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Chapter 4 - Anticoagulation, coagulopathies, blood transfusion, and conservation in cardiac surgery

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 December 2015

Sunit Ghosh
Affiliation:
Papworth Hospital, Cambridge
Florian Falter
Affiliation:
Papworth Hospital, Cambridge
Albert C. Perrino, Jr
Affiliation:
Yale University, Connecticut
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2015

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References

Suggested Further Reading

Clough, ER, Shore-Lesserson, LJ, Goodnough, LT, et al. Update to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Blood Conservation Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Thorac Surg 2011; 91: 944–82
Despotis, GJ, Joist, JH, Goodnough, LT. Monitoring of hemostasis in cardiac surgical patients: impact of point-of-care testing on blood loss and transfusion outcomes. Clin Chem 1997; 43: 1684–96.
Dyke, CM, Aldea, G, Koster, A, et al. Off-pump coronary artery bypass with bivalirudin for patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet factor four/heparin antibodies. Ann Thorac Surg 2007; 84: 836–9.
Finley, A, Greenberg, C. Heparin sensitivity and resistance: management during cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Anal 2013; 116: 1210–22.
Ganter, MT, Hofer, CK. Coagulation monitoring: current techniques and clinical use of viscoelastic point-of-care coagulation devices. Anesth Analg 2008; 106(5): 1366–75. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e318168b367
Holbrook, A, Schulman, S, Witt, DM, et al. Evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2012; 141(2)(Suppl): e152s-e184s.
Koster, A, Dyke, CM, Aldea, G, et al. Bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with previous or acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and heparin antibodies: results of the CHOOSE-ON trial. Ann Thorac Surg 2007; 83: 572–7.
Lin, D, Murphy, L, Tran, M. Use of prothrombin complex concentrates and fibrinogen concentrates in the perioperative setting: a systematic review. Transfus Med Rev 2013; 27(2): 91104.
Linkins, L-A, Dans, AL, Moores, LK, et al. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2012; 141(2) (Suppl): e495S-e530S.
Lo, GK, Juhl, D, Warkentin, TE, et al. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 Ts) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings [see comment]. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 44: 759–65.
Morel-Kopp, MC, Tan, CW, Brighton, TA, Group ACT. Validation of whole blood impedance aggregometry as a new diagnostic tool for HIT: results of a large Australian study. Thromb Haemost 2012; 107: 575–83.
Pouplard, C, Gueret, P, Fouassier, M, et al. Prospective evaluation of the ‘4Ts’ score and particle gel immunoassay specific to heparin/PF4 for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5(7): 1373–9.
Raivio, P, Suojaranta-Ylinen, R, Kuitunen, AH. Recombinant factor VIIa in the treatment of postoperative hemorrhage after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2005; 80: 6671.
Romagnoli, S, Bevilacqua, S, Gelsomino, S, et al. Small-dose recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven) in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 1320–6.
Spiess, BD, Gillies, BSA, Chandler, W, Verrier, E. Changes in transfusion therapy and reexploration rate after institution of a blood management program in cardiac surgical patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1995; 9: 168–73.
Spiess, BD, Turnan, KJ, McCarthy, RJ et al. Thromboelastography as an indicator of post-cardiopulmonary bypass coagulopathies. J Clin Monit 1987; 3: 2530.
Stafford-Smith, M, Lefrak, EA, Qazi, AG, et al. Efficacy and safety of heparinase I versus protamine in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2005; 103(2): 229–40.
Steele, J, Kadosh, B, Gulkarov, IM, Salemi, A. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia and cardiac surgery: a comprehensive review. J Blood Disord Transfus 2011; S2: 003. doi:10.4172/2155–9864. S2003
Warkentin, TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis and management. Br J Haematol 2003; 121: 535–55.
Watson, H, Davidson, S, Keeling, D. Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: second edition. Br J Haematol 2012; 159: 528–40. doi:10.1111/bjh.12059.

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