Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-598jt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-04-01T18:47:00.768Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

7 - The Development and Enhancement of Adolescent Creativity

from Part II - The Development of Creativity

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2021

Sandra W. Russ
Case Western Reserve University, Ohio
Jessica D. Hoffmann
Yale University, Connecticut
James C. Kaufman
University of Connecticut
Get access


Many have written about the importance of creativity as it relates to preparation for the modern workforce; such statements emphasize individual skill and societal factors. In the coming decades, creativity is predicted to be one of the skills in greatest demand (Bakhshi et al., 2017), and is one of the least likely skills to be automated (Frey & Osborne, 2017). Adolescence is a time with enormous potential for creative growth, which is necessary in the lifetime trajectory of creative development. Adolescence is also, however, a time when individuals are especially likely to abandon creative passions and pursuits. Though adolescence is both a consequential and promising time in creative development, it has not been studied as thoroughly as creativity in childhood and adulthood. This chapter covers the research supporting the argument for an increased focus on the development and enhancement of creativity in adolescence, and reviews a breadth of research that addresses this goal.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Acar, S., & Runco, M. A. (2014). Assessing associative distance among ideas elicited by tests of divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 26(2), 229238. doi:10.1080/10400419.2014.901095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albert, R. S. (1996). Some reasons why childhood creativity often fails to make it past puberty into the real world. In Runco, M. A. (Ed.), New directions for child development, No. 72. Creativity from childhood through adulthood: The developmental issues (pp. 4356). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Averill, J. R. (1999). Individual differences in emotional creativity: Structure and correlates. Journal of Personality, 67(2), 331371. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00058CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Averill, J. R., & Thomas-Knowles, C. (1991). Emotional creativity. In Strongman, K. T. (Ed.), International review of studies on emotion (vol. 1, pp. 269299). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
Bakhshi, H., Downing, J., Osborne, M., & Schneider, P. (2017). The future of skills: Employment in 2030. London: Pearson and Nesta.Google Scholar
Barbot, B., & Tinio, P. P. (2015). Where is the “g” in creativity? A specialization–differentiation hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1041. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01041CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basadur, M. S. (1982). Research in creative problem solving training in business and industry. Proceedings of creativity week 4. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
Basadur, M. S., & Finkbeiner, C. T. (1985). Measuring preference for ideation in creative problem solving training. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21, 3749. doi:10.1177/002188638502100104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basadur, M., Wakabayashi, M., & Takai, J. (1992). Training effects on the divergent thinking attitudes of Japanese managers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 329345. doi:10.1016/0147-1767(92)90056-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batey, M., & Furnham, A. (2006). Creativity, intelligence, and personality: A critical review of the scattered literature. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 132(4), 355429. doi:10.3200/mono.132.4.355-430CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauregard, C. (2014). Effects of classroom-based creative expression programmes on children’s well-being. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 41(3), 269277. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2014.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beghetto, R. A. (2013). Killing ideas softly? The promise and perils of creativity in the classroom. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.Google Scholar
Beghetto, R. A. (2014). Creative mortification: An initial exploration. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 266276. doi:10.1037/a0036618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beghetto, R. A., & Dilley, A. E. (2016). Creative aspirations or pipe dreams? Toward understanding creative mortification in children and adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016(151), 8595. doi:10.1002/cad.20150CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: Implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 296312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01611.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blatner, A., & Blatner, A. (1997). The art of play: Helping adults to reclaim imagination and spontaneity. New York: Brunner/Routledge.Google Scholar
Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Reyes, M. R., & Salovey, P. (2012). Enhancing academic performance and social and emotional competence with the RULER feeling words curriculum. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 218224. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bungay, H., & Vella-Burrows, T. (2013). The effects of participating in creative activities on the health and well-being of children and young people: A rapid review of the literature. Perspectives in Public Health, 133(1), 4452. doi:10.1177/1757913912466946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, T., Bath, M., Bradbear, R., Cottle, J., & Parrett, N. (2009). An evaluation of performance-arts based HIV-prevention events in London with 13–16 year olds. Perspectives in Public Health, 129(5), 216220. doi:10.1177/1757913909341615CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2005). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the creative achievement questionnaire. Creativity Research Journal, 17(1), 3750. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Catterall, J. S., Dumais, S. A., & Hampden-Thompson, G. (2012). The arts and achievement in at-risk youth: Findings from four longitudinal studies. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts.Google Scholar
Charles, R. E., & Runco, M. A. (2001). Developmental trends in the evaluative and divergent thinking of children. Creativity Research Journal, 13(3–4), 417437. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1334_19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chopp, C., & Kerr, B. A. (2008). Counseling gifted children. In Davis, G. & Hansen, S. (Ed.), Handbook of school counseling (pp. 561591). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Crone, E. A., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social–affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(9), 636650. doi:10.1038/nrn3313CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., Baas, M., Wolsink, I., & Wittman, M. (2012). Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 656669. doi:10.1177/0146167211435795CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, A. 2009. Statement from U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan on results of NAEP Arts 2008 assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from Scholar
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Emerson, E. (1992). Playing for health: The process of play and self-expression in children who have experienced a sexual trauma [Doctoral dissertation]. The University of Texas at Austin, Order Number 9225571. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services.Google Scholar
Emerson, E., & Shelton, D. (2001). Using creative arts to build coping skills to reduce domestic violence in the lives of female juvenile offenders. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 22, 181195. doi:10.1080/016128401750063358CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Frauenknecht, M., & Black, D. R. (2004). Problem-solving training for children and adolescents. In Chang, E. C., D’Zurilla, T. J., & Sanna, L. J. (Eds.), Social problem solving: Theory, research, and training (pp. 153170). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10805-009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, M. (1993). Finding the muse: A sociopsychological inquiry into the conditions of artistic creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254280. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glăveanu, V. P. (2013). Rewriting the language of creativity: The Five A’s framework. Review of General Psychology, 17(1), 6981. doi:10.1037/a0029528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griskevicius, V., Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Peacocks, Picasso, and parental investment: The effects of romantic motives on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 6376. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.63CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gu, C., Hu, B. Y., Ngwira, F. F., Jing, Z., & Zhou, Z. (2016). The effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on adolescents’ social creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 50(2), 132149. doi:10.1002/jocb.74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutbezahl, J., & Averill, J. R. (1996). Individual differences in emotional creativity as manifested in words and pictures. Creativity Research Journal, 9(4), 327337. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj0904_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hocevar, D. (1979, April). The development of the Creative Behavior Inventory (CBI) [Paper presentation]. Annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED170350).Google Scholar
Hoffmann, J., Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. (2016). Creativity in the age of technology: Measuring the digital creativity of millennials. Creativity Research Journal, 28(2), 149153. doi:10.1080/10400419.2016.1162515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffmann, J. D. (2020, Aug.). Students’ emotions and their attitudes towards creativity: The role of positive school climate. In Ivcevic, Z. (Chair), Creativity and emotions: From the decision to be creative to reactions to creative products [Symposium]. Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, J. D., Ivcevic, Z., Zamora, G., Bazhydai, M., & Brackett, M. (2016). Intended persistence: Comparing academic and creative challenges in high school. Social Psychology of Education, 19(4), 793814. doi:10.1007/s11218–016-9362-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffmann, J. D., McGarry, J. A., Baumsteiger, R., Seibyl, J., & Brackett, M. A. (in press). Emotional empowerment in high school life. In Misra, G. & Misra, L. (Eds.), Emotions in cultural context. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, J. D., & Russ, S. W. (2016, Aug.). Adaptive regression: Emotion ability for creativity? In Nusbaum, E. (Chair), Looking back to look forward: Re-examining and re-imagining historical ideas in creativity research [Symposium]. Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. A. (2015). Predicting creativity: Interactive effects of openness to experience and emotion regulation ability. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 480487. doi:10.1037/a0039826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ivcevic, Z., Ebert, M., Hoffmann, J., & Brackett, M. (2017). Creativity in the domain of emotions. In Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., & Glăveanu, V. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of creativity across different domains (pp. 525549). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ivcevic, Z., & Hoffmann, J. D. (2017). Emotions and creativity: From states to traits and emotion abilities. In Feist, G. J., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Kaufman, J. C. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity and personality research. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ivcevic, Z., & Hoffmann, J. D. (2020, December). Daring to be creative at school [Paper presentation]. Annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.Ed. 170).Google Scholar
Ivcevic, Z., & Mayer, J. D. (2009). Mapping dimensions of creativity in the life-space. Creativity Research Journal, 21(2–3), 152165. doi:10.1080/10400410902855259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaquish, G. A., & Ripple, R. E. (1980). Divergent thinking and self-esteem in preadolescents and adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9(2), 143152. doi:10.1007/bf02087932CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jolles, D. D., & Crone, E. A. (2012). Training the developing brain: A neurocognitive perspective. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6 , 76. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00076CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamo, N., Carlson, M., Brennan, R. T., & Earls, F. (2008). Young citizens as health agents: Use of drama in promoting community efficacy for HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Public Health, 98(2), 201204. doi:10.2105/ajph.2007.113704CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karbach, J., & Kray, J. (2009). How useful is executive control training? Age differences in near and far transfer of task-switching training. Developmental Science, 12(6), 978990. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00846.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karkou, V., & Glasman, J. (2004). Arts, education and society: The role of the arts in promoting the emotional wellbeing and social inclusion of young people. Support for Learning, 19(2), 5765. doi:10.1111/j.0268-2141.2004.00321.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karwowski, M. (2014). Creative mindsets: Measurement, correlates, consequences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(1), 6270. doi:10.1037/a0034898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Counting the muses: Development of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(4), 298308. doi:10.1037/a0029751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. (2016). Creativity 101. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The Four C model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 112. doi:10.1037/a0013688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2013). Do people recognize the Four Cs? Examining layperson conceptions of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7(3), 229236. doi:10.1037/a0033295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, M. (2006). Promoting the health and wellbeing of young Black men using community‐based drama. Health Education, 3, 186200. doi:10.1108/09654280610658532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerr, B., & McKay, R. (2013). Searching for tomorrow’s innovators: Profiling creative adolescents. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 2132. doi:10.1080/10400419.2013.752180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleibeuker, S. W., De Dreu, C. K., & Crone, E. A. (2013a). The development of creative cognition across adolescence: Distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking. Developmental Science, 16(1), 212. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01176.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kleibeuker, S. W., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Crone, E. A. (2016). Creativity development in adolescence: Insight from behavior, brain, and training studies. In Barbot, B. (Ed.), Perspectives on creativity development: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 151, 7384.Google Scholar
Kleibeuker, S. W., Koolschijn, P. C., Jolles, D., De Dreu, C., & Crone, E. A. (2013b). The neural coding of creative idea generation across adolescence and early adulthood. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 905. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00905CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kleibeuker, S. W., Koolschijn, P. C., Jolles, D. D., Schel, M. A., De Dreu, C. K., & Crone, E. A. (2013c). Prefrontal cortex involvement in creative problem solving in middle adolescence and adulthood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 197206. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2013.03.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, 317324. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.05.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kraut, A. I. (1976). Developing managerial skills via modeling techniques: Some positive research findings – A symposium. Personnel Psychology, 29, 325328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, S., & Cheung, P. C. (2010). Developmental trends of creativity: What twists of turn do boys and girls take at different grades?. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 329336. doi:10.1080/10400419.2010.503543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemieux, A. F., Fisher, J. D., & Pratto, F. (2008). A music-based HIV prevention intervention for urban adolescents. Health Psychology, 27(3), 349357. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.349CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lull, J. (1987). Popular music and communication (vol. 89). New York: SAGE.Google Scholar
Mages, L., Salmon, D., & Orme, J. (2007). Using drama to help “hard to reach” young people access sexual health education. Primary Health Care (through 2013), 17(4), 4145. doi:10.7748/phc2007. Scholar
Malchiodi, C. (1998) The art therapy sourcebook. Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.Google Scholar
Maliakkal, N., Hoffmann, J. D., Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. A. (2016). Teaching emotion and creativity skills through art: A workshop for adolescents. The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 26(1), 6984.Google Scholar
Maliakkal, N., Hoffmann, J. D., Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. A. (2017). An art-based workshop for families: Learning emotion skills and choosing creativity. The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 27(1), 4561.Google Scholar
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In Adelson, J. (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159187). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In Salovey, P. & Sluyter, D. (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 331). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
McKay, A. S., Karwowski, M., & Kaufman, J. C. (2017). Measuring the muses: Validating the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11(2), 216230. doi:10.1037/aca0000074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, G. F. (2000). The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
Mouchiroud, C., & Lubart, T. (2002). Social creativity: A cross-sectional study of 6- to 11-year-old children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(1), 6069. doi:10.1177/016502540202600111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nijstad, B. A., De Dreu, C. K. W., Rietzschel, E. F., & Baas, M. (2010). The dual pathway to creativity model: Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence. European Review of Social Psychology, 21, 3477. doi:10.1080/10463281003765323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orme, J., Salmon, D., & Mages, L. (2007). Project jump: Young people’s perspectives on a sexual health drama project for hard to reach young people. Children & Society, 21(5), 352364. doi:10.1111/j.1099-0860.2006.00065.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petkus, E. D. Jr. (1996). The creative identity: Creative behavior from the symbolic interactionist perspective. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 30(3), 188196. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1996.tb00768.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plucker, J. A., Beghetto, R. A., & Dow, G. T. (2004). Why isn’t creativity more important to educational psychologists? Potentials, pitfalls, and future directions in creativity research. Educational Psychologist, 39(2), 8396. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3902_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinlan, R., Schweitzer, R. D., Khawaja, N., & Griffin, J. (2016). Evaluation of a school-based creative arts therapy program for adolescents from refugee backgrounds. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 47, 7278. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2015.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reuter, M., Panksepp, J., Schnabel, N., Kellerhoff, N., Kempel, P., & Hennig, J. (2005). Personality and biological markers of creativity. European Journal of Personality, 19(2), 8395. doi:10.1002/per.534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), 305310.Google Scholar
Rothenberg, A. (1990). Creativity in adolescence. Psychiatric Clinics, 13(3), 415434. doi:10.1016/s0193–953x(18)30351-4Google ScholarPubMed
Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 657687. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141502CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Runco, M. A. (2014). Creativity: Theories and themes: Research, development, and practice. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Runco, M. A., & Bahleda, M. D. (1986). Implicit theories of artistic, scientific, and everyday creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 20, 9398. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1986.tb00423.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spear, L. P. (2000). The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 24(4), 417463. doi:10.1016/s0149–7634(00)00014-2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sternberg, R. J. (2015). Teaching for creativity: The sounds of silence. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(2), 115117. doi:10.1037/aca0000007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, C. E., Kleibeuker, S. W., De Dreu, C. K., & Crone, E. A. (2014). Training creative cognition: Adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 827. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00827CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teall, W., Tortora-Cailey, A., & Cunningham, J. (2006) Voyage on a painted sea. A Life in the Day, 10, 711. doi:10.1108/13666282200600033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Tyrer, R. A., & Fazel, M. (2014). School and community-based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: A systematic review. PLOS One, 9(2), e89359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ukkola-Vuoti, L., Kanduri, C., Oikkonen, J., Buck, G., Blancher, C., Raijas, P., … Järvelä, I. (2013). Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in extended families and unrelated individuals characterized for musical aptitude and creativity in music. PLOS One, 8(2), e56356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ulrich, R. (1992) How design impacts wellness. The Health Forum Journal, 35, 2025.Google ScholarPubMed
Urban, K. K. (1991). On the development of creativity in children. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 177191. doi:10.1080/10400419109534384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Finke, R. A. (1999). Creative cognition. In Sternberg, R. J., (Ed.), Handbook of creativity, (pp. 189212). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2003). Awakening employee creativity: The role of leader emotional intelligence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(4–5), 545568. doi:10.1016/s1048-9843(03)00051-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats