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Basil Liddell Hart created the term “indirect approach to strategy.” It was first articulated in 1927, and then appeared in its fully developed form in his 1929 book The Decisive Wars of History, which would eventually be republished as Strategy: The Indirect Approach in 1967. Liddell Hart’s views on warfare made him a controversial figure in the 1920s and 1930s, and his legacy after his death in 1970 remains unclear. For a time in the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest writers on war, if not thegreatest, at least in the Anglo-American world. His reputation collapsed at the beginning of World War II, but had recovered after the war so that by the late 1950s he was once again, at least in Samuel Griffith’s eyes, the most important strategist in the world. Today he is entirely unknown outside a very narrow academic community. His contributions to strategic thinking in the 1920s and 1930s were distorted by two factors: his commitment to preventing Britain from repeating its performance in World War I, and his need to earn a living as a writer. He took intellectual shortcuts, found the answers in history that he wanted to find regardless of the evidence, and argued for negotiating with Hitler during World War II. Liddell Hart had played an important role, along with his friend J. F. C. Fuller, in promoting mobile, mechanized warfare, particularly tanks.
Many of the war’s leading generals rose or fell during 1916. Germany refocused on the west, where Falkenhayn, chief of the high command since the initial defeat at the Marne, attacked at Verdun, seeking a bloodletting that would drive France from the war. The French persevered through ten months, during which generals Pétain and Nivelle eclipsed Joffre, who lost his post as commander late in the year. In the summer Haig’s British and Imperial forces, with French support, attacked the Germans at the Somme, where in September tanks first saw action. The battle there ended in a draw but also ensured the French a draw at Verdun. Meanwhile, on the Italian front, Conrad von Hötzendorf launched an Austro-Hungarian offensive from the Tyrol. This attack, like the German effort at Verdun, used troops pulled from the east, allowing a summer Russian offensive under Brusilov to break the weakened front. The Germans returned troops to seal the breach, but the debacle forced Falkenhayn to relinquish the high command to Hindenburg and Ludendorff. Amid the crisis the Central Powers made William II their supreme commander, sealing Austria-Hungary’s subordination to Germany. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire joined them late in the year in crushing Romania shortly after it joined the Allies.
The long-period components in earthquake ground motions, which attenuate gradually with
distance, can induce sloshing waves in the liquid containment tanks although they are
located far away from the seismic source. The resulting sloshing waves generate additional
forces impacting the wall and roof of the tanks and may cause extensive damage on the tank
structure. Numerous examples of tank damages due to sloshing of fluid have been observed
during many earthquakes. Nevertheless, the effect of sloshing is usually primitively
considered in most of the seismic design codes of tanks. On the other hand, the derivation
of an analytical solution for the sloshing response of a liquid storage tank subjected to
harmonic excitation includes many assumptions and simplifications. Most of the analytical
solutions in the recent literature assumed the containing liquid to be invicid,
incompressible and irrotational, and the tank structure to be an isotropic elastic plate
with uniform stiffness, mass and thickness. Even though, experimental works are necessary
to study the actual behavior of the system, they are time consuming, very costly and
performed only for specific boundary and excitation conditions. However, appropriate
numerical simulation using fluid structure interaction techniques can be used to predict
the hydrodynamic forces due to the high-speed impacts of sloshing liquid on a tank wall
and roof. These simulations can reduce the number of experimental tests. The nonlinear
finite element techniques with either Lagrangian and/or Eulerian formulations may be
employed as a numerical method to model sloshing problems. But, most of the Lagrangian
formulations used to solve such problems have failed due to high mesh distortion of the
fluid. The arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian techniques are capable of keeping mesh integrity
during the motion of the tank. In this study, an explicit nonlinear finite element
analysis method with ALE algorithm is developed and sloshing phenomenon is analyzed. The
analysis capabilities of the method are explained on a technical level. Although, the
developed numerical procedure is applicable to deformable structures, the accuracy of the
method is validated with the existing analytical formulation derived from potential flow
theory as well as the experimental data carried out on rigid tanks when subjected to
harmonic and earthquake ground motions. High consistency between numerical and
experimental results in terms of peak level timing, shape and amplitude of sloshing waves
is obtained not only for non-resonant excitation but also for resonant frequency
Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) larvae from Léman (= Lake Geneva) and Lake Bourget (France) have been successfully mass reared in tanks of 50-60 l when fed exclusively on dry experimental and commercial diets. In spring water at 10 °C for three initial densities (100-200-400/l) tested, the survival at 35 days fluctuated generally between 30 and 50%. The final number and biomass harvested has been improved by the use of higher water temperature (14 °C) or by stocking with high initial density (200-400/l) at 10 °C. In Lake Leman, temperature appeared to be the key factor controlling the results of
coregonid larvae rearing in submerged illuminated net cages (6 m3) stocked with 50 000 yolk sac fry and harvested at the end of spring. The results fluctuated greatly when stocking was too early (middle of February to beginning of March). They were improved by delaying stocking, to the
period "mid-Marc - carly April" for yolk sac fry or to "end of March-April" when fry prefed on dry diet were used.
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