., Kuyper, L., & Gartrell, N. K. (2018). A population-based comparison of female and male same-sex parent and different-sex parent households. Family Process, 57, 148164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Bramlett, M. D. & Mosher, W. D. (2002). Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Vital Health Statistics, 23, 193.Google Scholar
Brown, S. L. (2017). Families in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Brown, S. L. & Lin, I-F. (2012). The gray divorce revolution: Rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990–2010. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 731741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cahn, N. (2013). The New Kinship: Constructing donor-conceived families. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, M. & McLanahan, S. (2010). Fathers in fragile families. In Lamb, M. E. (Ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th ed., pp. 241269). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cavanaugh, S. E. & Huston, A. C. (2008). The timing of family instability and children’s social development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 70, 12581270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Multiple Births. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Teen Pregnancy in the United States. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Chambers, G. M., Sullivan, E. A., Ishihara, O. et al. (2009). The economic impact of assisted reproductive technology: a review of selected developed countries. Fertility and Sterility, 91, 22812294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cherlin, A. J. (2009). The Marriage-Go-Round: The state of marriage and the family today. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Clarke-Stewart, A. & Brentano, C. (2006). Divorce: Causes and consequences. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Clarke-Stewart, K. A. & Hayward, C. (1996). Advantages of father custody and contact for the psychological well-being of school-age children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17, 239270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly, M., Hoorens, S., & Chambers, G. M. (2010). The costs and consequences of ART: An economic perspective. Human Reproduction, 16, 603613.Google ScholarPubMed
Copen, C. E., Daniels, K., & Mosher, W. D. (2013). First Premarital Cohabitation in the United States: 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. National Health Statistics Reports, 64, 115.Google Scholar
Child Trends Databank. (2015). Births to Unmarried Women. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends.
Coontz, S. (2005). Marriage, a History: From obedience to intimacy or how love conquered marriage. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Cox, M. J. & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dallaire, D. (2019). Incarcerated parents. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.) Handbook of Parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 4). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Deutsch, F. (1999). Halving It All: How equally shared parenting works. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Doucet, A. (2013). Gender roles and fathering. In Tamis-LeMonda, C. & Cabrera, N. (Eds.) 2nd ed,. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 297319). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Dreby, J. (2010). Divided by Borders: Mexican migrants and children. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Dunifon, R. E. & Kowaleski-Jones, L. (2002). Who’s in the house? Race differences in cohabitation, single-parenthood and child development. Child Development, 73, 12491264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Easterbrooks, M. A., Katz, R. C., & Menon, M. (2019). Adolescent parenting. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.) Handbook of Parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 2). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Edin, K. & Kefalas, M. J. (2005). Promises I Can Keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Edin, K. & Nelson, T. (2013). Doing the Best I Can: Fathering in the inner city. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, G. H., Jr, Shanahan, M. J., & Jennings, J. A. (2015). Human development in time and place. In Lerner, R. M. (Ed. in chief), Leventhal, T., & Bornstein, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Child Psychology Developmental Science: Ecological settings developmental processes in systems. New York: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Feldman, R. (2019). The social neuroendocrinology of human parenting. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.) Handbook of Parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 2). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Feldman, R., Gordon, I., Schneiderman, I., Weisman, O., & Zagoory-Sharon, O. (2010). Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 11331141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fry, R. & Cohn, D. (2011, June). Living Together: The economics of cohabitation. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
Furstenberg, F. F. (2014). Fifty years of family change: From consensus to complexity. In Carlson, M & Meyer, D. R. (Eds.), Family Complexity, Poverty, and Public Policy, Annals, 654, 1230.Google Scholar
Furstenberg, F. F, Brooks-Gunn, J., & Morgan, S. P. (1987). Adolescent Mothers in Later Life. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J., Elder, Jr., G. H., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to Make It: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Gates, G. J. (2012, April). Same-Sex Couples in Census 2010: Race and ethnicity. Los Angeles, CA: Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law.Google Scholar
Gates, G. J. (2015). Demographics of Married and Unmarried Same Sex Couples: Analyses of the 2013 American community survey. Los Angeles, CA: Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law.Google Scholar
Gates, G. J. (2015). Marriage and family: LGBT individuals and same sex couples. Future of Children, 25(2), 6787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gates, G. J., Badgett, M. L., Macomber, J. E., & Chambers, K. (2007). Adoption and Foster Care by Gay and Lesbian Parents in the United States. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gato, J., Santos, S., & Fontaine, A. M. (2017). To have or not to have children? That is the question: Factors influencing parental decisions among lesbians and gay men. Sex Research and Social Policy, 14 , 310323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldberg, A. E. (2010). Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children: Research on the family life cycle. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldberg, A. E. (2012). Gay Dads: Transitions to adoptive fatherhood. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldberg, A. E., Downing, J. B., & Moyer, A. M. (2012). Why parenthood, and why now? Gay men’s motivations for pursuing parenthood. Family Relations, 61, 157174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldin, C. & Katz, L. F. (2002). The power of the pill: Oral contraceptives and women’s career and marriage decisions. Journal of Political Economy 110, 730770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What really counts? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Golombok, S. (2015). Modern Families: Parents and children in new family forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golombok, S., Mellish, L., Jennings, S., Casey, P., Tasker, F. et al. (2014). Adoptive gay father families: Parent-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Child Development, 85, 456468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golombok, S., Owen, L., Blake, L. et al. (2009). Parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of 18-year-old adolescents conceived by in vitro fertilisation. Human Fertility, 12, 6372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golombok, S., Zadeh, S., Imrie, S., Smith, V., & Freeman, T. (2016). Single mothers by choice: Mother–child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(4), 409418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertz, R. (2006). Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hetherington, E. M. & Kelly, J. (2002). For Better or Worse: Divorce reconsidered. New York: Norton & Co.Google Scholar
Heuveline, P., Timberlake, J. M., & Furstenberg, Jr., F. F. (2003). Shifting childrearing to single mothers: Results from 17 western countries. Population and Development Review, 29, 4771.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hochschild, A. R. (2012). The Outsourced Self: Intimate life in market times. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
Howes, C. & Spieker, S. (2016). Attachment relationships in the context of multiple caregivers. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hrdy, S. B. (2009). Mothers and Others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (July 2012). The world’s number of IVF and ICSI babies has now reached a calculated total of 5 million. Paper presented at 28th annual meeting of ESHRE (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology), Istanbul, Turkey.
Jain, T. & Hornstein, M. D. (2005). Disparities in access to infertility services in a state with mandated insurance coverage Fertility and Sterility, 84, 221223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jadva, V., Badger, S., Morrissette, M., & Golombok, S. (2009). “Mom by choice, single by life’s circumstance”: Findings from a large scale survey of the experiences of single mothers by choice. Human Fertility, 12, 175184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joyner, K. A., Manning, W. D., & Bogle, R. H. (2017). Gender and the stability of same-sex and different-sex relationships among young adults. Demography, 54, 23512374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelly, R. F., Redenbach, L., & Rinaman, W. (2005). Determinants of sole and joint physical custody arrangements in a national sample of divorces. American Journal of Family Law, 19(1), 2543.Google Scholar
Kennedy, S. & Bumpass, L. (2011). Cohabitation and Trends in the Structure and Stability of Children’s Family Lives. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, DC.
Kennedy, S. & Ruggles, S. (2014). Breaking up is hard to count: The rise of divorce in the United States, 1980–2010. Demography, 51(2), 587598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kimberly, C. & Moore, A. (2015). Attitudes to practice: National survey of adoption obstacles faced by gay and lesbian prospective parents. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 27, 436456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Konigsberg, R. D. (2011, August 8). Chore wars. Time, 4548.Google Scholar
Kreider, R. M. (2008). Improvements to demographic household data in the Current Population Survey: 2007. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division Working Paper; Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Kreider, R. M. & Ellis, R. (2011). Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009. Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau, pp. 70125.Google Scholar
Leadbeater, B. (2014). Growing Up Fast: Re-visioning adolescent mothers transitions to early adulthood. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Lesthaeghe, R. (2014). The second demographic transition: A concise overview of its development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 18112–18115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lesthaeghe, R. & van de Kaa, D. (1986). Twee demografische transities? (Two demographic transitions?). In R. Lesthaeghe & D. van de Kaa (Eds.), Bevolking–Groei en Krimp, Mens en Maatschappij. The Netherlands: Van Loghum Slaterus, Deventer, Dutch, pp. 924.Google Scholar
Lipman, E. L., Boyle, M. H., Dooley, M. D. & Offord, D. R. (2002). Child well-being in single-mother families. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 7582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lundberg, S., Pollak, R. A., & Stearns, J. (2016). Family inequality: diverging patterns in marriage, cohabitation, and childbearing. Journal of Economic Perspectives: A Journal of the American Economic Association, 30(2), 79102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacDermid Wadsworth, S. (2013). Understanding and supporting the resilience of a new generation of combat-exposed military families and their children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16, 415420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Main, M. & Weston, D. (1981). The quality of the toddler’s relationship to mother and father: Related to conflict behavior and readiness to establish new relationships. Child Development, 52, 932940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, W. D. & Brown, S. L. (2012). Cohabitation and parenting. In Cabrera, N. J. and LeMonda, C. S. (Eds.), Handbook of Father Involvement: multidisciplinary perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 281–296). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Martin, S. P. (2006). Trends in marital dissolution by women’s education in the United States. Demographic Research, 15: 537560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mather, M. (2010). US Children in Single-Mother Families. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
McCartney, K. (2015–16). Working moms deserve better. Smith Alumnae Quarterly, Winter, p. 37.Google Scholar
McLanahan, S. (2004). Diverging destinies: how children are faring under the second demographic transition. Demography, 41(4), 607627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLanahan, S. & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing Up with a Single Parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Milardo, R. (2010). The Forgotten Kin: Aunts and uncles. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mitchell, P. J. (2014, June). Canadian Families in the Global Context: The world family map. Ottawa: Institute of Marriage and Family.Google Scholar
Osberg, L. (2015). Economic Inequality in the United States. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parke, R. D. (2013). Future Families: Diverse forms, rich possibilities. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parke, R. D. & Brott, A. (1999). Throwaway Dads. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
Parke, R. D. & Cookston, J. T. (2019). Fathers and families. In Bornstein, M (Ed.) Handbook of Parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 3). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Parke, R. D., Gailey, C., Coltrane, S., & DiMatteo, R. (2012). The pursuit of perfection: Transforming our construction of parenthood and family in the age of new reproductive technologies. In Essed, P. & Goldberg, D. T. (Eds.), Clones, Fakes and Posthumans: Cultures of replication. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Patterson, C. J. (2013). Children of lesbian and gay parents: Psychology, law, and policy. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1 (S), 2734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, C. J. & Riskind, R. G. (2010). To be a parent: Issues in family formation among gay and lesbian adults. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 326340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, K. K. & Manning, W. D. (2015). Number of children living in same-sex couple households, 2013 NCFMR Family Profile FP-15-04. National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.Google Scholar
Pew Research Center Publications (2010). Since the Start of the Great Recession, More Children Raised by Grandparents. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Pew Research Center Publications (2010). The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Pew Research Center Publications (2015). Parenting in America: The American family today. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, December 17.
Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Pleck, J. H. (2010). A revised conceptualization of paternal involvement. In Lamb, M. E. (ed.) The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Raley, R. K., Sweeney, M. M., & Wondra, D. (2015). The growing racial and ethnic divide in US marriage patterns. The Future of Children, 25, 89109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riskind, R. G. & Patterson, C. J. (2010). Parenting intentions and desires among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual individuals. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 7881.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riskind, R. G., Patterson, C. J., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Childless lesbian and gay adults self-efficacy about achieving parenthood. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and practice, 2(3), 222235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogoff, B. (2003). The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenfeld, M. J. (2010). Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school. Demography, 47, 755775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenfeld, M. J. (2014). Couple longevity in the era of same-sex marriage in the United States. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 905918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, H., Gask, K. & Berrington, A. (2011). Civil partnerships five years on: 145 population trends. Office for National Statistics, Autumn.
Ross, H. & Taylor, H. (1989). Do boys prefer daddy or his physical style of play? Sex Roles, 20, 2333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryan, R. M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Is one parent good enough? Patterns of mother and father parenting and child cognitive outcomes at 24 and 36 months. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 211228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schacher, J. S., Auerbach, C. F., & Silverstein, L. B. (2005). Gay fathers expanding the possibilities for us all. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1, 3152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaffer, H. R. & Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29(3, Serial No. 94).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silverstein, L. B. & Auerbach, C. F. (1999). Deconstructing the essential father. American Psychologist, 54, 397407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, P. K. & Wild, L. G. (2019). Grandparenting. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Parenting (2nd ed., Vol. 3). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Smock, P. J. (2000). Cohabitation in the United States: An appraisal of research themes, findings, and implications. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spar, D. L. (2006). The Baby Business: how money, science, and politics drive the commerce of conception. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Stack, C. (1974). All Our Kin: Strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Storey, A. E., Walsh, C. J., Quinton, R. L., & Wynne-Edwards, D. E. (2000). Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 7995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sugarman, S. D. (2008). What is a “Family”? Conflicting messages from our public programs. Family Law Quarterly, 42, 231261.Google Scholar
Tronick, E. Z., Morelli, G. A., & Ivey, P. K. (1992). The Efe forager infant and toddler’s pattern of social relationships: Multiple and simultaneous. Developmental Psychology, 28, 568577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Twine, F. W. (2011). Outsourcing the Womb: Race, class and gestational surrogacy in a global market. Routledge, New York.
US Census Bureau (2010). Current Population Survey (CPS). Washington, DC.
US Census Bureau (2011). Annual Social and Economic Supplement (Table PoV03). Washington, DC.
US Census Bureau (2012). Households and Families: 2010. Washington, DC.
US Census Bureau (2016). The Majority of Children Live With Two Parents, Census Bureau Reports. Washington, DC, November 17.
US Department of Labor (2013). Working Mothers. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Van Hook, J. & Glick, J. E. (2007). Immigration and living arrangements: Moving beyond economic need versus acculturation. Demography, 44, 225249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warshak, R. & Santrock, J. W. (1983). The impact of divorce in father-custody and mother-custody: The child’s perspective. In Kurdek, L. A (Ed.) Children and Divorce (pp. 29–46). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Weissenberg, R., Landau, R., & Madgar, I. (2007). Older single mothers assisted by sperm donation and their children. Human Reproduction, 22, 27842791.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, B. D. M. & Harper, G. (2013). Race and ethnicity in lesbian, gay and bisexual communities. In Patterson, C. J. & D’Augelli, A. R. (Eds.). Handbook of Psychology and Sexual Orientation (pp. 281296). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Yeung, W. J., Sandberg, J. F., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Hofferth, S. L. (2001). Children’s time with fathers in infant families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 136154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaidi, B. & Morgan, S. P. (2017). The second demographic transition theory: A review and appraisal. Annual Review of Sociology, 43, 473492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, C. A. & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, C. A., Ihori, N., Bushman, B. J., Rothstein, H. R., Shibuya, A., Swing, E. L., Sakamoto, A., & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behaviour in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, C. A., Suzuki, K., Swing, E. L., Groves, C. L., Gentile, D. A., Prot, S., … Petrescu, P. (2017). Media violence and other aggression risk factors in seven nations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 986998.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailyn, L. (1959). Mass media and children: A study of exposure habits and cognitive effects. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 73, 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
boyd, d. (2007). Why Youth Heart Social Network Sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. Cambridge, MA: Berkman Center for Internet and Society Research Publication Series.Google Scholar
Boz, N., Uhls, Y. T. & Greenfield, P. M. (2016). Cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ online self-presentation strategies: Turkey and the United States. Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 6, 1–16.Google Scholar
Bushman, B. & Huesman, L. R. (2001). Effects of televised violence on aggression. In Singer, D. G. & Singer, J. L. (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 223254). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Calvert, S. L. & Tan, S.-L. (1994). Impact of virtual reality on young adults’ physiological arousal and aggressive thoughts: Interaction versus observation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 125139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantor, J., Mares, M.-L., & Hyde, J. S. (2003). Autobiographical memories of exposure to sexual media content, Media Psychology, 5, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chou, H. G. & Edge, N. (2012). “They are happier and having better lives than I am”: The impact of Facebook on perception of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 117121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Common Sense Media (2017). The Common Sense Census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. Retrieved from, July 7, 2018.
D’Angelo, J. D. & Toma, C. L. (2017). There are plenty of fish in the sea: The effects of choice overload and reversibility on online daters’ satisfaction with partner choice. Media Psychology, 20, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dehaene, S., Pegado, F., Braga, L. W., Ventura, P., Filho, G. N., Jobert, A., … Cohen, L. (2010). How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language. Science, 330, 13591364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilley, J. (2017). The most popular video games in the world. Retrieved July 18, 2018 from
Drabman, R. S. & Thomas, M. H. (1974). Does media violence increase children’s toleration of real-life aggression? Developmental Psychology, 10, 418421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flichy, P. (2002). New media history. In Lievrouw, L. & Livingstone, S. (Eds.), Handbook of New Media: Social shaping and consequences of ICTs (pp. 136150). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedrich, L. K. & Stein, A. H. (1973). Aggressive and prosocial television programs and the natural behavior or preschool children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38, 163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gadberry, S. (1980). Effects of restricting first graders’ TV-viewing on leisure time use, IQ change, and cognitive style. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1, 4557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia, C., Rivera, N., & Greenfield, P. M. (2015). The decline of cooperation, the rise of competition: Developmental effects of long-term social change in Mexico. International Journal of Psychology, 50, 611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, H. & Davis, K. (2013). The App Generation: How today’s youth navigate identity, intimacy, and imagination in a digital world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., Yukawa, S., Ihori, N., Saleem, M., Ming, L. K., Shibuya, A., Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., Bushman, B. J., Huesmann, L. R., & Sakamoto, A. (2009). The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 752763.Google Scholar
George, M. J., Russell, M. A., Piontak, J. R., & Odgers, C. J. (2018). Concurrent and subsequent associations between daily digital technology use and high-risk adolescents’ mental health symptoms. Child Development, 89, 7888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenfield, P. M. (1984/2014). Mind and Media: The effects of television, video games, and computers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Reprinted in 2014 as 30th Anniversary Classic Edition by Psychology Press, New York.
Greenfield, P. M. (1993). Representational competence in shared symbol systems: Electronic media from radio to video games. In Cocking, R. R. & Renninger, K. A. (Eds.), The Development and Meaning of Psychological Distance (pp. 161183). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. (2009a). Linking social change and developmental change: Shifting pathways of human development. Developmental Psychology, 45, 401418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenfield, P. M. (2009b). Technology and informal education: What is taught, what is learned. Science, 323, 6971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenfield, P. M. (2013). The changing psychology of culture from 1800 through 2000. Psychological Science, 24, 17221731.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenfield, P. M. (2016). Social change, cultural evolution, and human development. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 8492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenfield, P. M. (2018a). Studying social change, culture, and human development: A theoretical framework and methodological guidelines. Developmental Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. (2018b, March). Violent video games and assault weapons can turn into a lethal combination. Miami Herald.
Greenfield, P. M., Camaioni, L., Ercolani, P., Weiss, L., Lauber, B., & Perucchini, P. (1994). Cognitive socialization by computer games in two cultures: Inductive discovery or mastery of an iconic code? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 5985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenfield, P. M., Evers, N. F. G., & Dembo, J. (2017). What types of photographs do teenagers “like”? International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 7(3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. & Juvonen, J. (1999). A developmental look at Columbine. APA Monitor, July/August.Google Scholar
Hansen, N., Koudenburg, N., Hiersemann, R., Tellegen, P. J., Kocsev, M., & Postmes, T. (2012). Laptop usage affects abstract reasoning of children in the developing world. Computers in Education, 59, 9891000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, N., Postmes, T., Tovote, K. A., & Bos, A. (2014). How modernization instigates social change: Laptop usage as a driver of cultural value change and gender equality in a developing country. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 12291248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, V. B., Greenfield, P. M., Wu, M., & Zhou, C. (in prep). Intergenerational differences in child behaviors and parent socialization in the United States.
International Telecommunications Union (2015). The World in 2015: ICT facts and figures. Retrieved on 7/13/2018 from
International Telecommunications Union (2016). The World in 2016: ICT facts and figures.
International Telecommunications Union (2017). The World in 2017: ICT facts and figures.
Kağıtçıbaşı, C. (2007). Family, Self, and Human Development across Cultures: Theory and application (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Kline, S. L. & Liu, F. (2005). The influence of comparative media use on acculturation, acculturative stress, and family relationships of Chinese international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 367390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Konrath, S. H., O’Brien, E. H., & Hsing, C. (2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 180198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ling, R. & Yttri, B. (2005). Control, emancipation and status: The mobile telephone in the teen’s parental and peer group control relationships. In Kraut, R. (Ed.), Information Technology at Home. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Livingstone, S. (2009). Half a century of television in the lives of our children. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625, 151163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1976). Cognitive Development: Its cultural and social foundations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Manago, A. M. (2014). Connecting societal change to value differences across generations: Adolescents, mothers and grandmothers in a Maya community in southern Mexico. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 868887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manago, A. M., Greenfield, P. M., Kim, J., & Ward, L. M. (2014). Changing cultural pathways through gender role and sexual development: A theoretical framework. Ethos, 42, 198221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manago, A. M., Guan, A. S., & Greenfield, P. M. (2015). New media, social change, and human development from adolescence through the transition to adulthood. In Jensen, L. A. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Manago, A. M. & Pacheco, P. (2019). Globalization and the transition to adulthood in a Maya community in Mexico: Communication technologies, social networks, and views on gender. In J. McKenzie (Ed.), Globalization as a Context for Youth Development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 164, 115.Google Scholar
Manago, A. M., Taylor, T., & Greenfield, P. M. (2012). Me and my 400 friends: The anatomy of college students’ Facebook networks, their communication patterns, and well-being. Developmental Psychology, 48, 369380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mandell, D. S., Thompson, W. W., Weintraub, E. S., Destefano, F., & Blank, M. B. (2005). Trends in diagnosis rates for autism and ADHD at hospital discharge in the context of other psychiatric diagnoses. Psychiatric Services, 56, 5662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDaniel, B. T. & Radesky, J. S. (2018). Technoference: Parent distraction by technology and associations with child behavior problems. Child Development, 89, 100109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyrowitz, J. (1985). No Sense of Place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mundy-Castle, A. C. (1974). Social and technological intelligence in Western and non-Western cultures. Universitas, 4, 4652.Google Scholar
National Institute of Mental Health (1972). Television and Growing Up: The impact of televised violence. Report to the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service.
Ophir, E., Nass, C., & Wagner, A. D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 1558315587.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ortner, S. B. (2003). New Jersey Dreaming: Capital, culture, and the class of ‘58. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pea, R. Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., & Zhou, M. (2012). Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 48, 327336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pew Research Center (2016). Five facts about online dating. Retrieved July 16, 2018 from
Ra, C. K., Cho, J., Stone, M. D., De la Cerda, J., Goldenson, N. I., Moroney, E., … Leventhal, A. M. (2018). Association of digital media use with subsequent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adolescents. JAMA, 320, 255263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radesky, J. S., Kistin, C. J., Zuckerman, B., Nitzberg, B. S., Gross, J., Kaplan-Sanoff, M., & Augustyn, M., & Silverstein, M. (2014). Patterns of mobile device use by caregivers and children during meals in fast food restaurants. Pediatrics, 133, e833e849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8–18 year olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
Rosen, L. D. (2007). Me, MySpace, and I: Parenting the net generation. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
Rosen, L. D., Cheever, N. A. & Carrier, L. M. (2008). The association of parenting style and child age with parental limit setting and adolescent MySpace behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 459471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosser, J. C., Lynch, P. J., Cuddihy, L., Gentile, D. A., Klonsky, J., & Merrell, R. (2007). The impact of video games on training surgeons in the 21st century. Archives of Surgery, 142, 181186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sales, N. J. (2016). American Girls: Social media and the secret lives of teenagers. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Salomon, G. (1994). Interaction of Media, Cognition, and Learning: An exploration of how symbolic forms cultivate mental skills and affect knowledge. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Santos, H. I., Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (2017). Global increases in individualism. Psychological Science, 28, 12281239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiffrin, H. H., Liss, M., Miles-McLean, H., Geary, K. A., Erchull, M. J., & Tahner, T. (2014). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 548557.CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., & Owen, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serpell, R. (1984). Research on cognitive development in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 7, 11127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shapka, J. D., Onditi, H. Z., Collie, R. J., & Lapidot-Lefler, N. (2018). Cyberbullying and cybervictimization within a cross-cultural context: A study of Canadian and Tanzanian adolescents. Child Development, 89, 8999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, L. E., Greenfield, P. M., Hernandez, L. M., & Dapretto, M. (2017). Peer influence via Instagram: Effects on brain and behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Child Development. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12838Google ScholarPubMed
Sherman, L. E., Hernandez, L. M., Greenfield, P. M., & Dapretto, M. (2018). What the brain “likes”: Neural correlates of providing feedback on social media. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 699707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, L. E., Michikyan, , M., & Greenfield, P. M. (2013). The effects of text, audio, video, and in-person communication on bonding between friends. CyberPsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 7(2), Article 3. doi: 10.5817/CP2013-2–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherman, L. E., Payton, A. A., Hernandez, L. M., Greenfield, P. M., & Dapretto, M. (2016). The power of the like in adolescence: Effects of peer influence on neural and behavioral responses to social media. Psychological Science, 27, 1002710035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stavrinos, D., Pope, C. N., Shen, J., & Schwebel, D. C. (2018). Distracted walking, bicycling, and driving: Systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile technology and youth crash risk, Child Development, 89, 118128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sticca, F. & Perren, S. (2013). Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential role of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 739750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Subrahmanyam, K., Šmahel, D., & Greenfield, P. M. (2006). Connecting developmental processes to the internet: Identity presentation and sexual exploration in online teen chatrooms, Developmental Psychology, 42, 395406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J., & Ezzell, M. B (2016). Pornography and the male sexual script: An analysis of consumption and sexual relations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 983994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tönnies, F. (1957). Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft), trans. C. P. Loomis. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. (Original work published in German in 1887.)Google Scholar
Tower, R. B., Singer, D. G., & Singer, J. L. (1979). Differential effects of television programming on preschoolers’ cognition, imagination, and social play. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 265281.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turkle, S. (2011). Alone Together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Turkle, S. (2015). Reclaiming Conversation: The power of talk in a digital age. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
Twenge, J. (2017). iGen: Why today’s super-connected kids are growing up less rebellious, more tolerant, less happy – and completely unprepared for adulthood – and what that means for the rest of us. New York: Atria Books.Google Scholar
Twenge, J. M., Martin, G. N., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Decreases in psychological well-being among adolescents after 2012 and links to screen time during the rise of smartphone technology. Emotion, 18, 765780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tynes, B., Reynolds, L., & Greenfield, P. M. (2004). Adolescence, race and ethnicity on the Internet: A comparison of discourse in monitored vs. unmonitored chat rooms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 685698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uhls, Y. T. & Greenfield, P. M. (2011). The rise of fame: An historical content analysis. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 5(1), article 1.Google Scholar
Uhls, Y. T. (2012). The value of fame: Preadolescent perceptions of popular media and their relationship to future aspirations. Developmental Psychology, 48, 315326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uhls, Y. T., Zgourou, E., & Greenfield, P. M. (2014). 21st century media, fame, and other future aspirations: A national survey of 9–15 year olds. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. 8(4), article 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNICEF (2017). Children in a Digital World: The state of the world’s children 2017.CrossRef
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstock, M. (2015). Changing epistemologies under conditions of social change in two Arab communities in Israel. International Journal of Psychology, 50, 2936.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinstock, M., Ganayiem, M., Igbariya, R., Manago, A. M., & Greenfield, P. M. (2015). Societal change and values in Arab communities in Israel: Intergenerational and rural-urban comparisons. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 1938. doi: 10.1177/00220221/1455/792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, T. B. (1985). Implications of a natural experiment in the developed world for research on television in the developing world. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16, 263287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, T. B. (1986). The Impact of Television: A natural experiment in three communities. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wober, M. (1975/2014). Psychology in Africa. International African Institute. Republished as a Psychology Revival. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Zhou, C., Yiu, V., Wu, M., & Greenfield, P. M. (2017). Perception of cross-generational differences in child behavior and parent socialization. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(1), 6281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar