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Property law is increasingly confronted with limits and modifications arising from environmental and social contexts. The objective of this chapter is to highlight how property law can provide answers to environmental challenges, by adapting several of its fundamental concepts to the polymorphism of environmental and social issues. Starting with a study of the theoretical movement of Earth jurisprudence, the chapter suggests that it is possible to consider Nature as a subject of legal interests, allowing it to acquire legal standing. It also suggests that it is necessary to reconceptualise property and its narrative to develop, in both civil and common law, a more limited, relational and functional conception of property. In addition, the polymorphic heritage of property law makes it possible to call upon the civilian concept of patrimony, in its symbolic or technical function, to protect the environment.
Online marketplaces have permeated many aspects of our lives, as we use them to procure goods and services of all sorts, and many have relied on them during the COVID-19 lockdowns. Both sides of the market must feel comfortable trusting each other for online marketplaces to thrive, and for that, they need to have safeguards that alleviate the problems caused by asymmetric information. In this chapter I explain how feedback and reputation systems work in practice, and how they support ecommerce in online marketplaces. It starts by covering the theory behind reputation mechanisms and how they support more efficient trade, followed by descriptions of the actual working of typical online feedback and reputation systems. A survey of empirical findings from a host of papers is presented that explore how reputation works in actual online marketplaces, and how these relate to the theory. I then highlight some of the shortcomings of feedback systems and offer some suggestions and considerations for the future design of feedback and reputation systems that can augment their effectiveness.
Political intelligence was vital to the Company’s subsidiary alliance system; to enforce it, Residents needed to be able to identify when its conditions were being breached. Yet, the Residents’ papers indicate that the problem was not so much collecting intelligence as determining how to use it. Fraud, or the possibility of fraud, was an important consideration; Residents devised elaborate strategies for identifying forgeries as well as for managing the composition and transmission of letters at court. News passed by word of mouth proved even more ungovernable. Residents were prone to distrust rumour, viewing it as either idle gossip or as insidious disinformation propagated by enemies. Still, they sometimes had no choice but to engage with rumour, particularly when allegations of Company brutality circulated in the streets. Mistrust might have been a common feature at royal capitals, but it also permeated the Residents’ relationship with his superiors in the Company. Residents sometimes misrepresented their activities as a means of shoring up their authority, but they also relied on keeping lines of communication open; frequently, it was Calcutta that remained frustratingly silent. In sum, though gathering and disseminating intelligence was one of the Residencies’ primary functions, fulfilling this responsibility was never simple.
The present study examines whether self-reported trust in humans and self-reported trust in [(different) products with built-in] artificial intelligence (AI) are associated with one another and with brain structure. We sampled 90 healthy participants who provided self-reported trust in humans and AI and underwent brain structural magnetic resonance imaging assessment. We found that trust in humans, as measured by the trust facet of the personality inventory NEO-PI-R, and trust in AI products, as measured by items assessing attitudes toward AI and by a composite score based on items assessing trust toward products with in-built AI, were not significantly correlated. We also used a concomitant dimensional neuroimaging approach employing a data-driven source-based morphometry (SBM) analysis of gray-matter-density to investigate neurostructural associations with each trust domain. We found that trust in humans was negatively (and significantly) correlated with an SBM component encompassing striato-thalamic and prefrontal regions. We did not observe significant brain structural association with trust in AI. The present findings provide evidence that trust in humans and trust in AI seem to be dissociable constructs. While the personal disposition to trust in humans might be “hardwired” to the brain’s neurostructural architecture (at least from an individual differences perspective), a corresponding significant link for the disposition to trust AI was not observed. These findings represent an initial step toward elucidating how different forms of trust might be processed on the behavioral and brain level.
Why are prominent news media retractions so rare? Using data from a survey experiment in which respondents view simulated Twitter newsfeeds, we demonstrate the dilemma facing news organizations that have published false information. Encouragingly, media retractions are effective at informing the public – they increase the accuracy of news consumers’ beliefs about the retracted reporting more than information from third parties questioning the original reporting or even the combination of the two. However, trust in the news outlet declines after a retraction, though this effect is small both substantively and in standardized terms relative to the increase in belief accuracy. This reputational damage persists even if the outlet issues a retraction before a third party questions the story. In a social media environment that frequently subjects reporting to intense scrutiny, the journalistic mission of news organizations to inform the public will increasingly conflict with organizational incentives to avoid admitting error.
Government conservation measures will always depend on public support. While more has been learnt about which species the public values and which conservation measures are socially acceptable, less is known about the criteria that the public thinks government should consider when making conservation investment decisions. This study uses a stated preference best–worst scaling method to gauge the views of a sample of the Australian public on what they think government should consider when allocating funding to threatened species conservation. We found that the three most important factors were the risk that a species might become extinct, the likelihood that a conservation intervention might be effective and the risk of unintended consequences for other species that could potentially arise if the measure was implemented. Costs of conservation measures and the degree to which the society accepts these costs were considered much less important. The latter aspect was consistent with the high level of trust that respondents placed in the judgement of experts and scientists concerning threatened species conservation. We conclude that the Australian Government has a societal mandate to spend more money on threatened species conservation, provided that there is little risk and that it is backed up by science.
The willingness to trust others does not just happen. We are taught to trust by those who have lived before us and by observing whether it is safe to do so. We are also schooled in the benefits of trustworthiness. The level of trust existing in a society influences the way life is organized. These concerns raise certain questions that we hope to answer in this chapter. For example, how do we learn to trust each other? Once a convention of trust is created, how is it passed on from generation to generation? Does intergenerational communication increase or decrease trust? Does it increase or decrease trustworthiness? Is trust profitable? What is the causal relationship between trust and trustworthiness? In this chapter we use an intergenerational version of the well-known trust game (Berg, Dickhaut, and McCabe, 1995) to help us answer these questions about how trust is developed and communicated to others. We find that advice seems to decrease the amount of trust that evolves when this game is played in an intergenerational manner in that it decreases the amount of money sent from senders to receivers. Ironically, advice increases trustworthiness in that receivers tend to send more back. However, in no case, on average, does it pay to send any money. We explain this contradiction by examining the asymmetrical impact that advice has when serving as an anchor from which sending and returning behavior is adjusted. Further, we have discovered that subjects appear to follow conventions of reciprocity in that they tend to send more if they think the receivers acted in a “kind” manner, where “kind” means the sender sent more money than the receiver expected. Finally, while we find a causal relationship between trustworthiness and trust, the opposite cannot be established. We note that many of our results can only be achieved using the tools offered by intergenerational games. The intergenerational advice offered provides information not available when games are played in their static form. Combining that information with elicited beliefs of the senders and receivers adds even more information that can be used to investigate the motives that subjects have for doing what they do.
In this chapter, we begin by examining the importance of trust in partnership work. We will then discuss the final premise of the TWINE Model of Partnership - to adapt. Through this premise, we will explore concepts such as participatory action, mapping out timelines, funding and resourcing a partnership. We will also examine some of the common challenges that might be faced in partnership work and discuss the ways these challenges might be overcome in practice.
With the principle of mutual recognition, the EU facilitates effective and efficient law enforcement cooperation among its Member States. Foreign judicial decisions are treated like domestic decisions, while differences in the national criminal justice systems are maintained. Prolonged examinations are no longer necessary and “safe havens” for criminals are closed. The basis of this cooperation, however, is mutual trust in the rule of law. The author uses, inter alia, the current example of Encrochat to show concrete possibilities for application. There, the French criminal authorities achieved a considerable cross-border investigative success by decrypting crypto-mobile devices of that company, which were frequently used by criminals. Through the recognition and execution of European Investigation Orders in France, those findings could also be used in other Member States and considerable prosecution successes achieved. However, the scope and variety of such measures can lead to problems: Only corresponding measures can be recognised. Violations of the Charter of Fundamental Rights EU must not be enforced. Inhumane treatment of detainees may prevent the enforcement of a European Arrest Warrant in individual cases. The loss of trust in the rule of law in some Member States, the EUs reaction to this danger and the control function of CJEU decisions are currently determining legal policy.
In the 21st century, it doesnt necessarily take much to start a business – you can set up on your own, with just an idea and a website or social media account. However, as most aspects of business today are highly regulated, either at the state or federal level, advice as to which business structure is most appropriate for a new or existing business venture will be fundamental to its success or failure. This chapter examines potential business structures in relation to a number of key factors and provides examples for you to consider the impact of each business structure in practice. In this chapter, seven business structures will be examined in detail: sole trader, partnership, joint venture, franchise, trust, unincorporated association and incorporated association. The chapter will also briefly introduce the corporation, which is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 14.
After the return to the defense, Simmias and Cebes raise objections to Socrates’ kinship argument, Socrates warns them to avoid misology, and then he responds to Simmias’ objection. These objections and this warning simultaneously serve as the climax of the first half of the dialogue and set the agenda for the second. I argue that misology is a more specific problem than it is typically taken to be, a problem that aspiring philosophers (like Socrates’ companions) are especially at risk of suffering, one that involves not merely becoming cynical about arguments but positively hating them. I then turn to Simmias’ objection and Socrates’ response to it. I argue that, as Socrates interprets Simmias’ theory that the soul is a harmonia, it makes the soul a properly fitted together composite, not the formal structure possessed by such a composite. This means that Socrates is not arguing against a type of supervenience theory or epiphenomenalism, as is frequently claimed. Socrates’ arguments against Simmias’ theory highlight how it cannot explain basic ethical features of the soul that the kinship argument’s account can explain.
Chapter 9 offers an opportunity for reflection and conclusion. Where has our investigation led us and with what profit? Looking forwards, there is clearly much of relevance which remains to be resolved in a set of new speaker developments that are currently uncharted, fragmented and difficult to pin down. What is remarkable in all the jurisdictions studied is the degree of variation that was found in the empirical field work. The responses are highly variable from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In reflecting on the answers given to the questions presented in the light of the evidence set forth here, a plea for further regular research suggests itself, not only to improve on the insufficiencies of this interpretation but also to allow for the passage of time within which it is assumed that greater attention will have been paid to the new speaker phenomenon by policy-makers over the coming decade. In that sense this is a preliminary investigation to set the scene for more authoritative interpretations in the future.
Information asymmetry about the employee's state of health means that workers may decide to work (or not) when they are sick, which turns presenteeism into a principal-agent relationship. From this new perspective, presenteeism can be explained by some distinct and original factors such as implicit incentives related to motivation and a sense of autonomy (empowerment, job usefulness, and recognition) and explicit incentives given by wages and other non-economic benefits (training and career prospects). In a sample of European workers using multilevel (by country) Tobit models, we find that short-term incentives and workers' empowerment increase presenteeism, while long-term incentives reduce it. As expected, supervision is ineffective in controlling presenteeism, while relationships based on trust have a positive impact. Finally, we propose several practices related to incentives, training, monitoring, occupational health and safety and job design specifically intended to manage presenteeism and its consequences in six areas of the human resources function.
This chapter identifies and anatomizes a cruel rite of friendship. In 1 Henry IV, Hal bullies Falstaff by inducing him to fail. Yet the play frames Hal’s comic brutality as an expression of fondness. Because Hal understands Falstaff’s failures as occasions for self-display, he also sees them as opportunities to savor what is distinctive about his friend’s personality. Hal also interprets Falstaff’s ineptitude as evidence of stuckness and thus of the durability of his character. For his part, Falstaff’s readiness to perform shamelessness seems to lower the stakes of his ongoing humiliation; he is habituated to helplessness. The chapter concludes by considering some of the reasons for which Shakespeare might have chosen to narrate the development of trust against the contrastive background of ethical obligation. In a speculative mode, I suggest that any ethical program that does not prioritize the leveling of hierarchy over the inculcation of virtue — any ethical program that is not also (and, indeed, primarily) a politics — will inevitably remain bound up with social subordination. As long as virtue is not the object of collective negotiation but rather an imposition from on high, it will encourage confused and abusive responses such as Hal’s bid for solidarity in wildness. It is telling that Shakespeare locates the resistance to virtue even in the very person who benefits most from the values it reproduces.
This chapter will further explore the moral and legal aspects of the nurse–patient relationship, with special attention paid to the role of trust. Lena’s situation demonstrates how a patient can be disempowered and rendered increasingly vulnerable through careless use of professional power. Lena’s sadness at being parted from her friend (a normal reaction) has been turned into a medical condition (or ‘medicalised’), which is then recorded in her file as if it is a fact about her. Then this purported medical condition is used as a reason to pry into Lena’s private life – and all without any consultation with Lena herself. When Lena expresses quite justifiable outrage, she is further cast as a problem patient, and her anger is regarded as part of her emotional instability.
Partnerships are crucial for fostering change in society, particularly in the solving of complex problems such as climate change. They are particularly important for researchers interested in societal change, given that research in the strictest sense is only about knowledge generation. Given partnerships are crucial for outcome-focused research, the selection of diverse strategic partners is key and must be guided by theories of change. Complementary visions are important but do not always need to be tightly structured. From farmers and producer groups to international agencies, multi-level partnerships help promote action at different levels. Collaborative arrangements are important but can be informal and flexible; many successful longer-term partnerships are deep and trustful at their core, often with informal relationships.
We call attention to an important, but overlooked finding in research reported by Longoni, Bonezzi and Morewedge (2019). Longoni et al. claim that people always prefer a human to an artificially intelligent (AI) medical provider. We show that this was only the case when the historical performance of the human and AI providers was equal. When the AI is known to outperform the human, their data showed a clear preference for the automated provider. We provide additional statistical analyses of their data to support this claim.
During the past quarter century of neoliberal social, economic and political upheaval in Poland, the structure of workplaces has changed, and so have changes in worker attitudes to workplace and social solidarity. This article explores the links between changes to organisational and employment structures and shifts in worker attitudes, focusing on the implications of attitudinal shifts for the capacity for organised workplace resistance. It documents a loss of collective identity and a growth of individualism and social distrust. The analysis is based on publicly available economic and social statistics and the author’s own qualitative and quantitative research, drawn in part from computer-aided interviews in de-industrialising Lower Silesia. Evidence is provided that the extent and intensity of attitudinal shifts have varied according to changed workplace structures, based on privatisation and organisational size, and especially on the accompanying changes in workplace culture and climate. Increased individualism, based on formal decollectivisation, has been accompanied by attitudinal individualism and distrust of other people and social institutions. As a result, declining capacity for workplace resistance and an increased sense of powerlessness have increased workers’ susceptibility to right-wing propaganda.
In an experimental gift-exchange game, we explore the transformative capacity of vulnerable trust, which we define as trusting untrustworthy players when their untrustworthiness is common knowledge between co-players. In our experiment, there are two treatments: the “Information” treatment and the “No-Information” treatment in which we respectively disclose or not information about trustees’ trustworthiness. Our laboratory evidence consistently supports the transformative capacity of trustors’ vulnerable trust, which generates higher transfers, more trustworthiness and increased reciprocity by untrustworthy trustees.
The economic literature on negotiation shows that strategic concerns can be a barrier to agreement, even when the buyer values the good more than the seller. Yet behavioral research demonstrates that human interaction can overcome these strategic concerns through communication. We show that there is also a downside of this human interaction: cynicism. Across two studies we focus on a seller-buyer interaction in which the buyer has uncertain knowledge about the goods for sale, but has a positive expected payoff from saying “yes” to the available transaction. Study 1 shows that most buyers accept offers made by computers, but that acceptance rates drop significantly when offers are made by human sellers who communicate directly with buyers. Study 2 clarifies that this effect results from allowing human sellers to communicate with buyers, and shows that such communication focuses the buyers’ attention on the seller’s trustworthiness. The mere situation of negotiated interaction increases buyers’ attention to the sellers’ self-serving motives and, consequently, buyers’ cynicism. Unaware of this downside of interaction, sellers actually prefer to have the opportunity to communicate with buyers.