Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-swr86 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-25T05:09:38.434Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

Ian A. McFarland
Emory University's Candler School of Theology
David A. S. Fergusson
University of Edinburgh
Karen Kilby
University of Nottingham
Iain R. Torrance
University of Aberdeen
Ian A. McFarland
Emory University, Atlanta
David A. S. Fergusson
University of Edinburgh
Karen Kilby
University of Nottingham
Iain R. Torrance
Princeton Theological Seminary
Get access


Easter: see Calendar, Liturgical.

Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Christian Churches are divided into two groups: the Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic (sometimes referred to as Uniate) Churches. Until the eleventh century, all Eastern Churches were visibly in communion with Rome, though as early as the fifth century Church unity had been weakened due to Christological, political, and cultural difficulties. In 1054, the eastern and western branches separated from one another. To this day, the former have been known as the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the latter, the Catholic (or Latin) Church. The separation was visibly expressed by the Orthodox Churches' rejection of the western way of understanding the primacy of the Pope (see Papacy).

The Orthodox Churches include autocephalous (i.e., self-governing) groups, such as the Greeks, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and others. Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, various Orthodox communities within these autocephalous groups re-established communion with Rome. In this way, each of the Eastern Catholic Churches (except for the Maronite Church) has an Orthodox counterpart. Though they hold their eastern heritage in common with the Orthodox Churches (and, like the latter, continue to have their own patriarchs), they are in communion with the Holy See. These developments can be seen as part of papal attempts to secure unity with the Orthodox that date from the thirteenth century and continue today, most recently with the publishing of John Paul II's (r. 1978–2005) encyclical, Ut unum sint (1995).

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Fahey, M. A., Orthodox and Catholic Sister Churches: East is West and West is East (Marquette University Press, 1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, R., The Holy Fire: The Story of the Early Centuries of the Christian Church in the Near East (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1997).Google Scholar
Roccasalvo, J. L., The Eastern Catholic Churches: An Introduction to their Worship and Spirituality (Liturgical Press, 1992).Google Scholar
Congar, Y., L'église: de Saint Augustin à l'époque moderne (Cerf, 1970).Google Scholar
Haight, R., , S. J., Christian Community in History, 3 vols. (Continuum, 2004–8).Google Scholar
Mannion, G. and Mudge, L. S., eds., The Routledge Companion to the Christian Church (Routledge, 2008).Google Scholar
, McGinn, , Bernard, The Mystical Thought of Meister Eckhart (Crossroad, 2001).Google Scholar
Conradie, E., Christianity and Ecological Theology: Resources for Further Research (SUN Press, 2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deane-Drummond, C., Ecotheology (Darton, Longman and Todd, 2008).Google Scholar
Habel, N. and Wurst, S., eds., The Earth Bible, vol. II: The Earth Story in Genesis (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000).Google Scholar
Ariarajah, S. W., Gospel and Culture: An Ongoing Discussion within the Ecumenical Movement (WCC, 1994).Google Scholar
Birmelé, A., Crisis and Challenge of the Ecumenical Movement: Integrity and Indivisibility (WCC, 1994).Google Scholar
Evans, G. R., Method in Ecumenical Theology: The Lessons So Far (Cambridge University Press, 1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinnamon, M., Why It Matters: A Popular Introduction to the Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry Text (WCC, 1985).Google Scholar
Lossky, N., Bonino, J. al., Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, 2nd edn (WCC, 2002).Google Scholar
Meyer, H., Vischer, al., Growth in Agreement: Report and Agreed Statements of Ecumenical Conversations on a World Level, 3 vols. (WCC, 1984–2007).Google Scholar
Jenson, R. W., America's Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards (Oxford University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
Lee, S. H., The Philosophical Theology of Jonathan Edwards (Princeton University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
Barth, K., Church Dogmatics, II/2 (T&T Clark, 1957).Google Scholar
Calvin, J., Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God (John Knox Press, 1997).Google Scholar
Stendahl, K., ‘The Called and the Chosen: An Essay on Election’ in The Root of the Vine: Essays in Biblical Theology, ed. Fridrichsen, al. (Dacre Press, 1953), 63–80.Google Scholar
Tanner, K., Economy of Grace (Fortress Press, 2005).Google Scholar
Wyschogrod, M., The Body of Faith: Judaism as Corporeal Election (Jason Aronson, 1996).Google Scholar
Bradshaw, D., Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom (Cambridge University Press, 2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lossky, V., The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1998).Google Scholar
Meyendorff, J., A Study of Gregory Palamas (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1998).Google Scholar
Stăniloae, D., The Experience of God: Orthodox Dogmatic Theology, 2 vols. (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1994–2000).Google Scholar
Beiser, F. C., Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism: The Genesis of Modern German Political Thought, 1790–1800 (Harvard University Press, 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillespie, M. A., The Theological Origins of Modernity (University of Chicago Press, 2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyland, al., eds., The Enlightenment: A Sourcebook and Reader (Routledge, 2003).Google Scholar
Clayton, P. B., The Christology of Theodoret of Cyrus (Oxford University Press, 2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuckin, J. A., St. Cyril of Alexandria and the Christological Controversy (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2004).Google Scholar
Halliburton, J., The Authority of a Bishop (SPCK, 1987).Google Scholar
Kasper, W., Leadership in the Church (Crossroad, 2003).Google Scholar
Kasper, W., Women Bishops in the Church of England: A Report of the House of Bishops' Working Party on Women in the Episcopate (CHP, 2004).Google Scholar
Zizioulas, J., Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2001).Google Scholar
Kelly, A., Eschatology and Hope (Orbis, 2006).Google Scholar
Küng, H., Eternal Life? Life After Death as a Medical, Philosophical, and Theological Problem (Crossroad, 1991 [1984]).Google Scholar
Due, W. J., The Trinity Guide to Eschatology (Continuum, 2004).Google Scholar
Moltmann, J., The Coming of God: Christian Eschatology (Fortress Press, 1996).Google Scholar
Sauter, G., What Dare We Hope? Reconsidering Eschatology (Trinity Press, 1999).Google Scholar
Schwarz, H., Eschatology (Eerdmans, 2000).Google Scholar
Chupungco, A. J., ed., Handbook for Liturgical Studies, vol. 3: The Eucharist (Liturgical Press, 1999).Google Scholar
Irwin, K. W., Models of the Eucharist (Paulist Press, 2005).Google Scholar
Jasper, R. and Cuming, G., eds., Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed, 2nd edn (Liturgical Press, 1990).Google Scholar
Leon-Dufour, X., Sharing the Eucharistic Bread: The Witness of the New Testament (Paulist Press, 1987).Google Scholar
Mitchell, N., Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass (Pueblo, 1982).Google Scholar
Bebbington, D., Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (Unwin Hyman, 1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dayton, D. and Johnston, R., eds., The Variety of American Evangelicalism (InterVarsity Press, 1991).Google Scholar
Elwell, W., ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd edn. (Baker Books, 2001).Google Scholar
Larsen, T. and Treier, D., eds., Cambridge Companion to Evangelical Theology (Cambridge University Press, 2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noll, M., The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind (Eerdmans, 1994).Google Scholar
Olson, R., Westminster Handbook to Evangelical Theology (John Knox Press, 2004).Google Scholar
Hefner, P., The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion (Fortress Press, 1993).Google Scholar
Morris, S. C., Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe (Cambridge University Press, 2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Northcott, M. and Berry, R. J., eds., Theology After Darwin (Paternoster Press, 2009).Google Scholar
Ruse, M., Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? (Cambridge University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
Cavanaugh, W. T., Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ (Blackwell, 1998).Google Scholar
Vodola, E., Excommunication in the Middle Ages (University of California Press, 1986).Google Scholar
Yoder, J. H., Body Politics: Five Practices of the Christian Community Before the Watching World (Herald Press, 1994).Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats