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One way a target government can try to mitigate outbidding violence is to increase enforcement efforts to intercept contributions and arrest volunteers to militant groups. We expand the workhorse outbidding model to account for this decision. States with greater enforcement capacity indeed benefit, partially from directly stopping contributions and partially from deterring supporters from making contributions in the first place. The decreased prize therefore also tempers outbidding violence. As a result, competition is contingent on enforcement capacity, with the effect of another group growing larger as that capacity declines. Statistical analysis finds broad empirical support for our mechanism: competitive violence is most pronounced when governments incur higher marginal costs of enforcement. These results increase our confidence that competition drives violence more broadly, as competing explanations do not predict this conditional effect.
This chapter explores the role that monarchist beliefs played in war recruitment in Britain and in the British Empire. It looks at the ways that monarchist beliefs appeared in wartime propaganda, songs and recruitment campaigns as well as the monarchy’s importance to British legal and religious cultures. It examines how the first two years of the war saw the monarchy’s position consolidated and sacralised in Britain, arguing that the monarchy was central to British identity and associated with ideals of ‘honour’.
The notion that a child has rights is longstanding: the 1924 Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the League of Nations, was the first international instrument explicitly acknowledging the existence of children’s rights. The formulation of the right to life under the Convention on the Rights of the Child—the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history – is distinct, referring to the duty to ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child. Accordingly, the chapter considers infanticide and violence against children, including in domestic settings as well as against children in the streets. Also addressed are infant mortality, disease, illness, and substance abuse, and recruitment into armed forces, armed groups, and gangs.
Chapter One, ‘Contexts’, is the starting point for these colonial journeys from New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies. What it was like to be a young man in Wellington, Cape Town or Kingston in 1914? The chapter explores the cultural ‘baggage’ the newly enlisted men brought with them: their expectations for the conflict and what service to the empire meant, to think about how this would influence their representation of their encounters. This chapter acts as touchstone for the rest of the book in explaining how New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies got involved with the war, how they recruited and who they sent. The intricacies of racial restrictions on the service of men of colour are explored, from those demanded by the South African government, to later decisions made about the combatant status of the British West Indies Regiment which help to understand the structural framing of the encounters the men experienced.
There is still substantial variation in the amount, structure and quality of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training across European countries, both in the training process of general adult psychiatry and CAP specialists. Inconsistency, scarcity and low quality of CAP exposure has been consistently identified by psychiatric trainees as one of major issues in organization of training. In the decades of independence, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Latvia has witnessed a gradual decline in the number of CAP specialists in the country due to chronically low recruitment rates, that has subsequently led to a critical human resource deficit in the field, and rapid deterioration of availability and quality of CAP care. Only since the year 2018, when the normative regulation, structure and contents of CAP training in Latvia have been significantly reformed, there was a change in recruitment trends, that gives hope for resolution of the human resource crisis in the CAP field in the years to come. In this talk the author will share his experience of redesigning the CAP training program in Latvia, and discuss the motivations, challenges and successes one might face while trying to improve CAP training in a particular European country.
Psychiatry has long been battling with a recruitment crisis in the UK which is also reflected across much of Europe. Covid-19 has brought about widespread changes to our ways of working, as well as driving technological developments, which provides potential opportunities for the profession to draw people into the speciality. Covid-19 has brought interest in digital psychiatry from the peripheries to the mainstream. Mental health professionals are currently using sophisticated technologies such as Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders. Highlighting the ways in which our profession is at the cutting edge of innovation to junior doctors offers a fruitful avenue to improve recruitment into the speciality. Many outpatient clinics have made the move to online service delivery during the pandemic to varying degrees. For many clinicians this has allowed more flexible and efficient ways of working. Psychiatry is better placed than most other medical disciplines to retain online patient contact in future clinical practice, post pandemic and may provide an attractive proposition for future psychiatrists. This talk will review some of the ways in which developments in digital psychiatry have been used to help generate interest for recruitment into the discipline as well as evaluating the benefits and challenges of the shift to telepsychiatry during Covid-19 and will offer some suggestions what the profession can learn from this to help future recruitment.
This study aimed to explore factors that positively influence UK medical students’ interest in psychiatry. Delegates and committee members of the National Student Psychiatry Conference 2018 were invited to participate in individual semi-structured interviews. Nine interviews were conducted. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Four core themes emerged: psychiatry education and exposure, role of a psychiatrist, fitting in, and factors external to medical school. All students had some degree of interest in mental health before medical school, but placement and extra-curricular factors were strongly influential.
Interest in psychiatry may be promoted by facilitating student exposure to enthusiastic psychiatrists and psychiatry subspecialties, encouraging extra-curricular activities and identifying early those with pre-existing interest in mental health on admission to medical school. Aspects of psychiatry that should be promoted include the potential to make a positive difference to patients’ lives and the teamworking elements of the specialty.
COVID-19 has forced many educational events to go ‘virtual’. We report on the first online student-run National Psychiatry Summer School (NPSS). Evaluation of the online format and content was undertaken through survey feedback from almost 400 attendees.
The NPSS positively affected attendees’ perceptions of psychiatry as a career choice. The virtual format was positively received, with benefits including breaking down traditional barriers of geography and cost.
Post-COVID-19, a hybrid future of mixed virtual and face-to-face events is likely. Our work shows the viability of this and unique gains it might offer, and offers experiential learning on challenges encountered for others who wish to trial further virtual conferences.
To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies.
A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17–35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up.
From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention.
This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.
The study characterized the structure of juveniles and sub-adults of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis in the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine lagoon system and its adjacent coastal area by evaluating the period of juvenile recruitment, sex ratio, growth, longevity, natural mortality, and development time until the late juvenile phase. Samples were collected from July 2012 to June 2014. Shrimps were identified by species and sex, and measured (carapace length – CL mm); 889 individuals of F. brasiliensis and 848 of F. paulensis were analysed. Females were more abundant than males for both species. The growth parameters of F. brasiliensis were: CL∞ = 45.5 mm, k = 1.8 year−1 for males and CL∞ = 55.2 mm, k = 1.6 year−1 for females; longevity of 2.52 years (males) and 2.88 years (females); and natural mortality of 1.71 (males) and 1.55 (females). For F. paulensis, the following values were observed: CL∞ = 40.7 mm, k = 2.3 year−1 for males and CL∞ = 56.5 mm, k = 1.9 year−1 for females; longevity of 2.04 years (males) and 2.37 years (females); and natural mortality of 2.39 (males) and 2.05 (females). The juvenile recruitment of both species peaked in January 2014. The development time until late juvenile phase was ~7 months (F. brasiliensis) and ~5 months (F. paulensis). Even though the highest abundance of juveniles did not occur in the closed season, fishing is forbidden in the estuarine area and the migration towards the adult population occurred close to or even during the closed season.
Successful research is frequently hampered by poor study recruitment, especially in community settings and with participants who are women and their children. Health visitors (HVs) and community midwives (CMs) are well placed to invite young families, and pregnant and postnatal women to take part in such research, but little is known about how best to support these health professionals to do this effectively.
This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the factors that influence whether HVs and CMs invite eligible patients to take part in research opportunities.
HVs (n = 39) and CMs (n = 22) working in four NHS Trusts and one community partnership in England completed an anonymous, online survey with open-ended questions about their experiences of asking eligible patients to take part in the research. Qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis and inductive coding to identify specific barriers and enablers to patient recruitment within each of the 14 theoretical domains.
Six key TDF domains accounted for 81% of all coded responses. These were (a) environmental context and resources; (b) beliefs about capabilities; (c) social/professional role and identity; (d) social influences; (e) goals; (f) knowledge. Key barriers to approaching patients to participate in the research were time and resource constraints, perceived role conflict, conflicting priorities, and particularly for HVs, negative social influences from patients and researchers. Enablers included feeling confident to approach patients, positive influence from peers, managers and researchers, beliefs in the relevance of this behaviour to health care and practice and good knowledge about the study procedures, its rationale and the research topic. The findings suggest that to improve research recruitment involving HVs and CMs, a package of interventions is needed to address the barriers and leverage the enablers to participant approach.
There are several large-scale violent conflicts in Africa, which affect some but by no means all African countries. The vast majority of these conflicts are intra-state conflicts; inter-state conflicts rarely occur. This chapter explains why this is the case after having explored the only two large-scale inter-state wars in Africa since decolonization: the war between Uganda and Tanzania as well as the one between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Turning to intra-state conflicts, several reasons for the outbreak of wars – often described as “new wars” – are explained as are the reasons that motivate some to become rebels. The greed vs. grievance argument plays an important role here. Thereafter, the two post-colonial genocides – in Rwanda and Darfur – are scrutinized alongside a discussion of why genocide occur. Being of unprecedented magnitude, “Africa’s Great War”, a war complex in the Great Lakes Region (1996-2006), is also analyzed as is the situation of and in refugee camps that are often a place of insecurity themselves.
There are numerous political crises in Africa, albeit one needs to stress that they do not touch all African states. This chapter discusses four types of crises: secessions, coups, electoral violence, and terrorism. Despite their different shape, they all can potentially challenge or even undermine state institutions, dwarf the economy, and pose a threat to the population. Despite them being the children of the weakness of states, there is, however, also evidence showing that secessions, coups, and electoral violence might lead to more legitimate governments and advance democratization in the long run. Such news is missing with regard to terrorism.
This chapter centres on case studies from the Assam frontier and Baluchistan, arguing that key logics of colonial frontier administration originated in these regions rather than along the Punjab frontier. It identifies two distinct moments and forms of British administrative intervention in frontier regions. The earlier mode of ‘frontier governmentality’ involved the relocation of entire frontier communities to fully governed state territory. This policy intermingled ideas of ‘improvement’ with logics of punishment and incarceration. They were also notably unsuccessful on their own terms, generating substantial resistance from their subjects and either collapsing or dwindling shortly after their creation. The second set of case studies examines the types of administration implemented with the colonial state’s permanent expansion from the late 1860s onwards into Baluchistan and uplands to the south of Assam. Government in these regions took on exceptional forms, with state sovereignty rooted in the discretionary authority of individual administrators.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had substantial global morbidity and mortality. Clinical research related to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 is a top priority. Effective and efficient recruitment is challenging even without added constraints of a global pandemic. Recruitment registries offer a potential solution to slow or difficult recruitment.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a digital research recruitment registry to optimize awareness and participant enrollment for COVID-19-related research in Baltimore and to report preliminary results.
Planning began in March 2020, and the registry launched in July 2020. The primary recruitment mechanisms include electronic medical record data, postcards distributed at testing sites, and digital advertising campaigns. Following consent in a Research Electronic Data Capture survey, participants answer questions related to COVID-19 exposure, testing, and willingness to participate in research. Branching logic presents participants with studies they might be eligible for.
As of March 24, 2021, 9010 participants have enrolled, and 64.2% are female, 80.6% are White, 9.4% are Black or African American, and 6% are Hispanic or Latino. Phone outreach has had the highest response rate (13.1%), followed by email (11.9%), text (11.4%), and patient portal message (9.4%). Eleven study teams have utilized the registry, and 4596 matches have been made between study teams and interested volunteers.
Effective and efficient recruitment strategies are more important now than ever due to the time-limited nature of COVID-19 research. Pilot efforts have been successful in connecting interested participants with recruiting study teams.
Community Advisory Boards (CABs) are typically comprised of adult community members who provide feedback on health-related, adult-focused research. Few, if any, CABs comprised of youth participants exist. In 2019, a Midwest medical center recruited a diverse group of 18 11–17-year-old community members to a Pediatric Advisory Board (PAB) to provide feedback on the recruitment and involvement of minors in research.
Semi-structured interviews with n = 12 PAB members were conducted to understand their experiences and views on participating in the PAB. Parents (n = 7) were interviewed separately to assess the congruence of views on PAB membership between parents and their children. Interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify iterative themes.
PAB members thought the PAB addressed an unmet need of soliciting feedback from youth to develop age-appropriate study materials and to understand potential concerns of young participants. While PAB members expressed interest in the research topics presented by researchers, a few members indicated barriers to full participation, including lack of self-confidence, anxiety, and discomfort sharing opinions in a group setting. Parents supported their child’s PAB participation and hoped it would help them build confidence in developing and sharing their opinions in ways that were meaningful for them, which PAB members largely reported occurring over their period of involvement.
Findings from a novel Midwest PAB indicated benefits to PAB members. While contributing to pediatric research planning by providing feedback on recruiting youth and improving study protocols, they gained confidence in providing opinions on biomedical research and developed their scientific literacy.
The Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata is an ‘Endangered’ passerine from southern South America. For the past three years a management plan for Yellow Cardinals has been implemented in Argentina, in which rescued individuals from the illegal cage bird trade were released back into suitable habitats within their population of origin. We studied the reproductive success of a mixed population of released and wild Yellow Cardinals in La Pampa province, Argentina, during the reproductive season of 2019. The population was highly parasitized by the brood parasitic Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis. The frequency of parasitism was 100% and the intensity of parasitism was 4.5 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) eggs per parasitized nest (range 1–13). No Yellow Cardinal chicks were recruited in the monitored nests, mainly as a consequence of Shiny Cowbird parasitism. The unusually high rate of parasitism led to a poor outcome of the reintroduction programme and indicates the need to update the conservation actions that have been carried out for the Yellow Cardinal so far. Shiny Cowbird abundance varies within the distribution of Yellow Cardinals, related to habitat modification and farming activities. Thus, further research on habitat suitability and assessment of Shiny Cowbird abundance should be incorporated into future strategies for the conservation of the Yellow Cardinal.
The chapter focuses on attracting individuals whose predispositions will create a foundation for high quality service to citizens. Arguing for public organizations to attract individuals with high public service motivations means that merit, which has traditionally been associated with competence alone, would be defined more broadly, to include service predispositions. This chapter identifies methods for attracting and selecting high public service motivation staff. Among the methods are for public leaders to develop compelling organizational images and to advertize to appeal to prospects' commitments to making a difference. Public organizations should also screen in applicants with high public service motivation (or similar attributes) and screen out prospects whose motivations are likely to crowd out intrinsic or prosocial motivations.
We investigated the population dynamics of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae, focusing on the frequency distribution of individuals in size classes, sex ratio and the action of environmental variables (temperature, salinity, texture and organic matter content in the sediment) on reproduction and recruitment. Monthly collections were made in the Ubatuba region from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 222 individuals were collected, including 123 juveniles (males and females), 43 adult males, 25 non-ovigerous adult females and 31 ovigerous females. Unlike most adult brachyurans, there was no significant size difference between sexes, and sexual dimorphism seems to be a varying characteristic for this crab genus. The reproductive period and recruitment were continuous with peaks that could be related to water mass dynamics and higher food availability in the Ubatuba region. In addition, our results increase knowledge about part of the life cycle of L. ferreirae, which could be useful for comparative studies.
This chapter discusses expatriate recruitment sources, methods, and the expatriates’ motivations to work abroad. Then it examines expatriate selection criteria, methods, and how expatriates are selected in practice. The chapter also presents the variety of expatriate preparation methods, discusses expatriate training effectiveness, and expatriate preparation in practice. It concludes by considering future avenues of research. Overall, in the area of selection and preparation for international assignments there is good material for researchers to build on and a growing understanding of the key issues. Nevertheless, there remains here a rich field for exciting research in the future.