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Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the book and provides the reader with background information regarding the main themes in the volume. It opens with an overview of Persian historiography across the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires, providing a brief overview of each empire. The chapter then examines recent studies on connected histories and the Persianate world. This is followed by a summary of the “state of the field,” noting recent scholarship on Persian historiography under the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals, and studies on Persian historiography during the early and middle periods of Islamicate history. Next, the chapter presents an overview of each of the subsequent chapters in the book. It concludes with notes on terminology and transliteration.
This chapter is a succinct introduction to basic probabilistic methods for pattern recognition and machine learning. One focus is to clearly present the exact meanings of different terms, including the taxonomy of different probabilistic methods. We present a basic introduction to maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimation, and a very brief example to showcase the concept of Bayesian estimation. For the nonparametric world, we start from the drawbacks of parametric methods, gradually analyzing the properties preferred for a nonparametric one, and finally reach the kernel density estimation, a typical nonparametric method.
Chapter 3 addresses the question of extending parental responsibility to social parents. Parental responsibility is an important mechanism through which to confer responsibilities and rights upon social parents. It is particularly useful in the context of same-sex parenting given that some gay and lesbian couples become parents in situations where the child was born to one of them as part of a previous heterosexual relationship. The extension of parental responsibility provides a mechanism whereby the partner or spouse of the parent can acquire responsibilities and rights towards the child in a manner that does not affect the status of the legal parents.
The Introduction sets out the central themes that arise in the chapters that follow. These themes form a common thread throughout the later chapters, providing a consistent structure for the arguments that are presented. The Introduction also provides an explanation of the terminology that is used throughout the work to describe various family forms. Parenting is multifaceted, and so this work does not attempt to address all aspects. Instead, the focus is on common pathways to parentage that are available to same-sex couples, and the analysis focuses on applying the best interests principle in each context. The final section of Introduction provides an overview of the chapter structure, which demonstrates the parameters of the research.
The chapter focuses on the distinction between treaties and other kinds of international instruments. It addresses issues such as why it is necessary to distinguish between treaties and other kinds of international instruments, and what can go wrong when a State or an IO fails to do so. It identifies other kinds of international instruments that are not treaties, their binding status, different scenarios in which it may be difficult to differentiate such instruments and how to overcome such situations. The chapter also offers some suggestions on handling treaties and other kinds of international instruments.
Chapter 1 discusses the terminology of the name Third Intermediate Period and demonstrates the views within previous archaeological thought and theory, showig which ideas have shaped the discussions and approaches to Third Intermediate Period archaeology, history, and culture. Chapter 1 also provides a discussion of the complex and disputed chronology for the Third Intermediate Period, outlining those areas that are agreed upon and those areas which are still debated.
Virtual patient software allows health professionals to practise their skills by interacting with tools simulating clinical scenarios. A natural language dialogue system can provide natural interaction for medical history-taking. However, the large number of concepts and terms in the medical domain makes the creation of such a system a demanding task. We designed a dialogue system that stands out from current research by its ability to handle a wide variety of medical specialties and clinical cases. To address the task, we designed a patient record model, a knowledge model for the task and a termino-ontological model that hosts structured thesauri with linguistic, terminological and ontological knowledge. We used a frame- and rule-based approach and terminology-rich resources to handle the medical dialogue. This work focuses on the termino-ontological model, the challenges involved and how the system manages resources for the French language. We adopted a comprehensive approach to collect terms and ontological knowledge, and dictionaries of affixes, synonyms and derivational variants. Resources include domain lists containing over 161,000 terms, and dictionaries with over 959,000 word/concept entries. We assessed our approach by having 71 participants (39 medical doctors and 32 non-medical evaluators) interact with the system and use 35 cases from 18 specialities. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of all components by analysing interaction logs (11,834 turns). Natural language understanding achieved an F-measure of 95.8%. Dialogue management provided on average 74.3 (±9.5)% of correct answers. We performed a qualitative evaluation by collecting 171 five-point Likert scale questionnaires. All evaluated aspects obtained mean scores above the Likert mid-scale point. We analysed the vocabulary coverage with regard to unseen cases: the system covered 97.8% of their terms. Evaluations showed that the system achieved high vocabulary coverage on unseen cases and was assessed as relevant for the task.
Translation is a demanding, competitive, and labour-intensive activity that requires more than just advanced language skills. If translators are to thrive in such a cutting-edge working environment, they need to possess good computer literacy skills and be well-versed in the art of strategic information mining - in other words, they need to know how to make best use of the plethora of dictionaries, glossaries, books, websites, and other online resources at their disposal in order to find the required information in the shortest amount of time possible. This includes finding translation equivalents and domain-specific terms, checking collocations, idioms, and phrasal verbs, and exploring the way words are used in context by native speakers in order to render the text grammatically, semantically, and stylistically appropriate. Corpora, i.e. large electronic collections of computer-processed, linguistically annotated texts, can serve as an invaluable source of linguistic information, providing the translator with a sample of genuine texts in the target language and, in some cases, translations of similar texts. Over the past two decades, a wide variety of monolingual, comparable, and parallel corpora have been compiled, and these can be searched using either downloadable or online corpus query systems (CQS) such as the Sketch Engine. Whilst computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools such as SDL Trados and MemoQ are a staple of the translation process, translators are still relatively conservative when it comes to using corpora and CQSs to inform their practice. This chapter will introduce the Sketch Engine as a powerful suite of corpus tools for translation and cross-linguistic analysis. Centred around a case study featuring a real-life translation scenario, it will discuss various features of the software which can be used to leverage very large web-based monolingual and parallel corpora for translation, i.e. the concordancer, the word sketches tool, the thesaurus, the term extraction feature, and the corpus building tool.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among children. However, their caregivers’ knowledge and understanding of symptoms may influence how the injury is managed.
To investigate the knowledge of New Zealand (NZ) parents about TBI and concussion.
Method and procedures:
Parents (n = 205) of children aged 5–13 years completed a pen-and-paper or online survey containing questions examining their knowledge of TBI terminology, TBI symptoms and knowledge about concussion management.
Main outcomes and results:
A high proportion (61%) of parents did not think that a concussion was the same as a brain injury. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was the most endorsed symptom of TBI. However, 69% of participants were aware that TBI could occur without LOC. On average, parents correctly identified 19.5 (67.3%) of the 29 symptoms of TBI, but also identified 2.0 (11.9%) of the 17 distractor symptoms as being TBI related. Demographic factors and experience of TBI/concussion were associated with TBI symptom identification accuracy and concussion knowledge.
Further education of parents is needed to ensure they recognise the signs and symptoms of concussion/mild TBI so that they can make informed decisions on how best to manage their child’s injury.
This paper draws attention to the twelfth-century French romance Partonopeus de Blois and its author's original use of the name ‘Byzantium’ instead of conventional ‘Greek’ or ‘Constantinopolitan Empire’. It investigates roots of the modern-day belief that the term has been applied as a designation of the medieval state only since the sixteenth century. A linguistic and literary analysis challenges the premise and explores possible scenarios of the name's introduction into the Old French text. A suggested interpretation de-emphasizes the popular east-west ideological context in favour of simpler story-telling concerns.
Received and excavated sources from early imperial China employ various terms for pieces of bamboo or wood that served as writing support. In many cases, neither the exact meanings nor diachronic differences in usage of these terms are sufficiently clear. What kinds of concrete objects the terms actually referred to in a certain period accordingly turns out to be quite an intricate question. This article focuses on the terms du 牘 and die 牒, which not only occur most frequently in the sources, but can also be considered as a complementary pair. Investigating differences in form and function that can be gathered from the way the terms are employed in both administrative documents and legal prescriptions of the Qin and Han period (including a newly published Qin ordinance) it argues that du and die were connected to two conceptually different types of manuscripts, namely single- and multi-piece manuscripts. It shows that these two types also entailed differences in how the manuscripts were kept for storage and transport, which were likewise reflected by special terminology. Finally, it proposes that the increasing use of multi-piece manuscripts instead of single-piece ones, especially since the time of Emperor Wu of Han 漢武帝 (r. 141–87 b.c.e.), probably had both pragmatic and economic reasons, which fit well into the setting of a gradually consolidating empire with an ever-growing volume of bureaucratic record keeping.
Hearts in which the arterial trunks arise from the morphologically appropriate ventricles, but in a parallel manner, rather than the usual spiralling arrangement, have long fascinated anatomists. These rare entities, for quite some time, were considered embryological impossibilities, but ongoing experience has shown that they can be found in various segmental combinations. Problems still exist about how best to describe them, as the different variants are often described with esoteric terms, such as anatomically corrected malposition or isolated ventricular inversion. In this review, based on our combined clinical and morphological experience, we demonstrate that the essential feature of all hearts described in this manner is a parallel arrangement of the arterial trunks as they exit from the ventricular mass. We show that the relationship of the arterial roots needs to be described in terms of the underlying ventricular topology, rather than according to the arrangement of the atrial chambers. We then discuss the importance of determining atrial arrangement on the basis of the morphology of the appendages, following the precepts as set out in the so-called “morphological method” and distinguished according to the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions as opposed to basing diagnosis on the venoatrial connections. We show that, when approached in this manner, the various combinations can be readily diagnosed in the clinical setting and described in straightforward way.
Universities in Australia are expanding their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies programs to include Indigenous populations from around the globe. This is also the case for the Indigenous Studies Unit at the University of Wollongong (UOW). Although systems of nomenclature in Indigenous Studies seek to be respectful of difference, the politics of naming in the global context raises some complexities worthy of discussion. In this article, four scholars discuss the politics of naming in relation to teaching a joint Indigenous Studies subject at the UOW and Northern Arizona University.
It is timely, in the 125th anniversary of the initial description by Fallot of the hearts most frequently seen in patients presenting with “la maladie bleu”, that we revisit his descriptions, and discuss his findings in the light of ongoing controversies. Fallot described three hearts in his initial publication, and pointed to the same tetralogy of morphological features that we recognise today, namely, an interventricular communication, biventricular connection of the aorta, subpulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In one of the hearts, he noted that the aorta arose exclusively from the right ventricle. In other words, one of his initial cases exhibited double-outlet right ventricle. When we now compare findings in hearts with the features of the tetralogy, we can observe significant variations in the nature of the borders of the plane of deficient ventricular septation when viewed from the aspect of the right ventricle. We also find that this plane, usually described as the ventricular septal defect, is not the same as the geometric plane separating the cavities of the right and left ventricles. This means that the latter plane, the interventricular communication, is not necessarily the same as the ventricular septal defect. We are now able to provide further insights into these features by examining hearts prepared from developing mice. Additional molecular investigations will be required, however, to uncover the mechanisms responsible for producing the morphological changes underscoring tetralogy of Fallot.
Parallel kinematics machines (PKMs) can exhibit kinematics as well as actuation redundancy. While the meaning of kinematic redundancy has been already clarified for serial manipulators, actuation redundancy, which is only possible in PKMs, is differently classified in the literature. In this paper a consistent terminology for general redundant PKM is proposed. A kinematic model is introduced with the configuration space (c-space) as central part. The notion of kinematic redundancy is recalled for PKM. C-space, output, and input singularities are distinguished. The significance of the c-space geometry is emphasized, and it is pointed out geometrically that input singularities can be avoided by redundant actuation schemes. In order to distinguish different actuation schemes of PKM, a nonlinear control system is introduced whose dynamics evolves on c-space. The degree of actuation (DOA) is introduced as the number of independent control vector fields, and PKMs are classified as full-actuated and underactuated machines. Relating this DOA to degree of freedom allows to classify the actuation redundancy.
John Evans was a key actor in the establishment of high human antiquity in 1859, and his pioneering role in launching the study of ancient stone implements is still celebrated today. However, scholars have overlooked the fact that Evans actually forged this contribution by shifting practices and preoccupations from coins to flint, from one well-established antiquarian domain in which he excelled, to another, new and as yet untested, domain. While providing relevant information on Evans' numismatics, this article shows how these transfers bear successively on the documentation of stone implements (terminology, descriptions, illustrations), their authentication (with regards to frauds and experimentation) and indeed their interpretation (the identification and explanation of their formal variability). Besides serving as an instructive historical case in ‘trans-disciplinarity’, the recognition of this initial numismatic imprint on the study of stone tools also has several consequences for current practices and interpretations in Palaeolithic archaeology.
This critique of the term ‘carer’ argues that, although developed as a result of well-intentioned and socially-engaged research, it fails the people with whom it is most concerned, that is ‘carers’ and those who are cared for. The paper considers the historical and political development of the term ‘carer’ before examining research in various ‘carer’-related settings in the United Kingdom, namely mental health, physical and intellectual impairment, cancer and palliative care and older adulthood and dementia. The article concludes that the term ‘carer’ is ineffective and that its continued use should be reconsidered. This conclusion is based on the consistent failure of the term ‘carer’ as a recognisable and valid description of the relationship between ‘carers’ and those for whom they care. Furthermore, use of the term may imply burden and therefore devalue the individual who is cared for and in this way polarises two individuals who would otherwise work together. Consequently, this commentary suggests that descriptions of the caring relationship that focus on the relationship from which it arose would be both more acceptable and useful to those it concerns. Furthermore, a more accessible term may increase uptake of support services currently aimed at ‘carers’, therefore inadvertently meeting the original aims of the term, that is, to increase support for ‘carers’.
1 –The word "orthodontics". In 1841, Lefoulon suggested the term "orthodontosie," which the Americans simplified to "orthodontia" and, later, to "orthodontics". But the French resisted. A long struggle began between"orthopedics" and "orthodontics, " which wound up in 2007 with "orthognathodontics". Have we reached a truce?
2 – The word "malocclusion". E. Angle decided that the word "irregularity" employed in the 19th century was inappropriate. He proposed the term "malocclusion", which the French for a long time denigrated only to begin to employ it recently. But beneath new vocables new concepts are hidden.
Research carried out in several Anglo-Saxon countries shows that many undergraduates identify oral sex and anal sex as examples of abstinent behaviour, while many others consider kissing and masturbation as examples of having sex. The objective of this research was to investigate whether a sample of Spanish students gave similar replies. Seven hundred and fifty undergraduates (92% aged under 26, 67.6% women) produced examples or definitions of the term ‘abstinence’. Spanish students made similar errors to those observed in the Anglo-Saxon samples, in that behaviours that were abstinent from a preventive point of view (masturbating and sex without penetration) were not considered as such, while a number of students reported oral sex as abstinent behaviour. The results suggest that the information on risky and preventive sexual behaviour should cease to use ambiguous or euphemistic expressions and use vocabulary that is clear and comprehensible to everyone.