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The Introduction frames the issue of war economies regulation from an international law perspective and defines the key concepts and frameworks used in the book. It describes the issues that arise at the nexus of economic activity and war, including the militarization of economic activity and the risk of predation, and identifies two kinds of economies as relevant: economic activity for the war and economic activity in the war zone. The chapter concludes by outlining the chapters in the rest of the book.
The book concludes in Chapter 10 with an analysis of the options for the design of strategies for war economy regulation, both in the war zone as well as with respect to the global flows that intersect with violent conflict. The chapter argues that, whether in the defense of human rights, the regulation of armed conflict, or the preservation of international peace and security, there is ample normative content in international law to regulate predatory economic behaviour in the context of irregular warfare. In addition, international institutions have developed an unexpectedly dense body of administrative practice relevant for the regulation of these war economies. However, the normative content and administrative practice remain fragmented and biased in their application. Despite signs of normative coherence in the system, there is at present no consensus on a regulatory strategy for responding to the economic dimensions of today’s wars.
Part I outlines the international law applicable to economic activity both for the war and in the war zone. It begins by briefly outlining the difference between premodern and modern international law norms governing the acquisition of labour and property in war. The two sets of norms were radically different. As systems of warfare in Europe changed from premodern plunder-based warfare to modern industrial-based warfare, international law overturned and replaced norms regulating plunder and the taking of slaves, with norms that sought to protect labour and property from appropriation and exploitation in war.
Based on a year of fieldwork in Lagos markets, Chapter 5 looks in depth at four markets, demystifying leadership behavior and the role of politics, and testing the part of the theory that focuses on threats and leader strength. The first market is an archetype of private good governance, and the chapter assesses the extent to which the conditions that sustain these policies are consistent with the book’s theory. The other three markets are governed by leaders who fail to create supportive environments for traders. Prior studies assume that such groups disappear quickly, as current group members abandon them and prospective group members decide not to join. The chapter documents that these groups can persist for much longer than previously assumed. One of the markets highlights a special type of group: one in which the group leader extorts from their own members. Previous studies have assumed that group members are mobile and would simply move to a better group if a leader attempted to extort from them, and that group leaders would therefore refrain from extorting for fear of losing members. This case study illustrates how predatory leaders exploit traders’ immobility.
Salt marshes have been useful study systems for community ecologists. They are amenable to experimental manipulation, and the simplicity and strong abiotic gradients of salt marshes lead to clear patterns and experimental outcomes. Many early ecologists believed that salt marsh ecosystems were primarily controlled by bottom-up factors (i.e., that nutrients, salinity, and other abiotic factors were the primary factors regulating productivity, and that productivity in turn regulated ecosystem trophic structure). More recently, many ecologists have argued that consumers have an important role in structuring salt marsh ecosystems through “top-down” processes. A simple conceptual approach, which we take here, is to think of salt marsh communities as being structured by bottom-up, top-down, and non-trophic processes.
We report on what appear to be increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots Rhychopsitta pachyrhyncha. Thick-billed Parrots are classified as ‘Endangered’ and their seasonal breeding range is restricted to increasingly fragmented and degraded high elevation mixed conifer forest habitat within the Sierra Madre Occidental region of north-western Mexico. Predation of established breeding pairs has recently contributed to the ongoing decline of Thick-billed Parrot populations by removing mature birds with high reproductive value, which has associated consequences for future recruitment. We observed increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots by bobcats Lynx rufus accompanied by kittens throughout the 2018–2019 breeding seasons, and we speculate that recent reductions in bobcat habitat have pushed them into new ranges where they are supplementing their diet with nontraditional prey items.
Sacred groves (SG) of south India are either relics of primary or secondary forests or swamps, worshipped by the local communities, and distributed in the countrysides (CS) and forest landscapes of India. Studies suggest that SGs harbour a biodiversity different from that of adjoining CS and have a structural similarity to protected forests. Studies also suggest a negative effect of structural complexity of forests on predation. Considering these two expectations, we compared the predation of artificial caterpillars inside SGs and CSs with the hypothesis that predation will be less in SG than in CS. Examining the predation marks, we identified the likely predator and scored the intensity of predation. Bite marks of arthropods, birds, lizards and mammals were observed on caterpillars of both habitats. The predation rate and predation intensity were similar for overall predators and for each predator taxon in both habitats, despite the fact that mammal predation was mostly encountered in SGs. Because the proportion of predated caterpillars is not different between habitats and the intensity of predation is high in SGs, we conclude that SGs may not have a quality of the expected standard.
Since the mid-1980s, swarms of the rhizostome Rhopilema nomadica have been an annual phenomenon in Israeli Mediterranean coastal waters during the summer months. Despite its annual prominence and the potential impact on food webs and ecosystem services, studies concerning its feeding ecology and its interactions with other biota in the marine food web have not been conducted. During summer 2015 gut contents of 41 R. nomadica were analysed as well as ambient plankton assemblages. More than 60% of the medusae diet was found to consist of microzooplankton <150 μm. Size correlations revealed that larger R. nomadica consumed faster swimming prey while smaller medusae relied more on the slower swimming taxa. The medusan diet reflected most of the ambient plankton taxa, but no statistically significant correlations between the relative abundance in diet and ambient plankton were found. As summer progressed, there was a gradual decrease in both mean medusa bell diameter (from 42.2–16 cm) and integrity of feeding structures. These findings suggest that R. nomadica, at least at the time of its appearance in Israeli coastal waters, may exert less predatory pressure on the plankton than we might otherwise expect.
Chapter 9 reveals that there are now new iterations of predatory lending in the form of “nonprime loans,” as well as continued abusive practices in mortgage modifications. These loans are now widely offered in the mortgage market and the market has now extended to nonprime auto loans and nonprime credit cards. While the market boasts in its disclosures that the “illegal activities” on zero-deposit mortgages are no longer prevalent, much of the conduct found during the subprime debacle appears to be continuing today. This chapter connects this new burgeoning nonprime market with some of the structural features of financial markets and the treatment of African Americans, portending the risk of another significant financial crisis for African-American and other borrowers. The other recent development is with respect to mortgage modifications themselves. The U.S. government ended its modification programs in 2016 and handed authority for modification back to the private sector.
Non-native, exotic or introduced species fall into the category of aliens, whereas an invasive species is an alien that gives rise to ecological, economic, health or other concerns as a result of its establishment and spread, or has the potential to do so. Their effects include predation, competition and displacement, or hybridization with natives, as well as the transmission of parasites or pathogens. In cases where aliens are ecological engineers, the ramifications of their establishment are such that food-web architecture is disrupted, causing shifts in ecosystem structure and function. Predators (often piscivores) can cause marked changes in lakes (such as Victoria), but filter-feeing bivalves are also nuisance species. Fishes (often deliberately stocked), molluscs, crayfishes and other crustaceans, as well as aquatic macrophytes are frequently invasive, but aliens include a broad array of taxa. Both lakes and rivers in almost all continents are affected, especially those subject to human modification or with compromised water quality. The outcome of such invasions is replacement of natives, and on-going biotic homogenization of a formerly diverse global biota.
In this chapter, the author offers grounds for belief that, in the eschatological end, God will resurrect, transform, and include all non-human creatures and things in the messianic kingdom of God. Besides philosophical-theological and moral grounds, he appeals to doctrines of the “image of God,” the atonement, and the resurrection in support of this eschatological proposition. Next, he discusses recently offered scenarios of animals in Heaven. He focuses on the identity-problem of predation: will predators transformed into non-predators still be themselves? Finally, he offers his own scenario of God defeating Darwinian evil for animals by elevating them to a stature analogous to the exalted place of martyrs according to Christian tradition.
How and why do predators sometimes fuel disease outbreaks but other times thwart them? Answering this could help explain spatial and temporal variation in disease and could explain why attempts to control disease by manipulating predators sometimes fail. We give eight mechanisms by which predators can suppress/spread disease in prey populations, exploring each generally and reviewing evidence from the study system that has been the focus of much of our research. This system focuses on Daphnia dentifera, a dominant herbivore in lake food webs in the Midwestern United States. D. dentifera is prey to bluegill sunfish and phantom midge larvae, as well as host to a virulent fungal pathogen. We review evidence for bluegill sunfish as ‘healthy herds’ predators that reduce disease, and for midge larvae as ‘predator spreaders’ that fuel disease outbreaks. We find that both predators can impact disease via multiple mechanisms. Bluegill feed selectively on infected hosts and also depress disease in Daphnia by reducing the density of midge larvae which spread disease. They also increase the abundance of Ceriodaphnia, which reduce disease. Midge larvae increase disease in their hosts, in part by releasing spores into the water column where they can be consumed by additional hosts.
The Levantine Basin at the south-eastern corner of the Mediterranean represents the trailing edge of the distribution of native Atlanto-Mediterranean species, where they are exposed to the most extreme temperature and salinity conditions. The region is also fast warming and exposed to a flood of alien species, mostly thermophilic ones from the Indo-Pacific. The Levant coast also hosts a unique, fragile and understudied rocky intertidal ecosystem – vermetid reefs. Anecdotal historical data and observations, and recent extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal community surveys on the Israeli coast (including a marine reserve) indicate that Levant reefs are (1) overfished; (2) highly invaded by thermophilic alien species, some (rabbitfish) highly destructive; (3) dominated by turf barrens (canopy-forming brown algae are rare, probably overgrazed by rabbitfish) and increasing patches of alien algae and (4) suffering the loss of many native species (e.g., urchins subtidally and the main reef-building vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma petraeum, intertidally). Laboratory work has shown that many native species that are still abundant are likely to disappear under increasing warming, while aliens are much more resistant. Mesocosm experiments demonstrated that, under both warming and acidification, the community structure will further shift, and whole community functions will transform from autotrophic to heterotrophic.
The ‘deep sea’ encompasses a broad range of habitats that differ greatly in their assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Habitats may be described by a combination of environmental factors (e.g., depth, slope) and biotic factors (e.g., source of primary productivity). We review recent attempts to define deep-sea biogeographic provinces based on spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic conditions, and consider potential boundaries to distributional ranges, in particular habitats based on recent phylogeographic studies. We briefly discuss abiotic interactions in various habitats, noting the particular influence of local hydrodynamics. We consider competition and predation at whale falls and hydrothermal vents, discuss symbiotic interactions particularly with respect to deep-sea corals, which are particularly prevalent in submarine canyons and seamounts, and consider the difficulties of inferring processes from patterns.
We summarise processes determining large-scale patterns of distribution and abundance of macroinfauna from Florida to Newfoundland, ~25°N to 52°N, focussing on intertidal and shallow subtidal (~ 5 m depth) muddy sands and sandy muds, habitats with abundant experimental data. Within the theme of geographic distribution of processes, mechanisms and patterns we suggest latitudinal patterns will likely change most as climate changes intensify. Published studies support the following major biogeographic patterns: (1) reduced importance of large disturbance predators north of Cape Cod, driven by latitudinal shifts in thermal regimes; (2) large digging predators from Delaware Bay (39.25°N) southwards dramatically reduce infaunal densities, restricting competitive interactions; (3) disturbance refugia, e.g., Zostera, drive southern spatial patterns; (4) rising seawater temperatures and reduced water clarity limit the extent and diversity of rooted plants in the south and mid-Atlantic; (5) latitudinal changes in tidal regimes result in greater aerial exposure in the north, magnifying latitudinal sea surface temperature changes; (6) ice cover intensifies to the north and (7) the Boston−Washington, DC megalopolis accentuates human signatures through eutrophication between 36.5°N and 42.6°N. Finally, we discuss potential shifts with climate change in these latitudinal patterns and processes.
Carnivore conservation depends on people's willingness to implement management practices to reduce threats to carnivores and mitigate conflicts between carnivores and domestic animals. We assessed the willingness of rural communities in central-southern Chile to (1) conserve carnivores, and (2) adopt management practices to reduce predation of domestic animals, a key factor triggering carnivore–human conflicts in rural areas. The study focused on five carnivores: the chilla Lycalopex griseus, the culpeo Lycalopex culpaeus, Darwin's fox Lycalopex fulvipes, the guiña or kodkod Leopardus guigna, and the puma Puma concolor. We found that rural communities perceived that threats towards carnivores rarely occurr in their region, contrary to the literature on this subject; people's attitudes differed depending on the carnivore; and people were willing to adopt management practices to help conserve carnivores (e.g. overnight protection of domestic animals and investment in infrastructure for henhouses and cowsheds), except leashing dogs. The willingness to conserve carnivores and adopt practices that would help do so may be associated with how these measures affect people's well-being. Although rural communities would like carnivores to be conserved, this cannot be achieved unless some pivotal practices, such as management of domestic dogs, are adopted by these communities. For successful biodiversity conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes, the social incentives necessary for rural communities to adopt appropriate management practices must be identified and implemented.
Local attitudes towards carnivores often reflect the degree of damage they are perceived to cause. Consequently, understanding the interactions between people and these species is essential to conservation efforts. This study investigated local perceptions of three Cerrado canid species and current chicken management practices, to identify the potential damage they cause and how this relates to peoples’ attitudes towards these species. Results from structured interviews at 50 ranches in Goiás, Brazil, highlighted that general knowledge about Cerrado canids differed significantly by species, with interviewees unable to correctly answer questions about the hoary fox Lycalopex vetulus and crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous in comparison to the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus. Chicken coops were identified as the most effective method for preventing predation, yet only 44% of respondents employed this method. Using a perceived predation measure, interviewees reported chicken predation by all three Cerrado canids even though most of these events were stated to occur during the day, outside the species’ active periods. Reported predation events were a strong predictor of attitude. Participants who experienced predation events reported they did not like having a Cerrado canid on their property. However, 86% of the respondents agreed that Cerrado canids should nevertheless be protected. Our findings support the need to incorporate the human dimension in canid and broader carnivore conservation issues.
The number of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIS) has rapidly increased globally. The majority of published evidence on the effects of NIS on local communities is from single species studies in which the interactive effects of NIS are not considered. Here we present experimental evidence of separate and interactive effects of two widespread non-indigenous benthic predators, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and the North American mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) on benthic invertebrate communities in a shallow coastal ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. The two species have recently colonized multiple sub-basins of the Baltic Sea and due to their rapid range expansion, increasing densities and local functional novelty, they are expected to have strong separate or interactive effects on native communities. Our laboratory experiment demonstrated that round goby and mud crab exerted a significant predation pressure on different benthic invertebrate species and the effects of the studied predators were largely independent. Predation was stronger at higher temperature compared with low temperature treatment. Among the studied invertebrate species gammarid amphipods were consumed the most. Interestingly, round goby did not prey on the mud crabs despite a large size difference of the studied predators.
Extinctions have altered island ecosystems throughout the late Quaternary. Here, we review the main historic drivers of extinctions on islands, patterns in extinction chronologies between islands, and the potential for restoring ecosystems through reintroducing extirpated species. While some extinctions have been caused by climatic and environmental change, most have been caused by anthropogenic impacts. We propose a general model to describe patterns in these anthropogenic island extinctions. Hunting, habitat loss and the introduction of invasive predators accompanied prehistoric settlement and caused declines of endemic island species. Later settlement by European colonists brought further land development, a different suite of predators and new drivers, leading to more extinctions. Extinctions alter ecological networks, causing ripple effects for islands through the loss of ecosystem processes, functions and interactions between species. Reintroduction of extirpated species can help restore ecosystem function and processes, and can be guided by palaeoecology. However, reintroduction projects must also consider the cultural, social and economic needs of humans now inhabiting the islands and ensure resilience against future environmental and climate change.