Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-t89mg Total loading time: 1.349 Render date: 2023-02-04T09:12:29.880Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Part IV - Neuroscience of Bilingual Lexical Access

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2019

Roberto R. Heredia
Affiliation:
Texas A & M University
Anna B. Cieślicka
Affiliation:
Texas A & M University
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Further Reading

Dijkstra, T., Wahl, A., Buytenhuijs, F., van Halem, N., Al-Jibouri, Z., De Korte, M., & Rekké, S. (2019). Multilink: A computational model for bilingual word recognition and word translation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(4), 657–679. doi: 10.1017/S1366728918000287
Hut, S. C., Helenius, P., Leminen, A., Mäkelä, J. P., & Lehtonen, M. (2017). Language control mechanisms differ for native languages: Neuromagnetic evidence from trilingual language switching. Neuropsychologia, 107, 108120.
Kovelman, I., Baker, S. A., & Petitto, L. A. (2008). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 153169.
Lauro, J., & Schwartz, A. I. (2018). Cognate effects on anaphor processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 747769.

References

Abutalebi, J., Annoni, J. M., Zimine, I., Pegna, A. J., Seghier, M. L., Lee-Jahnke, H., … & Khateb, A. (2007). Language control and lexical competition in bilinguals: An event-related fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 14961505.
Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2005). What can functional neuroimaging tell us about the bilingual brain. In Kroll, J. F. & De Groot, A. M. B. (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 497515) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Abutalebi, J., Della Rosa, P. A., Ding, G., Weekes, B., Costa, A., & Green, D. W. (2013). Language proficiency modulates the engagement of cognitive control areas in multilinguals. Cortex, 49, 905911.
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2007). Bilingual language production: The neurocognition of language representation and control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 242275.
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557582.
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2016). Neuroimaging of language control in bilinguals: Neural adaptation and reserve. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 689698.
Bilenko, N. Y., Grindrod, C. M., Myers, E. B., & Blumstein, S. E. (2008). Neural correlates of semantic competition during processing of ambiguous words. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 960975.
Branzi, F. M., Calabria, M., Boscarino, M. L., & Costa, A. (2016). On the overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general executive control. Acta Psychologica, 166, 2130.
Branzi, F. M., Della Rosa, P. A., Canini, M., Costa, A., & Abutalebi, J. (2015). Language control in bilinguals: monitoring and response selection. Cerebral Cortex, 26, 23672380.
Braver, T. S. (2012). The variable nature of cognitive control: A dual mechanisms framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 106113.
Buchweitz, A., Shinkareva, S. V., Mason, R. A., Mitchell, T. M., & Just, M. A. (2012). Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languages. Brain and Language, 120, 282289.
Calabria, M., Costa, A., Green, D. W., & Abutalebi, J. (2018). Neural basis of bilingual language control. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1426, 221235.
Chee, M. W., Soon, C. S., & Lee, H. L. (2003). Common and segregated neuronal networks for different languages revealed using functional magnetic resonance adaptation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 8597.
Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E., Jonasson, J. F., & Besner, D. (1977). Access to the internal lexicon. In Dornic, S. (Eds.), Attention and Performance, Vol. 4 (pp. 535555). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cop, U., Dirix, N., van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2017). Reading a book in one or two languages? An eye movement study of cognate facilitation in L1 and L2 reading. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20, 747769.
Crinion, J., Turner, R., Grogan, A., Hanakawa, T., Noppeney, U., Devlin, J. T., … & Usui, K. (2006). Language control in the bilingual brain. Science, 312, 15371540.
De Groot, A. M., Delmaar, P., & Lupker, S. J. (2000). The processing of interlexical homographs in translation recognition and lexical decision: Support for non-selective access to bilingual memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 397428.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (1998). The BIA model and bilingual word recognition. In Grainger, J. & Jacobs, A. (Eds.), Localist Connectionist Approaches to Human Cognition (pp. 189225). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Dirix, N., Cop, U., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2017). Cross-lingual neighborhood effects in generalized lexical decision and natural reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43, 887915.
Duyck, W., van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2007). Visual word recognition by bilinguals in a sentence context: evidence for nonselective lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 663679.
Gazzaniga, M. S. (Ed.). (2014). Handbook of cognitive neuroscience. Washington, DC: Dana Press.
Green, D. W., & Abutalebi, J. (2013). Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 515530.
Hervais-Adelman, A. G., Moser-Mercer, B., & Golestani, N. (2011). Executive control of language in the bilingual brain: Integrating the evidence from neuroimaging to neuropsychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 234.
Hoenig, K., & Scheef, L. (2009). Neural correlates of semantic ambiguity processing during context verification. NeuroImage, 45, 10091019.
Hosoda, C., Hanakawa, T., Nariai, T., Ohno, K., & Honda, M. (2012). Neural mechanisms of language switch. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 25, 4461.
Hoversten, L. J., & Traxler, M. J. (2016). A time course analysis of interlingual homograph processing: Evidence from eye movements. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 347360.
Hsieh, M. C., Jeong, H., Kawata, K. H. D. S., Sasaki, Y., Lee, H. C., Yokoyama, S., … & Kawashima, R. (2017). Neural correlates of bilingual language control during interlingual homograph processing in a logogram writing system. Brain and Language, 174, 7285.
Ketteler, D., Kastrau, F., Vohn, R., & Huber, W. (2008). The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 39, 20022009.
Klein, D., Zatorre, R. J., Chen, J. K., Milner, B., Crane, J., Belin, P., & Bouffard, M. (2006). Bilingual brain organization: A functional magnetic resonance adaptation study. NeuroImage, 31, 366375.
Klepousniotou, E., Gracco, V. L., & Pike, G. B. (2014). Pathways to lexical ambiguity: fMRI evidence for bilateral fronto-parietal involvement in language processing. Brain and Language, 131, 5664.
Kroll, J. F., Dussias, P. E., Bice, K., & Perrotti, L. (2015). Bilingualism, mind, and brain. Annual Review of Linguistics, 1, 377394.
Kroll, J. F., Gullifer, J., & Zirnstein, M. (2016). Literacy in adulthood: Reading in two languages. In Nicoladis, E., & Montanari, S. (Eds.), Lifespan perspectives on bilingualism (pp. 225245). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Kroll, J. F., & Ma, F. (2018). The bilingual lexicon. In Fernández, E. M. & Cairns, H. S. (Eds.), The handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 294319). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Lauro, J., & Schwartz, A. I. (2017). Bilingual non-selective lexical access in sentence contexts: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 217233.
Lemhöfer, K., Huestegge, L., & Mulder, K. (2018). Another cup of TEE? The processing of second language near-cognates in first language reading. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 33, 124.
Libben, M. R., & Titone, D. A. (2009). Bilingual lexical access in context: evidence from eye movements during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 381390.
Liversedge, S., Gilchrist, I., & Everling, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of eye movements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Luck, S. J. (2014). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Macizo, P., Bajo, T., & Martín, M. C. (2010). Inhibitory processes in bilingual language comprehension: Evidence from Spanish–English interlexical homographs. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 232244.
Mason, R. A., & Just, M. A. (2007). Lexical ambiguity in sentence comprehension. Brain Research, 1146, 115127.
Norman, D. A., & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour. In Davidson, R. J., Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D. (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation (pp. 118). Boston, MA: Springer.
Novick, J. M., Trueswell, J. C., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2005). Cognitive control and parsing: Reexamining the role of Broca’s area in sentence comprehension. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 263281.
Pivneva, I., Mercier, J., & Titone, D. (2014). Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 787796.
Pliatsikas, C., & Luk, G. (2016). Executive control in bilinguals: A concise review on fMRI studies. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 699705.
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372422.
Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 14571506.
Rayner, K., Pacht, J. M., & Duffy, S. A. (1994). Effects of prior encounter and global discourse bias on the processing of lexically ambiguous words: Evidence from eye fixations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 527544.
Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Ashby, J., & Clifton, C.E. (2012). The psychology of reading. New York: Psychology Press.
Rodd, J. M., Davis, M. H., & Johnsrude, I. S. (2005). The neural mechanisms of speech comprehension: fMRI studies of semantic ambiguity. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 12611269.
Rodd, J. M., Longe, O. A., Randall, B., & Tyler, L. K. (2010). The functional organisation of the fronto-temporal language system: Evidence from syntactic and semantic ambiguity. Neuropsychologia, 48, 13241335.
Arêas da Luz Fontes, A. B., & Schwartz, A. I. (2015). Bilingual access of homonym meanings: Individual differences in bilingual access of homonym meanings. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 639656.
Seo, R., Stocco, A., & Prat, C. S. (2018). The bilingual language network: Differential involvement of anterior cingulate, basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in preparation, monitoring, and execution. NeuroImage, 174, 4456.
Thompson-Schill, S. L., D’Esposito, M., Aguirre, G. K., & Farah, M. J. (1997). Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex in retrieval of semantic knowledge: A reevaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 1479214797.
Titone, D., Libben, M., Mercier, J., Whitford, V., & Pivneva, I. (2011). Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1–L2 intermixing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 14121431.
Titone, D., Whitford, V., Lijewska, A., & Itzhak, I. (2016). Bilingualism, executive control, and eye movement measures of reading: A selective review and reanalysis of bilingual vs. multilingual reading data. In Schwieter, J. (Ed.), Cognitive control and consequences in the multilingual mind (pp. 1146). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., Duyck, W., Welvaert, M., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2011). The influence of semantic constraints on bilingual word recognition during sentence reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 88107.
van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2012). Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 174.
van Assche, E., Duyck, W., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Diependaele, K. (2009). Does bilingualism change native-language reading? Cognate effects in a sentence context. Psychological Science, 20, 923927.
van de Putte, E., De Baene, W., Brass, M., & Duyck, W. (2017). Neural overlap of L1 and L2 semantic representations in speech: A decoding approach. NeuroImage, 162, 106116.
Vitello, S., & Rodd, J. M. (2015). Resolving semantic ambiguities in sentences: Cognitive processes and brain mechanisms. Language and Linguistics Compass, 9, 391405.
Wang, Y., Kuhl, P. K., Chen, C., & Dong, Q. (2009). Sustained and transient language control in the bilingual brain. NeuroImage, 47, 414422.
Whitford, V., & Titone, D. (2019). Lexical entrenchment and cross-language activation: Two sides of the same coin for bilingual reading across the adult lifespan. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22, 5877.
Whitford, V., Pivneva, I., & Titone, D. (2016). Eye movement methods to investigate bilingual reading. In Heredia, R. R., Altarriba, J., & Cieślicka, A. B. (Eds.), Methods in bilingual reading comprehension research (pp. 183212). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Zou, L., Ding, G., Abutalebi, J., Shu, H., & Peng, D. (2012). Structural plasticity of the left caudate in bimodal bilinguals. Cortex, 48, 11971206.

Further Reading

Jessen, A., & Felser, C. (2018). Reanalysing object gaps during non-native sentence processing: Evidence from ERPs. Second Language Research, 35(2), 285300.
Osterhout, L., McLaughlin, J., Kim, A., Greenwald, R., & Inoue, K. (2004). Sentences in the brain: Event-related potentials as real-time reflections of sentence comprehension and language learning. In Carreiras, M. & Clifton, C. Jr. (Eds.), The on-line study of sentence comprehension: Eyetracking, ERP, and beyond (pp. 271308). New York: Psychology Press.
Peeters, D., Vanlangendonck, F., Rueschemeyer, S.-A., & Dijkstra, T. (2019). Activation of the language control network in bilingual visual word recognition. Cortex, 111, 6373.
van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2012). Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 174.
van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2016). Context effects in bilingual sentence processing: Task specificity. In Heredia, R. R., Altarriba, J., & Cieślicka, A. B. (Eds.), Methods in bilingual reading comprehension research (pp. 1131). New York: Springer.

References

Ardal, S., Donald, M. W., Meuter, R., Muldrew, S., & Luce, M. (1990). Brain responses to semantic incongruity in bilinguals. Brain and Language, 39(2), 187205.
Arzouan, Y., Goldstein, A., & Faust, M. (2007). Brainwaves are stethoscopes: ERP correlates of novel metaphor comprehension. Brain Research, 1160, 6981.
Bambini, V., Bertini, C., Schaeken, W., Stella, A., & Di Russo, F. (2016). Disentangling metaphor from context: An ERP study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 559.
Bambini, V., Canal, P., Resta, D., & Grimaldi, M. (2019). Time course and neurophysiological underpinnings of metaphor in literary context. Discourse Processes, 56(1), 7797.
Bastiaansen, M. C., & Hagoort, P. (2006). Oscillatory neuronal dynamics during language comprehension. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 179196.
Bastiaansen, M. C., Linden, M. V. D., Keurs, M. T., Dijkstra, T., & Hagoort, P. (2005). Theta responses are involved in lexical: Semantic retrieval during language processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(3), 530541.
Bastiaansen, M. C., Oostenveld, R., Jensen, O., & Hagoort, P. (2008). I see what you mean: Theta power increases are involved in the retrieval of lexical semantic information. Brain and Language, 106(1), 1528.
Bastiaansen, M. C., van Berkum, J. J., & Hagoort, P. (2002). Event-related theta power increases in the human EEG during online sentence processing. Neuroscience Letters, 323(1), 1316.
Bentin, S., McCarthy, G., & Wood, C. C. (1985). Event-related potentials, lexical decision and semantic priming. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 60(4), 343355. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(85)90008-2
Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2008). An alternative perspective on “semantic P600” effects in language comprehension. Brain Research Reviews, 59(1), 5573.
Braunstein, V., Ischebeck, A., Brunner, C., Grabner, R. H., Stamenov, M., & Neuper, C. (2012). Investigating the influence of proficiency on semantic processing in bilinguals: An ERP and ERD/S analysis. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 72(4), 421438.
Chen, H., Peng, X., & Zhao, Y. (2013). An ERP study on metaphor comprehension in the bilingual brain. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 36(4), 505517. https://doi.org/10.1515/cjal-2013-0034
Coulson, S., & van Petten, C. (2002). Conceptual integration and metaphor: An event-related potential study. Memory and Cognition, 30(6), 958968.
Davidson, D. J., & Indefrey, P. (2007). An inverse relation between event-related and time–frequency violation responses in sentence processing. Brain Research, 1158, 8192.
De Bruijn, E. R., Dijkstra, T., Chwilla, D. J., & Schriefers, H. J. (2001). Language context effects on interlingual homograph recognition: evidence from event-related potentials and response times in semantic priming. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(2), 155168.
Dijkstra, T., van Hell, J. G., & Brenders, P. (2015). Sentence context effects in bilingual word recognition: Cognate status, sentence language, and semantic constraint. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(4), 597613.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(3), 175197.
Duñabeitia, J. A., Dimitropoulou, M., Dowens, M. G., Molinaro, N., & Martin, C. (2016). The electrophysiology of the bilingual brain. In Heredia, R. R., Altarriba, J., & Cieślicka, A. B. (Eds.), Methods in Bilingual Reading Comprehension Research (pp. 265312). New York: Springer.
Elston-Güttler, K. E., Gunter, T. C., & Kotz, S. A. (2005). Zooming into L2: Global language context and adjustment affect processing of interlingual homographs in sentences. Cognitive Brain Research, 25(1), 5770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.04.007
Elston-Güttler, K. E., Paulmann, S., & Kotz, S. A. (2005). Who’s in control? Proficiency and L1 influence on L2 processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(10), 15931610.
Fabbro, F. (2001). The bilingual brain: Cerebral representation of languages. Brain and Language, 79(2), 211222.
Foucart, A., Martin, C. D., Moreno, E. M., & Costa, A. (2014). Can bilinguals see it coming? Word anticipation in L2 sentence reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(5), 14611469. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036756
Friederici, A. D., & Mecklinger, A. (1996). Syntactic parsing as revealed by brain responses: First-pass and second-pass parsing processes. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 25(1), 157176.
Goldstein, A., Arzouan, Y., & Faust, M. (2012). Killing a novel metaphor and reviving a dead one: ERP correlates of metaphor conventionalization. Brain and Language, 123(2), 137142.
Hagoort, P., Brown, C., & Groothusen, J. (1993). The syntactic positive shift (SPS) as an ERP measure of syntactic processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8(4), 439483. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969308407585
Hahne, A. (2001). What’s different in second-language processing? Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(3), 251266.
Hahne, A., & Friederici, A. D. (2001). Processing a second language: Late learners’ comprehension mechanisms as revealed by event-related brain potentials. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(2), 123141. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728901000232
Hald, L. A., Bastiaansen, M. C., & Hagoort, P. (2006). EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing. Brain and Language, 96(1), 90105.
Hald, L. A., Steenbeek-Planting, E. G., & Hagoort, P. (2007). The interaction of discourse context and world knowledge in online sentence comprehension. Evidence from the N400. Brain Research, 1146, 210218.
Jankowiak, K., & Rataj, K. (2017). The N400 as a window into lexico-semantic processing in bilingualism. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 53(1), 119156.
Jankowiak, K., Rataj, K., & Naskręcki, R. (2017). To electrify bilingualism: Electrophysiological insights into bilingual metaphor comprehension. PLoS ONE, 12(4), e0175578.
Jouravlev, O., & Jared, D. (2014). Reading Russian–English homographs in sentence contexts: Evidence from ERPs. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(1), 153168.
Kaan, E., Harris, A., Gibson, E., & Holcomb, P. (2000). The P600 as an index of syntactic integration difficulty. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15(2), 159201.
Kerkhofs, R., Dijkstra, T., Chwilla, D. J., & De Bruijn, E. R. (2006). Testing a model for bilingual semantic priming with interlingual homographs: RT and N400 effects. Brain Research, 1068(1), 170183.
Khachatryan, E., Camarrone, F., Fias, W., & van Hulle, M. M. (2016). ERP response unveils effect of second language manipulation on first language processing. PLoS ONE, 11(11), e0167194.
Kielar, A., Meltzer, J. A., Moreno, S., Alain, C., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Oscillatory responses to semantic and syntactic violations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(12), 28402862. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00670
Klimesch, W. (1999). EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: A review and analysis. Brain Research Reviews, 29(23), 169195.
Kutas, M., & Federmeier, K. D. (2011). Thirty years and counting: Finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 621647. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.131123
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. A. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207(4427), 203205.
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. A. (1984). Brain potentials during reading reflect word expectancy and semantic association. Nature, 307, 161. https://doi.org/10.1038/307161a0
Kutas, M., & Kluender, R. (1994). What is who violating? A reconsideration of linguistic violations in light of event-related brain potentials. In Heinze, H.-J., Münte, T. F., & Mangun, G. R. (Eds.), Cognitive electrophysiology (pp. 183210). New York: Springer.
Martin, C. D., Thierry, G., Kuipers, J. R., Boutonnet, B., Foucart, A., & Costa, A. (2013). Bilinguals reading in their second language do not predict upcoming words as native readers do. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4), 574588.
Moreno, E. M., & Kutas, M. (2005). Processing semantic anomalies in two languages: An electrophysiological exploration in both languages of Spanish–English bilinguals. Cognitive Brain Research, 22(2), 205220.
Moreno, E. M., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Laine, M. (2008). Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study of bilingual language processing. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21(6), 477508.
Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Wodniecka, Z., & Alain, C. (2010). Conflict resolution in sentence processing by bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 23(6), 564579.
Osterhout, L., Holcomb, P. J., & Swinney, D. A. (1994). Brain potentials elicited by garden-path sentences: Evidence of the application of verb information during parsing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(4), 786803. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.20.4.786
Perani, D., & Abutalebi, J. (2005). The neural basis of first and second language processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(2), 202206.
Proverbio, A. M., Čok, B., & Zani, A. (2002). Electrophysiological measures of language processing in bilinguals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(7), 9941017.
Rataj, K., Przekoracka-Krawczyk, A., & van der Lubbe, R. H. (2018). On understanding creative language: The late positive complex and novel metaphor comprehension. Brain Research, 1678, 231244.
Rueckl, J. G., Paz-Alonso, P. M., Molfese, P. J., Kuo, W.-J., Bick, A., Frost, S. J., … & Duñabeitia, J. A. (2015). Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(50), 1551015515.
Schwartz, A. I., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). Bilingual lexical activation in sentence context. Journal of Memory and Language, 55(2), 197212.
Steinhauer, K., Drury, J. E., Portner, P., Walenski, M., & Ullman, M. T. (2010). Syntax, concepts, and logic in the temporal dynamics of language comprehension: Evidence from event-related potentials. Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 15251542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.01.013
van Herten, M., Kolk, H. H., & Chwilla, D. J. (2005). An ERP study of P600 effects elicited by semantic anomalies. Cognitive Brain Research, 22(2), 241255.
van Heuven, W. J. B., & Dijkstra, T. (2010). Language comprehension in the bilingual brain: fMRI and ERP support for psycholinguistic models. Brain Research Reviews, 64(1), 104122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.03.002
Weber-Fox, C. M., & Neville, H. J. (1996). Maturational constraints on functional specializations for language processing: ERP and behavioral evidence in bilingual speakers. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8(3), 231256.
Wu, Y. J., & Thierry, G. (2010). Investigating bilingual processing: the neglected role of language processing contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 178.

Further Reading

Chabal, S., & Marian, V. (2015). In the mind’s eye: Eye-tracking and multi-modal integration during bilingual spoken-language processing. In Mishra, R., Srinivasan, N., & Huettig, F. (Eds.), Attention and vision in language processing (pp. 147164). New Delhi: Springer.
Grundy, J. G., Anderson, J. A. , & Bialystok, E. (2017). Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1396(1), 183201.
Marian, V. (2008). Bilingual research methods. In Altarriba, J. & Heredia, R. R. (Eds.), An introduction to bilingualism: Principles and processes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pliatsikas, C., & Luk, G. (2016). Executive control in bilinguals: A concise review on fMRI studies. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 699705.

References

Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23(4), 557582.
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2016). Neuroimaging of language control in bilinguals: neural adaptation and reserve. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 689698.
Abutalebi, J., Brambati, S. M., Annoni, J. M., Moro, A., Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2007). The neural cost of the auditory perception of language switches: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in bilinguals. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(50), 1376213769.
Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2001). The bilingual brain as revealed by functional neuroimaging. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition,4(2), 179190.
Abutalebi, J., Della Rosa, P. A., Ding, G., Weekes, B., Costa, A., & Green, D. W. (2013). Language proficiency modulates the engagement of cognitive control areas in multilinguals. Cortex, 49(3), 905911.
Abutalebi, J., Miozzo, A., & Cappa, S. F. (2000). Do subcortical structures control “language selection” in polyglots? Evidence from pathological language mixing. Neurocase, 6(1), 5156.
Archila-Suerte, P., Zevin, J., & Hernandez, A. E. (2015). The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds. Brain and Language, 141, 3549.
Badre, D., Poldrack, R. A., Paré-Blagoev, E. J., Insler, R. Z., & Wagner, A. D.(2005). Dissociable controlled retrieval and generalized selection mechanisms in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuron, 47(6), 907918.
Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(1), 311.
Blumenfeld, H. K., & Marian, V. (2007). Constraints on parallel activation in bilingual spoken language processing: Examining proficiency and lexical status using eye-tracking. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22(5), 633660.
Blumenfeld, H. K., & Marian, V. (2011). Bilingualism influences inhibitory control in auditory comprehension. Cognition, 118, 245257.
Blumenfeld, H. K., & Marian, V. (2013). Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 547567.
Branzi, F. M., Calabria, M., Boscarino, M. L., & Costa, A. (2016). On the overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general executive control. Acta Psychologica, 166, 2130.
Briellmann, R. S., Saling, M. M., Connell, A. B., Waites, A. B., Abbott, D. F., & Jackson, G. D. (2004). A high-field functional MRI study of quadri-lingual subjects. Brain and Language, 89(3), 531542.
Buchweitz, A., Shinkareva, S. V., Mason, R. A., Mitchell, T. M., & Just, M. A.(2012). Identifying bilingual semantic neural representations across languages. Brain and Language, 120(3), 282289.
Callan, D. E., Jones, J. A., Callan, A. M., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2004). Phonetic perceptual identification by native-and second-language speakers differentially activates brain regions involved with acoustic phonetic processing and those involved with articulatory–auditory/orosensory internal models. NeuroImage, 22(3), 11821194.
Carrasco‐Ortiz, H., Midgley, K. J., & Frenck‐Mestre, C.(2012). Are phonological representations in bilinguals language specific? An ERP study on interlingual homophones. Psychophysiology, 49(4), 531543.
Chee, M. W. L., Caplan, D., Soon, C. S., Sriram, N., Tan, E. W. L., Thiel, T., Weekes, B.(1999 ). Processing of visually presented sentences in Mandarin and English studied with fMRI. Neuron, 23, 127137.
Chee, M. W. L., Hon, N., Lee, H. L., Soon, C.S.(2001). Relative language proficiency modulates BOLD signal change when bilinguals perform semantic judgments. NeuroImage, 13, 11551163.
Chee, M. W., Soon, C. S., & Lee, H. L. (2003). Common and segregated neuronal networks for different languages revealed using functional magnetic resonance adaptation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(1), 8597.
Chee, M. W., Tan, E. W., & Thiel, T.(1999). Mandarin and English single word processing studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuroscience, 19(8), 30503056.
Chee, M. W. L., Weekes, B., Lee, K. M., Soon, C. S., Schreiber, A., Hoon, J. J., Chee, M.(2000). Overlap and dissociation of semantic processing of Chinese characters, English words, and pictures: Evidence from fMRI. NeuroImage, 12, 392403.
Christoffels, I. K., de Groot, A. M., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency. Journal of Memory and Language, 54(3), 324345.
Consonni, M., Cafiero, R., Marin, D., Tettamanti, M., Iadanza, A., Fabbro, F., & Perani, D.(2013). Neural convergence for language comprehension and grammatical class production in highly proficient bilinguals is independent of age of acquisition. Cortex, 49(5), 12521258.
Costa, A., Caramazza, A., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2000). The cognate facilitation effect: implications for models of lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(5), 1283.
Crinion, J., Turner, R., Grogan, A., Hanakawa, T., Noppeney, U., Devlin, J. T., Aso, T., Urayama, S., Fukuyama, H., Stockton, K., Usui, K., Green, D. W., & Price, C. J. (2006). Language control in the bilingual brain. Science, 312(5779), 15371540.
Cutler, A., Weber, A., & Otake, T. (2006). Asymmetric mapping from phonetic to lexical representations in second-language listening. Journal of Phonetics, 34(2), 269284.
Davis, T., & Poldrack, R. A. (2013). Measuring neural representations with fMRI: practices and pitfalls. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1296(1), 108134.
de Bruin, A., Roelofs, A., Dijkstra, T., & FitzPatrick, I. (2014). Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: FMRI evidence from trilingual speakers. NeuroImage, 90, 348359.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(3), 175197.
Dijkstra, T., van Hell, J. G., & Brenders, P. (2015). Sentence context effects in bilingual word recognition: Cognate status, sentence language, and semantic constraint. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(4), 597613.
Dussias, P. E., & Sagarra, N. (2007). The effect of exposure on syntactic parsing in Spanish–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(1), 101116.
Duyck, W., van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2007). Visual word recognition by bilinguals in a sentence context: evidence for nonselective lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(4), 663679.
Fabbro, F. (2001). The bilingual brain: Cerebral representation of languages. Brain and Language, 79(2), 211222.
Frenck-Mestre, C., Anton, J. L., Roth, M., Vaid, J., & Viallet, F. (2005). Articulation in early and late bilinguals’ two languages: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport, 16(7), 761765.
Gandour, J., Tong, Y., Talavage, T., Wong, D., Dzemidzic, M., Xu, Y., Li, X., & Lowe, M.(2007). Neural basis of first and second language processing of sentence‐level linguistic prosody. Human Brain Mapping, 28(2), 94108.
Giezen, M. R., Blumenfeld, H. K., Shook, A., Marian, V., & Emmorey, K.(2015). Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals. Cognition, 141, 925.
Gold, B. T., & Buckner, R. L.(2002). Common prefrontal regions coactivate with dissociable posterior regions during controlled semantic and phonological tasks. Neuron, 35(4), 803812.
Golestani, N.(2016). Neuroimaging of phonetic perception in bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(4), 674682.
Golestani, N., Alario, F. X., Meriaux, S., Le Bihan, D., Dehaene, S., & Pallier, C.(2006). Syntax production in bilinguals. Neuropsychologia, 44(7), 10291040.
Golestani, N., & Zatorre, R. J.(2004). Learning new sounds of speech: reallocation of neural substrates. NeuroImage, 21(2), 494506.
Green, D. W.(1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1(2), 6781.
Green, D. W.(2005). The neurocognition of recovery patterns in bilingual aphasics. In Kroll, J. F. & de Groot, A. M. B. (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 516530). New York: Oxford University Press.
Hasegawa, M., Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A.(2002). An fMRI study of bilingual sentence comprehension and workload. NeuroImage, 15(3), 647660.
Hernandez, A. E.(2009). Language switching in the bilingual brain: What’s next?. Brain and Language, 109(23), 133140.
Hernandez, A. E., & Meschyan, G.(2006). Executive function is necessary to enhance lexical processing in a less proficient L2: Evidence from fMRI during picture naming. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9(2), 177188.
Hernandez, A. E., Dapretto, M., Mazziotta, J., & Bookheimer, S.(2001). Language switching and language representation in Spanish–English bilinguals: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 14(2), 510520.
Hopp, H.(2017a). The processing of English which-questions in adult L2 learners: Effects of L1 transfer and proficiency. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 36(1), 107134.
Hopp, H.(2017b). Cross-linguistic lexical and syntactic co-activation in L2 sentence processing. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(1), 96130.
Hoshino, N., & Thierry, G.(2011). Language selection in bilingual word production: electrophysiological evidence for cross-language competition. Brain Research, 1371, 100109.
Huettig, F., Rommers, J., & Meyer, A. S.(2011). Using the visual world paradigm to study language processing: A review and critical evaluation. Acta Psychologica, 137, 151171.
Ip, K. I., Hsu, L. S. J., Arredondo, M. M., Tardif, T., & Kovelman, I.(2017). Brain bases of morphological processing in Chinese‐English bilingual children. Developmental Science, 20(5), e12449.
Jeong, H., Sugiura, M., Sassa, Y., Yokoyama, S., Horie, K., Sato, S., Taira, M., & Kawashima, R.(2007). Cross-linguistic influence on brain activation during second language processing: An fMRI study. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(2), 175187.
Johnson, L., Yi, Y., Mickelsen, S., Fitzhugh, M. C., Baxter, L. C., Howard, P., & Rogalsky, C.(2018). Functional neuroanatomy of second language sentence comprehension: An fMRI study of late learners of American Sign Language. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1626.
Ju, M., & Luce, P. A.(2004). Falling on sensitive ears: Constraints on bilingual lexical activation. Psychological Science, 15(5), 314318.
Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Aryal, S., & Mitchell, T. M.(2010). A neurosemantic theory of concrete noun representation based on the underlying brain codes. PloS ONE, 5(1), e8622.
Kerns, J. G., Cohen, J. D., MacDonald, A. W., Cho, R. Y., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S.(2004). Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. Science, 303(5660), 10231026.
Kim, K. H., Relkin, N. R., Lee, K. M., & Hirsch, J.(1997). Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature, 388(6638), 171174.
Klein, D., Zatorre, R. J., Chen, J. K., Milner, B., Crane, J., Belin, P., & Bouffard, M.(2006). Bilingual brain organization: A functional magnetic resonance adaptation study. NeuroImage, 31(1), 366375.
Kotz, S. A.(2009). A critical review of ERP and fMRI evidence on L2 syntactic processing. Brain and Language, 109(23), 6874.
Kovelman, I., Baker, S. A., & Petitto, L. A.(2008). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), 153169.
Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E.(1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33(2), 149174.
Lagrou, E., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Duyck, W.(2013). Interlingual lexical competition in a spoken sentence context: Evidence from the visual world paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 20(5), 963972.
Lemhöfer, K., Huestegge, L., & Mulder, K.(2018). Another cup of TEE? The processing of second language near-cognates in first language reading. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 33(8), 968991.
Libben, M. R., & Titone, D. A.(2009). Bilingual lexical access in context: Evidence from eye movements during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(2), 381390.
Liu, H., Hu, Z., Guo, T., & Peng, D.(2010). Speaking words in two languages with one brain: Neural overlap and dissociation. Brain Research, 1316, 7582.
Macnamara, J., & Kushnir, S. L.(1971). Linguistic independence of bilinguals: The input switch. Journal of Memory and Language, 10(5), 480487.
Marian, V., & Spivey, M.(2003a). Competing activation in bilingual language processing: Within-and between-language competition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6(2), 97115.
Marian, V., & Spivey, M.(2003b). Bilingual and monolingual processing of competing lexical items. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(2), 173193.
Marian, V., Bartolotti, J., Rochanavibhata, S., Bradley, K., & Hernandez, A. E.(2017). Bilingual cortical control of between- and within-language competition. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 11763.
Marian, V., Chabal, S., Bartolotti, J., Bradley, K., & Hernandez, A. E.(2014). Differential recruitment of executive control regions during phonological competition in monolinguals and bilinguals. Brain and Language, 139, 108117.
Marian, V., Shildkrot, Y., Blumenfeld, H., Kaushanskaya, M., Faroqi-Shah, Y., & Hirsch, J.(2007). Cortical activation during word processing in late bilinguals: Similarities and differences as revealed by fMRI. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(3), 247265.
Marian, V., Spivey, M., & Hirsch, J.(2003). Shared and separate systems in bilingual language processing: Converging evidence from eyetracking and brain imaging. Brain and Language, 86(1), 7082.
Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O’ Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Price, C. J.(2004). Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757.
Mercier, J., Pivneva, I., & Titone, D.(2014). Individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(1), 89117.
Meschyan, G., & Hernandez, A. E.(2006). Impact of language proficiency and orthographic transparency on bilingual word reading: An fMRI investigation. NeuroImage, 29(4), 11351140.
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D.(2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24(1), 167202.
Mishra, R. K., & Singh, N.(2014). Language non-selective activation of orthography during spoken word processing in Hindi–English sequential bilinguals: An eye tracking visual world study. Reading and Writing, 27(1), 129151.
Mohades, S. G., Struys, E., van Schuerbeek, P., Mondt, K., van De Craen, P., & Luypaert, R.(2012). DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children. Brain Research, 1435, 7280.
Momenian, M., Nilipour, R., Samar, R. G., Cappa, S. F., & Golestani, N.(2018). Morpho-syntactic complexity modulates brain activation in Persian-English bilinguals: An fMRI study. Brain and Language, 185, 918.
Morales, L., Paolieri, D., Dussias, P. E., Kroff, J. R. V., Gerfen, C., & Bajo, M. T.(2016). The gender congruency effect during bilingual spoken-word recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(2), 294310.
Ojemann, G. A., & Whitaker, H. A.(1978). The bilingual brain. Archives of Neurology, 35(7), 409412.
Paradis, M., Goldblum, M. C., & Abidi, R.(1982). Alternate antagonism with paradoxical translation behavior in two bilingual aphasic patients. Brain and Language, 15(1), 5569.
Pasupathy, A., & Miller, E. K.(2005). Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Nature, 433(7028), 873876.
Perani, D., Abutalebi, J., Paulesu, E., Brambati, S., Scifo, P., Cappa, S. F., & Fazio, F.(2003). The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high‐proficient bilinguals: An fMRI study during verbal fluency. Human Brain Mapping, 19(3), 170182.
Pivneva, I., Mercier, J., & Titone, D.(2014). Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(3), 787796.
Rapport, R. L., Tan, C. T., & Whitaker, H. A.(1983). Language function and dysfunction among Chinese-and English-speaking polyglots: Cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and clinical studies. Brain and Language, 18(2), 342366.
Rüschemeyer, S. A., Fiebach, C. J., Kempe, V., & Friederici, A. D.(2005). Processing lexical semantic and syntactic information in first and second language: fMRI evidence from German and Russian. Human Brain Mapping, 25(2), 266286.
Seo, R., Stocco, A., & Prat, C. S.(2018). The bilingual language network: Differential involvement of anterior cingulate, basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in preparation, monitoring, and execution. NeuroImage, 174, 4456.
Shook, A., & Marian, V.(2012). Bimodal bilinguals coactivate both languages during spoken comprehension. Cognition, 124, 314324.
Shook, A., & Marian, V.(2013). The Bilingual Language Interaction Network for Comprehension of Speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 304324.
Shook, A., & Marian, V.(2016). The influence of native-language tones on lexical access in the second language. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(6), 31023109.
Shook, A., & Marian, V.(2017). Covert co-activation of bilinguals’ non-target language: Phonological competition from translations. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 9(2), 228252.
Spivey, M. J., & Marian, V.(1999). Cross talk between native and second languages: Partial activation of an irrelevant lexicon. Psychological Science, 10(3), 281284.
Stocco, A., Lebiere, C., & Anderson, J. R.(2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia’s role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541574.
Tanenhaus, M. K., & Spivey-Knowlton, M. J.(1996). Eye-tracking. Language and Cognitive Processes, 11(6), 583588.
Tham, W. W., Liow, S. J. R., Rajapakse, J. C., Leong, T. C., Ng, S. E., Lim, W. E., & Ho, L. G.(2005). Phonological processing in Chinese–English bilingual biscriptals: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 28(3), 579587.
Titone, D., Libben, M., Mercier, J., Whitford, V., & Pivneva, I.(2011). Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1–L2 intermixing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(6), 14121431.
Ullman, M. T.(2001). The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(1), 3769.
Ullsperger, M., & Von Cramon, D. Y.(2001). Subprocesses of performance monitoring: A dissociation of error processing and response competition revealed by event-related fMRI and ERPs. NeuroImage, 14(6), 13871401.
van de Putte, E., De Baene, W., Brass, M., & Duyck, W.(2017). Neural overlap of L1 and L2 semantic representations in speech: A decoding approach. NeuroImage, 162, 106116.
van Heuven, W. J., & Dijkstra, T.(2010). Language comprehension in the bilingual brain: fMRI and ERP support for psycholinguistic models. Brain Research Reviews, 64(1), 104122.
van Heuven, W. J., Schriefers, H., Dijkstra, T., & Hagoort, P.(2008). Language conflict in the bilingual brain. Cerebral Cortex, 18(11), 27062716.
Wang, Y., Xue, G., Chen, C., Xue, F., & Dong, Q.(2007). Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study. NeuroImage, 35(2), 862870.
Wartenburger, I., Heekeren, H. R., Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S. F., Villringer, A., & Perani, D.(2003). Early setting of grammatical processing in the bilingual brain. Neuron, 37(1), 159170.
Weber, A., & Cutler, A.(2004). Lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 125.
Weber, A., & Paris, G.(2004). The origin of the linguistic gender effect in spoken-word recognition: Evidence from non-native listening. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 26(26), 14461451.
Weinreich, U.(1953). Languages in contact: Findings and problems. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York.
Williams, J. T., Darcy, I., & Newman, S. D.(2018). Neural substrates of sign language vocabulary processing in less-skilled hearing M2L2 signers: Evidence for difficult phonological movement perception. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(3), 550562.
Xu, M., Baldauf, D., Chang, C. Q., Desimone, R., & Tan, L. H.(2017). Distinct distributed patterns of neural activity are associated with two languages in the bilingual brain. Science Advances, 3(7), e1603309.
Zinszer, B., Anderson, A. J., Kang, O., Wheatley, T., & Raizada, R. D.(2015). You say potato, I say tŭdòu: How speakers of different languages share the same concept. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 28292834.