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11 - Studying Bilingualism Through Eye-Tracking and Brain Imaging

from Part IV - Neuroscience of Bilingual Lexical Access

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Roberto R. Heredia
Affiliation:
Texas A & M University
Anna B. Cieślicka
Affiliation:
Texas A & M University
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Summary

Language is full of ambiguities, ranging from challenging phonetic contrasts to homophones and homographs. While some ambiguity is inherent in any language, the challenge of resolving linguistic conflicts is even greater for those who speak multiple languages. The question of how bilinguals represent and control their two languages has been addressed using various methodologies ranging from case studies of multilingual aphasics to advanced neuroimaging techniques. In this chapter, we focus on two methods in particular that have contributed to the understanding of bilingual cognition. First, we review evidence from eye-tracking studies demonstrating that bilinguals activate their two languages in parallel. We follow with a discussion of fMRI research investigating whether different languages have shared or separate representations in the brain. Finally, we examine the processes underlying language control and discuss the ways in which different methodologies can contribute to our understanding of bilingual language processing.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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References

Further Reading

Chabal, S., & Marian, V. (2015). In the mind’s eye: Eye-tracking and multi-modal integration during bilingual spoken-language processing. In Mishra, R., Srinivasan, N., & Huettig, F. (Eds.), Attention and vision in language processing (pp. 147164). New Delhi: Springer.
Grundy, J. G., Anderson, J. A. , & Bialystok, E. (2017). Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1396(1), 183201.
Marian, V. (2008). Bilingual research methods. In Altarriba, J. & Heredia, R. R. (Eds.), An introduction to bilingualism: Principles and processes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pliatsikas, C., & Luk, G. (2016). Executive control in bilinguals: A concise review on fMRI studies. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 699705.

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