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Despite fruitful findings on the reasons underlying the desire for educational success and scarce credentials among students and families, there is little research on the meaning of educational success in the marketplace. As higher education in China has expanded to aid better-quality growth and the transition to a knowledge-based economy, educational success has become increasingly critical in the allocation of socioeconomic rewards. As such, insights into how educational success and concomitant credentials are valorized are empirically and theoretically significant. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 73 recruiters for elite professional service firms, this study analyses the meanings underlying the process of valorizing educational success and elite credentials. It shows that success in the gaokao, or entry to higher education, was qualitatively salient in excluding candidates, while information about subject domains and marks/class rank carried relatively less weight. Recruiters based the value of educational success on the notion of “learning ability,” which reflected their shared understandings about Chinese educational selection/institutions and wider conditions of elite professional firms. On this basis, this paper argues for the development of learning capital as a new theoretical lens for approaching educational success and credentials in transitional China.
Studies have shown that people with internet gaming disorder (IGD) exhibit impaired executive control of gaming cravings; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In addition, these conclusions were based on the hypothesis that brain networks are temporally static, neglecting dynamic changes in cognitive processes.
Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 402 subjects [162 subjects with IGD and 240 recreational game users (RGUs)]. The community structure (recruitment and integration) of the executive control network (ECN) and the basal ganglia network (BGN), which represents the reward network, of patients with IGD and RGUs were compared. Mediation effects among the different networks were analyzed.
Compared to RGUs, subjects with IGD had a lower recruitment coefficient within the right ECN. Further analysis showed that only male subjects had a lower recruitment coefficient. Mediation analysis showed that the integration coefficient of the right ECN mediated the relationship between the recruitment coefficients of both the right ECN and the BGN in RGUs.
Male subjects with IGD had a lower recruitment coefficient than RGUs, which impairing their impulse control. The mediation results suggest that top-down executive control of the ECN is absent in subjects with IGD. Together, these findings could explain why subjects with IGD exhibit impaired executive control of gaming cravings; these results have important therapeutic implications for developing effective interventions for IGD.
Britons played a central role in creating the administrative architecture and normative foundations of the UN. This chapter examines the international lives of Britons who worked at the United Kingdom Mission to the UN and the UN Secretariat. It outlines the challenges of writing histories of international civil servants, as their professional lives are often absent from traditional archives. The chapter then presents case studies on British officials’ relations with the UN’s first two Secretaries-General (Trygve Lie and Dag Hammarskjöld), UN public diplomacy, the opportunities and obstacles British women faced working in the Secretariat, and the UN’s early recruitment strategies.
We investigated the feasibility of recruiting patients unemployed for more than 3 months with chronic pain using a range of methods in primary care in order to conduct a pilot trial of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) to improve quality of life outcomes for people with chronic pain.
This research was informed by people with chronic pain. We assessed the feasibility of identification and recruitment of unemployed patients; the training and support needs of employment support workers to integrate with pain services; acceptability of randomisation, retention through follow-up and appropriate outcome measures for a definitive trial. Participants randomised to IPS received integrated support from an employment support worker and a pain occupational therapist to prepare for, and take up, a work placement. Those randomised to Treatment as Usual (TAU) received a bespoke workbook, delivered at an appointment with a research nurse not trained in vocational rehabilitation.
Using a range of approaches, recruitment through primary care was difficult and resource-intensive (1028 approached to recruit 37 eligible participants). Supplementing recruitment through pain services, another 13 people were recruited (total n = 50). Randomisation to both arms was acceptable: 22 were allocated to IPS and 28 to TAU. Recruited participants were generally not ‘work ready’, particularly if recruited through pain services.
A definitive randomised controlled trial is not currently feasible for recruiting through primary care in the UK. Although a trial recruiting through pain services might be possible, participants could be unrepresentative in levels of disability and associated health complexities. Retention of participants over 12 months proved challenging, and methods for reducing attrition are required. The intervention has been manualised.
In recent years, the company called CB Resourcing has established itself in the recruitment business and regularly advertises for positions in the knowledge management, business research, legal tech and law librarianship worlds. In this short article one of the Directors of CB Resourcing, Simon Burton, offers some thoughts about the recruitment business, the current state of the market and describes the services that are provided by the company. The article has been written in the form of an interview with questions posed by the editor of this journal and answers given by Simon Burton.
Estuarine ecosystem conditions actively influence the early life stage of fishes. This study reports how environmental factors influenced the ichthyoplankton in a tropical estuary within an Environmental Protection Area by comparing the structure and composition of fish eggs and larval assemblages. A total of 1672 fish larvae and 486 fish eggs were collected. Higher densities of larvae were recorded for Engraulidae, Characidae, Clupeidae, Gerreidae, Mugilidae and Atherinopsidae, and higher egg densities of the families Mugilidae, Clupeidae and Engraulidae were found. The spatio-temporal variations were determined by the environmental predictors salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature, with salinity influenced by precipitation as one of the main predictors of the distribution of ichthyoplankton. During the rainy season, greater densities of eggs were recorded in the upper and intermediate zones, mainly Characidae and Engraulidae; in the dry season, in the lower zone, there was a greater density of larvae, particularly Atherinopsidae and Mugilidae. The information provided in the present study contributes to our knowledge of nursery habitat requirements for the initial development of marine migrant and resident species in tropical estuaries.
This study was carried out throughout 10 fishing seasons between 2002 and 2018 to monitor the population and stock variations of Engraulis encrasicolus (L., 1758) on the south-eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. Asymptotic length (L∞), growth constant (K) and growth performance indexes (φ) were calculated to be between 12.86 and 15.79 cm, 0.69 and 0.99, 2.10 and 2.29, respectively. Theoretical birth ages were determined to range between (to) −0.15 and −0.27, the maximum ages (tmax) ranged between 3.03 and 4.35, total mortality rates (Z) between 2.19 and 2.66, natural mortality rates (M) between 0.93 and 1.26, the fishing mortality rate (F) between 0.93 and 1.47, and the optimum fishing mortality rate (Fopt.) between 0.37 and 0.62. Fishing mortality rates (F) were estimated to be higher than the optimum fishing mortality rates (Fopt). Z/K ratios were determined to range between 1.91 and 3.43. Current exploitation rates (Ecurr.) were calculated to range between 0.42 and 0.62. The first recruit lengths (Lr) and first capture lengths (Lc50) were estimated to range between from 5.25–7.75 and from 7.66–8.74 cm, respectively. The first maturity lengths (Lm50) of E. encrasicolus ranged between 8.57 and 10.53 cm. The maximum sustainable exploitation levels (Emax) were determined to range between 0.72 and 0.83. These data indicate that if current levels of fishing pressure continue, anchovy stocks will collapse in the near future.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials now include patients living with dementia, patients living with mild cognitive impairment or prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and patients with no cognitive impairment but biomarker evidence of preclinical disease. Each type of AD trial requires participants to enroll with a person they know well who can participate with them, a study partner. Study partners are essential to AD trial success. They are heavily involved in enrollment decisions, they are vital to trial protocol compliance, and they serve as informants for outcome measurements that are used to determine drug efficacy. This chapter reviews the essential role of study partners and the evidence available to instruct the field about how best to incorporate and potentially improve the design and conduct of trials as it relates to study partners.
Academic investigators have played key roles in Alzheimer’s disease drug development. This work has been highly collaborative, with innovations in trial design, population characteristics, outcome measures, biomarker utilization and regulatory pathways arising from interactions among academics, industry scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has funded much of this work, along with the Alzheimer’s Association and other philanthropic organizations. The NIA Alzheimer’s Clinical Trials Consortium (ACTC) supports a nationwide infrastructure to continue academic efforts on trial methodology and the implementation of innovative studies in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. ACTC, with the University of Southern California, Harvard University and the Mayo Clinic, expert trialists from across the country and 35 primary trial sites, conducts a number of multicenter randomized controlled trials. Public-private partnerships are encouraged. Additional innovations include a focus on diversity and inclusion in trial recruitment, involvement of research participants in guiding trial design, and training the next generation of trialists.
In conducting clinical trials, we evaluate the most promising findings from translational research, gain perspective about mechanisms of action, and strive to identify treatments that are both effective and safe for a wide range of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. To assess the effectiveness of any clinical trial drug, we must first identify, screen, and follow representative participants through multiple trial phases, a years-long duration between discovery and efficacy. Clinical trials depend upon large, diverse, and well-characterized participant samples. Clinical trial populations must include representative variability across sociodemographic characteristics to capture unequal risk and potentially varied responses to treatment. Diverse participant samples are our best tool for generalizing effects to patient populations but are also one of our largest barriers to the timely and complete investigation of new treatments. Recruitment and retention receive some of the blame for the long, protracted timeline of clinical trials. Finding solutions for recruitment challenges will therefore improve the overall efficiency of study trials and the speed of drug discovery.
The law of neutrality introduces a concomitant set of rights and obligations between belligerents and neutrals. The law as it has settled at the turn of the twentieth century has remained the same in relation to its basic principles, and it has easily adapted to the evolution of the law of the sea, globalized trade and arms technology. The intrusiveness of belligerent practice in the form of exclusion zones, navicerts and distance blockade has become part of the law provided that it does not deviate from the humanitarian law of armed conflict. Moreover, the four Geneva Conventions and the First Additional Protocol admit a humanitarian role for neutral States.
This article is aimed at anyone who is responsible for recruiting staff and discusses how to prepare for a successful job interview. It is written in the context of a competitive recruitment market caused by the increased workload in law firms since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. The author, Victoria North, is a senior information professional with many years of experience of building successful teams. She shares some of the best practices she has learnt during her career.
There is plenty of advice for those about to take an interview for a job, but what about if you're sitting on the other side of the table? Here Jas Breslin, Research & Information Services Manager at top city law firm Charles Russell Speechlys, guides us though the key things to keep in mind when you're the one asking the questions.
In response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the State of Maryland established a 250-bed emergency response field hospital at the Baltimore Convention Center to support the existing health care infrastructure. To operationalize this hospital with 65 full-time equivalent clinicians in less than 4 weeks, more than 300 applications were reviewed, 186 candidates were interviewed, and 159 clinicians were credentialed and onboarded. The key steps to achieve this undertaking involved employing multidisciplinary teams with experienced personnel, mass outreach, streamlined candidate tracking, pre-interview screening, utilizing all available expertise, expedited credentialing, and focused onboarding. To ensure staff preparedness, the leadership developed innovative team models, applied principles of effective team building, and provided “just in time” training on COVID-19 and non-COVID-19-related topics to the staff. The leadership focused on staff safety and well-being, offered appropriate financial remuneration, and provided leadership opportunities that allowed retention of staff.
Chapter 1 articulates the process of orphanage trafficking in developing states. It explains how the recruitment of a child into an orphanage occurs and describes how the process of orphanage trafficking manipulates the procedural aspects of gatekeeping into alternative care by claiming children are abandoned or orphaned rather than relinquished. This manipulation is critical in the orphanage-trafficking process as it indicates an intent by the involved orphanage operators to utilise the alternative care framework to justify the admission of children into care. The final part of the orphanage-trafficking process is the maintenance of the child in institutionalisation for the purpose of exploitation and profit through donor funding and orphanage tourism. The chapter then turns to establishing the prevalence of orphanage trafficking in developing states across the world. To do this, it focuses on four regions where there is evidence that the rising number of children in institutional care is in part due to the presence of donor funding and orphanage tourism: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Minority and older adult patients remain underrepresented in cancer clinical trials (CCTs). The current study sought to examine sociodemographic inequities in CCT interest, eligibility, enrollment, decline motivation, and attrition across two psychosocial CCTs for gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and thoracic cancers.
Patients were approached for recruitment to one of two interventions: (1) a randomized control trial (RCT) examining effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting sleep, pain, mood, cytokines, and cortisol following surgery, or (2) a yoga intervention to determine its feasibility, acceptability, and effects on mitigating distress. Prospective RCT participants were queried about interest and screened for eligibility. All eligible patients across trials were offered enrollment. Patients who declined yoga intervention enrollment provided reasons for decline. Sociodemographic predictors of enrollment decisions and attrition were explored.
No sociodemographic differences in RCT interest were observed, and older patients were more likely to be ineligible. Eligible Hispanic patients across trials were significantly more likely to enroll than non-Hispanic patients. Sociodemographic factors predicted differences in decline motivation. In one trial, individuals originating from more urban areas were more likely to prematurely discontinue participation.
These results corroborate evidence of no significant differences in CCT interest across minority groups, with older adults less likely to fulfill eligibility criteria. While absolute Hispanic enrollment was modest, Hispanic patients were more likely to enroll relative to non-Hispanic patients. Additional sociodemographic trends were noted in decline motivation and geographical prediction of attrition. Further investigation is necessary to better understand inequities, barriers, and best recruitment practices for representative CCTs.
Identification of evidence-based factors related to status of the clinical research professional (CRP) workforce at academic medical centers (AMCs) will provide context for National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) policy considerations and guidance. The objective of this study is to explore barriers and opportunities related to the recruitment and retention of the CRP workforce.
Materials and Methods:
Qualitative data from a series of Un-Meeting breakout sessions and open-text survey questions were analyzed to explore barriers and recommendations for improving AMC CRP recruitment, retention and diversity.
While certain institutions have established competency-based frameworks for job descriptions, standardization remains generally lacking across CTSAs. AMCs report substantial increases in unfilled CRP positions leading to operational instability. Data confirmed an urgent need for closing gaps in CRP workforce at AMCs, especially for attracting, training, retaining, and diversifying qualified personnel. Improved collaboration with human resource departments, engagement with principal investigators, and overcoming both organizational and resource challenges were suggested strategies, as well as development of outreach to universities, community colleges, and high schools raising awareness of CRP career pathways.
Based on input from 130 CRP leaders at 35 CTSAs, four National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ Institutional Development Award (IDeA) program sites, along with industry and government representatives, we identified several barriers to successful recruitment and retention of a highly trained and diverse CRP workforce. Results, including securing institutional support, champions, standardizing and adopting proven national models, improving local institutional policies to facilitate CRP hiring and job progression point to potential solutions.
Adequate equitable recruitment of underrepresented groups in clinical research and trials is a national problem and remains a daunting challenge to translating research discoveries into effective healthcare practices. Engagement, recruitment, and retention (ER&R) training programs for Clinical Research Professionals (CRPs) often focus on policies and regulations. Although some training on the importance of diversity and inclusion in clinical research participation has recently been developed, there remains a need for training that couples critical equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) concepts with skill development in effective recruitment and retention strategies, regulations, and best practices.
Approach and methods:
We developed the ER&R Certificate program as a holistic approach to provide Duke University CRPs the opportunity to build competency in gap areas and to increase comfort in championing equitable partnerships with clinical research participants. The thirteen core and elective courses include blended learning elements, such as e-learning and wiki journaling prompts, to facilitate meaningful discussions. Pre- and post-assessments administered to CRP program participants and their managers assessed program impact on CRP skills in ER&R tasks and comfort in equitable, diverse, and inclusive engagement of clinical research participants.
Results and discussion:
Results from the first two cohorts indicate that CRPs perceived growth in their own comfort with program learning objectives, especially those centered on participant partnership and EDI principles, and most managers witnessed growth in competence and responsibility for ER&R-related tasks. Results suggest value in offering CRPs robust training programs that integrate EDI and ER&R training.
Defining key barriers to the development of a well-trained clinical research professional (CRP) workforce is an essential first step in identifying solutions for successful CRP onboarding, training, and competency development, which will enhance quality across the clinical and translational research enterprise. This study aimed to summarize barriers and best practices at academic medical centers related to effective CRP onboarding, training, professional development, identify challenges with the assessment of and mentoring for CRP competency growth, and describe opportunities to improve training and professionalization for the CRP career pathway.
Qualitative data from a series of Un-Meeting breakout sessions and open-text survey questions were analyzed to explore the complex issues involved when developing high-quality onboarding and continuing education opportunities for CRPs at academic medical centers.
Results suggest there are several barriers to training the CRP workforce, including balancing foundational onboarding with role-based training, managing logistical challenges and institutional contexts, identifying/enlisting institutional champions, assessing competency, and providing high-quality mentorship. Several of these themes are interrelated. Two universal threads present throughout all themes are the need for effective communication and the need to improve professionalization of the CRP career pathway.
Few institutions have solved all the issues related to training a competent and adaptable CRP workforce, although some have addressed one or more. We applied a socio-technical lens to illustrate our findings and the need for NCATS-funded academic medical centers to work collaboratively within and across institutions to overcome training barriers and support a vital, well-qualified workforce and present several exemplars from the field to help attain this goal.