Published online by Cambridge University Press: 21 August 2019
The period between the outbreak of revolution in 1789 and the establishment of the Third Republic in 1871 is an age filled with the rise and fall of various political groups and philosophical definitions in France, from absolutism to communism, from classicism to romanticism. The economic and cultural importance of France increased well beyond its borders during this time, aided much by the will of its political leaders (e.g. Napoleon I and Napoleon III) and the industrial strength of its resources. In short, the period can be classified as an ‘age of becoming’ when nearly every aspect of French society was in development.