Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-w6m4b Total loading time: 1.682 Render date: 2022-06-29T14:31:34.277Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

11 - Gamification of Adult Learning: Gamifying Employee Training and Development

from Part III - Technology in Training and Development

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 February 2019

Richard N. Landers
Affiliation:
University of Minnesota
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alliger, G. M., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett, W., Jr., Traver, H., & Shotland, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341358. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.1997.tb00911.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antin, J. & Churchill, E. F. (2011). Badges in social media: A social psychological perspective. In CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings (pp. 14). New York, NY: ACM.Google Scholar
Armstrong, M. B. & Landers, R. N. (2017). An evaluation of gamified training: Using narrative to improve reactions and learning. Simulation & Gaming, 48, 513538. doi:10.1177/1046878117703749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ArthurJr, W., BennettJr, W., Edens, P. S., & Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: a meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 234245. doi:10.1037/0021–9010.88.2.234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 11731182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bedwell, W. L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2012). Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to learning: An empirical study. Simulation & Gaming, 43, 729760. doi:10.1177/1046878112439444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blohm, I. & Leimeister, J. M. (2013). Gamification. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 5, 275278. doi:10.1007/s12599-013–0273-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blume, B. D., Ford, J. K., Baldwin, T. T., & Huang, J. L. (2010). Transfer of training: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36, 10651105. doi:10.1177/0149206309352880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification is bullshit. In Waltz, S. P. & Deterding, S. (Eds.), The Gameful World (pp. 6579). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Brown, K. G. (2001). Using computers to deliver training: Which employees learn and why? Personnel Psychology, 54, 271296. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.2001.tb00093.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Browne, K., Anand, C., & Gosse, E. (2014). Gamification and serious game approaches for adult literacy tablet software. Entertainment Computing, 5(3), 135146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burke, L. A. & Hutchins, H. M. (2007). Training transfer: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 263296. doi:10.1177/1534484307303035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47, 132. doi:10.1007/s11162-005–8150-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (2000). Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: A meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 678707. doi:10.1037//0021–9010.g5.5.678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darden, W. R., Hampton, R., & Howell, R. D. (1989). Career versus organizational commitment: Antecedents and consequences of retail salespeople's commitment. Journal of Retailing, 65, 80106.Google Scholar
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self‐determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Khaled, R., Nacke, L., O’Hara, K. E., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification: Toward a definition. Proceedings of the CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop, Vancouver, BC. doi:10.1145/2181037.2181040.CrossRef
Ferster, C. B. & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement (pp. 44137). East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10627–004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, J. K., Quiñones, M. A., Sego, D. J., & Sorra, J. S. (1992). Factors affecting the opportunity to perform trained tasks on the job. Personnel Psychology, 45, 511527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foxon, M. (1997). The influence of motivation to transfer, action planning, and manager support on the transfer process. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 10, 4263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gagné, M. & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331362. doi:10.1002/job.322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441467. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878102238607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gartner. (2012). Gartner says by 2014, 80 percent of current gamified applications will fail to meet business objectives primarily due to poor design [press release]. Retrieved from www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015.
Graham, S. & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445476. doi:10.1037/0022–0663.99.3.445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, B. S., Sherry, J., Lachlan, K., Lucas, K., & Holmstrom, A. (2010). Orientations to video games among gender and age groups. Simulation & Gaming, 41, 238259. doi:10.1177/1046878108319930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamari, J. & Koivisto, J. (June 2013). Social motivations to use gamification: An empirical study of gamifying exercise. In ECIS 2013 Completed Research. http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2013_cr/105
Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (January 2014). Does gamification work? – A literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 30253034). IEEE.Google Scholar
Heeter, C., Lee, Y. H., Magerko, B., & Medler, B. (2011). Impacts of forced serious game play on vulnerable subgroups. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 3, 3453. doi:10.4018/jgcms.2011070103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu, S. H., Chang, J. W., & Lee, C. C. (2013). Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 428435. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanfer, R. (1991). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. In Dunnette, M. D. & Hough, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (vol. 1, pp. 75170.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Kanfer, R. & Ackerman, P. L. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 657690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021–9010.74.4.657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1959). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 13, 39.Google Scholar
Koivisto, J. & Hamari, J. (2014). Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 179188. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraiger, K. (2002). Creating, implementing, and managing effective training and development: State-of-the-art lessons for practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Kraiger, K., Ford, J. K., & Salas, E. (1993). Application of cognitive, skill-based, and affective theories of learning outcomes to new methods of training evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 311328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021–9010.78.2.311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kulik, J. A., Kulik, C. L. C., & Cohen, P. A. (1980). Effectiveness of computer-based college teaching: A meta-analysis of findings. Review of Educational Research, 50, 525544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N. (2015). Developing a theory of gamified learning: Linking serious games and gamification of learning. Simulation & Gaming, 45, 752768. doi:10.1177/1046878114563660(6).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N., Auer, E. M., Collmus, A. B. & Armstrong, M. B. (2018). Gamification science, its history and future: Definitions and a research agenda. Simulation & Gaming 49, 315337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N. & Armstrong, M. B. (2015). Enhancing instructional outcomes with gamification: An empirical test of the technology-enhanced training effectiveness model. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 499507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2011). Casual social games as serious games: The psychology of gamification in undergraduate education and employee training. In Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.), Serious games and edutainment applications (pp. 399423). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978–1-4471–2161-9_20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2012). Training evaluation in virtual worlds: Development of a model. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 5, 120. doi:10.4101/jvwr.v5i3.6335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N. & Goldberg, A. S. (2014). Online social media in the workplace: A conversation with employees. In Coovert, M. D. & Thompson, L. F. (Eds.), Psychology of workplace technology (pp. 284306). New York, NY: Routledge Academic..Google Scholar
Landers, R. N., Armstrong, M. B., & Collmus, A. B. (2017). How to use game elements to enhance learning: Applications of the theory of gamified learning. In Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.), Serious games and edutainment applications (vol. 2, pp. 457483). Surrey, UK: Springer. doi:10.1007/978–3-319–51645-5_21.Google Scholar
Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., & Callan, R. C. (2017). Gamification of task performance with leaderboards: A goal setting experiment. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 508515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., Callan, R. C., & Armstrong, M. B. (2015). Psychological theory and the gamification of learning. In Reiners, T. & Wood, L. (Eds.), Gamification in education and business (pp. 165186). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
Latham, G. P. & Locke, E. A. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Latham, G. P. & Locke, E. A. (1991). Self-regulation through goal setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 212247. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749–5978(91)90021-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawler, E. E. & Suttle, J. L. (1973). Expectancy theory and job behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 9, 482503. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030–5073(73)90066–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lim, D. H. (2001). The effect of work experience and job position on international learning transfer. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 9, 5974.Google Scholar
Linehan, C., Kirman, B. & Roche, B. (2015) Gamification as behavioral psychology. In Walz, S. P. & Deterding, S. (Eds.), The gameful world: Approaches, issues, applications (pp. 81105). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.Google Scholar
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265268. doi:10.1111/j.1467–8721.2006.00449.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malone, T. W. (1981). Towards a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science, 4, 333369. doi:10.1016/S0364-0213(81)80017–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, D. S., Jackson, G. T., & Graesser, A. (2010). Intelligent tutoring and games (TaG). In Baek, Y. (Ed.), Gaming for classroom-based learning: Digital role playing as a motivator of study (pp. 4465). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mekler, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Tuch, A. N., & Opwis, K. (2017). Towards understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation and performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 525534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michael, D. & Chen, S. (2005). Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform. Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology.Google Scholar
Mitchell, T. R. (1982). Motivation: New direction for theory, research, and practice. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 8088. doi:10.5465/AMR.1982.4285467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mollick, E. R. & Rothbard, N. (2014). Mandatory fun: Consent, gamification and the impact of games at work. The Wharton School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2277103.
Noe, R. A. & Schmitt, N. (1986). The influence of trainee attitudes on training effectiveness: Test of a model. Personnel Psychology, 39, 497523. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.1986.tb00950.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, J. M. & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta‐analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417528. doi:10.1111/0023–8333.00136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Muhammad, R. S. (2013). Organizational culture and climate. In Weiner, I. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Psychology (2nd edn., pp. 643676). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/0471264385.wei1222.Google Scholar
Paas, F., Tuovinen, J. E., Van Merrienboer, J. J., & Darabi, A. A. (2005). A motivational perspective on the relation between mental effort and performance: Optimizing learner involvement in instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 2534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parijat, P. & Bagga, S. (2014). Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation: An evaluation. International Research Journal of Business and Management (IRJBM), 7, 18.Google Scholar
Parker, L. E. & Lepper, M. R. (1992). Effects of fantasy contexts on children’s learning and motivation: Making learning more fun. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 625633. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.62.4.625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pintrich, P. R. & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 3340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richter, G., Raban, D. R., & Rafaeli, S. (2015). Studying gamification: The effect of rewards and incentives on motivation. In Reiners, T., Wood, L. C. (Eds.), Gamification in Education and Business (pp. 2146). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978–3-319–10208-5_2.Google Scholar
RoedigerIII, H. L. & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long term retention. Psychological Science, 17, 249255. doi:10.1111/j.1467–9280.2006.01693.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rowland, C. A. (2014). The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: A meta-analytic review of the testing effect. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 14321463. doi:10.1037/a0037559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 5467. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 344360. doi:10.1007/s11031-006–9051-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, H., & Klevers, M. (2013). Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. IxD&A, 19, 2837.Google Scholar
Seaborn, K. & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 1431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2014.09.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seidel, T. & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: The role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research, 77, 454499. doi:10.3102/0034654307310317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheldon, K. M. & Filak, V. (2008). Manipulating autonomy, competence, and relatedness support in a game‐learning context: New evidence that all three needs matter. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 267283. doi:10.1348/014466607X238797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, W. C. M., Liu, D., Santhanam, R., & Evans, D. A. (June 2016). Gamified Technology-Mediated Learning: the Role of Individual differences. In PACIS 2013 Proceedings (p. 47).
Singer, L., & Schneider, K. (June 2012). It was a bit of a race: Gamification of version control. In Games and Software Engineering (GAS), 2012 2nd International Workshop on (pp. 58). IEEE. doi:10.1109/GAS.2012.6225927.CrossRef
Sitzmann, T. (2011). A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology, 64, 489528. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.2011.01190.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. & Cerutti, D. T. (2003). Operant conditioning. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 115144. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stansbury, J. A. & Earnest, D. R. (2017). Meaningful gamification in an industrial/organizational psychology course. Teaching of Psychology, 44, 3845. https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628316677645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Surface, E. A. (2012). Training needs assessment: Aligning learning and capability with performance requirements and organizational objectives. In Wilson, M. A., Bennett, W., Jr., Gibson, S. G., & Alliger, G. M. (Eds.), Series in applied psychology. The handbook of work analysis: Methods, systems, applications and science of work measurement in organizations (pp. 437462). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
Tamborini, R., Bowman, N. D., Eden, A., Grizzard, M., and Organ, A. (2010), Defining media enjoyment as the satisfaction of intrinsic needs. Journal of Communication, 60: 758777. doi:10.1111/j.1460–2466.2010.01513.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tay, L. (2010). Employers: Look to gaming to motivate staff. itnews for Australian Business. Retrieved from www.itnews.com.au/News/169862,employers-look-to-gaming-to-motivate-staff.aspx.
Thiel, S. K., Reisinger, M., & Röderer, K. (December 2016). I’m too old for this!: influence of age on perception of gamified public participation. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (pp. 343–346). ACM. doi:10.1145/3012709.3016073.CrossRef
Vancouver, J. B. (2008). Integrating self-regulation theories of work motivation into a dynamic process theory. Human Resource Management Review, 18, 118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vancouver, J. B. & Day, D. V. (2005). Industrial and organisation research on self‐regulation: from constructs to applications. Applied Psychology, 54, 155185. doi:10.1111/j.1464–0597.2005.00202.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Von Ahn, L. & Dabbish, L. (2008). Designing games with a purpose. Communications of the ACM, 51. 5867. doi:10.1145/1378704.1378719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Warr, P. & Bunce, D. (1995). Trainee characteristics and the outcomes of open learning. Personnel Psychology, 48, 347375. doi:10.1111/j.1744–6570.1995.tb01761.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, R., Meiers, M. W., & Visser, Y. (2012). A guide to assessing needs: Essential tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, K. A., Bedwell, W. L., Lazzara, E. H., Salas, E., Burke, C. S., Estock, J. L., … Conkey, C. (2009). Relationships between game attributes and learning outcomes. Simulation & Gaming, 40, 217266. doi:10.1177/1046878108321866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeiler, M. D. (1968). Fixed and variable schedules of response-independent reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 405414. doi:10.1901/jeab.1968.11–405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhao, C. M. & Kuh, G. D. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45, 115138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×