To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The phonetics/phonology interface refers to the relationship between the physical dimensions of phonetics and the abstract arrangement of phonemes and their manifestations within the phonological systems of languages. This chapter provides an overview of a range of approaches to the investigation of the phonetics/phonology interface, with particular attention to the relationships between phonetic factors such as positional prominence, acoustic salience and articulatory gestures, and phonological phenomena such as segment features and inventories, assimilation, and tone. I survey several clusters of theoretical orientation, each with distinct theoretical underpinnings and claims about the extent to which phonological concepts encode, reflect or direct phonetic details. I conclude with a discussion synthesising these seemingly disparate approaches, unifying them around a theme of linking the continuous physical dimensions of phonetic science with the abstract cognitive categories and rules of combination that typify phonological models. I discuss pedagogical implications and new directions in which facets of the interface can be explored.
This study aims to describe the relationships between child-internal and child-external factors and the consonant accuracy of bilingual children. More specifically, the study looks at internal factors: expressive and receptive vocabulary, and external factors: language exposure and language status, of a group of 4-year-old bilingual Arabic–French children. We measured the consonant accuracy of the children by the percentage of correct consonants in a Picture-Naming Task and a Non-Word Repetition Task in each language. The results suggest a significant relationship between vocabulary and consonant accuracy. A cross-language correlation was observed between the expressive vocabulary level of the majority language (French) and the consonant accuracy of the minority language (Arabic). Also, a significant correlation was found between Arabic language exposure and Arabic consonant accuracy. Finally, consonant accuracy was significantly higher in French tasks than in Arabic, despite the individual differences of the children.
Definitions of heritage languages include the languages of migrant, indigenous, and national minorities. This chapter is concerned with migrant minorities. The EU is generally pictured as valuing multilingualism, as reflected by EU policies and citizen’s attitudes. Nevertheless, when Europeans think and speak about protecting multilingualism, they do not necessarily have migrant languages in mind, although these are more numerous than other minorities in terms of both language diversity and number of speakers. The chapter summarizes linguistic research on HSs in Europe covering early childhood, primary school/adolescence, and adulthood, making reference to (morpho-)syntax, phonology, and vocabulary. The goal is to uncover common outcomes and missing links. The focus differs across these research areas but crosslinguistic influence is a common denominator, and the examples witness that research has gone beyond highlighting differences between monolinguals and HSs. Scenarios suggest that HSs may anticipate or resist language change, and that adult HSs often stay within the limits of what is possible in the baseline or related varieties. I conclude by pointing out the lack of comparisons across generations, an overrepresentation of specific languages families, and by suggesting that research drawing analogies with other situations of language contact and change are highly desirable.
Chapter 2 accounts for the general expectation that periods characterized by the dissolution of strong network ties and the establishment of weak ones can be expected to feature a great deal of language change. A survey of sociocultural and linguistic change in England between 1700 and 1900 then demonstrates that structural language change is less prevalent than could be expected given what must have been an increasing prevalence of weak network ties during the period. It is argued that the correlation between weak ties and language change in fact still holds, but that traditional estimates of the amount of language change in Late Modern English do not capture the full extent of the developments that take place between 1700 and 1900.
Multilingualism in Israel emerged thousands of years ago with Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic, and Greek all playing meaningful roles. Today`s multilingualism started to take shape with the return of Jews at the end of the nineteenth century and the revitalization of Hebrew. This reverse migration has given rise to a complex multilingual tapestry of 40–50 Heritage Languages (HLs) spoken by 1st, 2nd, 3rd generation immigrants, as well as indigenous vernaculars of Arabic. In the current chapter, we select five HLs (English, Russian, Amharic, Yiddish, and Juhuri), which vary considerably in the number of speakers, social status as perceived by in-group speakers and by the outside world, the presence and transmission of literacy, and by the aspiration of the speakers to integrate into Israeli society. Despite all these differences, all HLs interact with and are influenced to greater or lesser degrees by Hebrew, the only official language of the State of Israel, giving rise to hybrid versions identifiable with bilingual speakers of the particular language pair. The chapter overviews the linguistic and sociolinguistic properties of these HLs and discusses potential mechanisms that may account for divergence from native speakers in the country of origin or dominant speakers of the HL.
Heritage speakers of Slavic languages constitute a large proportion of heritage speaker communities worldwide. Slavic heritage communities manifest a strong feeling of loyalty toward the home language and culture as well as the establishment of institutions (churches, clubs, community schools, etc.) that support language and culture maintenance. Recent research on heritage speakers of Russian in the United States suggests that the preservation of family ties remains the core motivation for language maintenance. On the linguistic level, Slavic heritage languages reveal striking parallels regarding the restructuring, partial reduction, and simplification of phonology, grammar, and the lexicon. While the majority language without doubt exerts a pervasive impact on the respective Slavic heritage grammar and lexicon, parallel developments in the same heritage language spoken in different countries hint at more universal principles of language change being at play in reshaping heritage grammars. As some heritage languages have received more attention than others, more systematic comparative research is needed to shed additional light on these language-independent developments.
Uri Horesh discusses how sociolinguistic theory and research are expressed and investigated in Arabic. He focuses on variation, stating that ‘Arabic as a natural language… exhibits and has always exhibited, a vast degree of variation’. He explores gender, class, and age as variable factors in language change, and the effects of urban/rural differences. Horesh aims to specify how research in Arabic linguistics can enrich concepts in sociolinguistics, especially as pertains to phonological processes. He examines Labov’s concept of chain shift for both vowels and consonants in Arabic dialects, and suggests how both quantitative and qualitative research findings in Arabic can contribute to sociolinguistic theory.
Stephan Procházka gives an overarching view of Arabic dialectology from its beginnings in the nineteenth century to the present day, also providing an overview of the general characteristics of spoken varieties of Arabic wherever those are found. Arabic dialectology examines regional variation using both synchronic (dialect geography) and diachronic (language change) approaches. Although its findings are relevant for the study of universal language tendencies in general, and of comparative Semitics in particular, Arabic dialectology has been widely ignored by theory-driven general linguistics. This may be because Arabic dialectologists have largely been interested in description of the myriad phenomena of the multitudinous spoken varieties of Arabic without concerning themselves much with theory. Lately, however, scholars working in Arabic dialectology have begun to present their work in such a way as to be more accessible to the broader field of linguistics.
Khaled Rifaat provides a detailed analysis of Arabic intonation including an extensive review of literature, noting from the outset the ‘paucity of research on intonational prosody’ in Arabic linguistics. He describes Arabic intonation as an ‘accidentally dense system’ characterized by ‘structural and functional simplicity’. In particular, he points out problems of eliciting adequate corpora of spontaneous speech, whether in colloquial Arabic or in more formal Standard Arabic. His discussion covers the theoretical framework of Arabic intonational phonology, phrasing and constituents, accent types and distribution, declination, and trendlines.
This chapter illustrates how some dictionaries published under the Collins imprint deal with aspects of language variation. It provides three case studies: the first looks at how dictionaries portray languages where multiple norms enjoy a similar level of prestige, using the example of Irish; the second looks at how a large monolingual dictionary of English acknowledges the existence of variation within the language; and the third investigates how variations in spelling, pronunciation and lexis are dealt with in two English dictionaries designed for learners of English. These case studies reveal how different target readerships can determine the treatment of language variation in different dictionaries. In the final sections of the chapter, the focus shifts to the impact of technology on the process of publishing dictionaries, showing how different considerations come into play when creating materials for online access and suggesting how this medium may eventually allow for a dictionary concept that reflects the full variety of language in use rather than being orientated towards a single prestigious standard variety.
The rise of standard forms of language for both the English- and the Spanish-speaking worlds is a development which benefits from contrast. Both languages spread overseas, with national standards arising during the later colonial period through a process of supraregionalization by which local varieties lost strong vernacular features and came to function as non-stigmatized, publically accepted varieties. However, the details of these developments are different and the cultural attitudes to varieties spoken in the source countries in Europe vary considerably, determining the ways in which standards are viewed and used in both the Anglophone and the Hispanophone worlds.
Spelling has been found to be influenced by the frequency with which certain orthographic patterns occur. We examined whether Grades 2–5 children were already sensitive to orthographic frequency in spelling present tense verb inflections that sound the same but are spelled differently. Children were asked to spell present tenses in two homophonous forms; both inflections are pronounced with final /t/ but are spelled with final -d (“ik vind,” I find) or -dt (“hij/zij vindt,” he/she finds). Previous research has shown that adolescents and adults make inflection errors based on the relative frequency within a pair; as “vind’ is more frequent than “vindt,” “vind” is often used incorrectly. The children showed low correct scores for third person singular spellings, and overall better performance for -d dominant verbs. Surprisingly, they did make errors related to homophone inflection but in the wrong place, marking the wrong time: homophone-based errors occurred in present tense non-homophone verbs and in past tenses. We take our findings to mean that the children were not sensitive to homophone dominance. Furthermore, the findings illustrate the importance of specific graphotactic patterns in literacy development and call for attention to these patterns in models and teaching of spelling.
Chapter 2 uses a variety of investigative activities to guide readers through an exploration of the sounds and articulations of the world’s languages and the linguistic rules that govern their appearances. It begins with an overview of the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds, which are then employed in a discussion of the articulation apparatus. Throughout, students are directed to engage in their own investigations with the material via the Discover Activities. Various data from a variety of languages are provided to illustrate different phonological rules, and the techniques linguists use to discover them through analysis. These insights are then transferred to a discussion of transformations and processes that complicate phonological systems.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to language analysis in the linguistic sense. It establishes the specifications of the scientific approach to language, describes uses and characteristics across different areas, and provides an overview of the domains of linguistics. This includes a review of sounds, including phonetics and phonology; structure, including morphology and syntax; and meaning, including semantics and pragmatics. Through the provision of Discover Activities that provide a scaffold for the investigation of these concepts, readers then become familiar with the analytic techniques that will be emphasized throughout the book. These techniques are finally specified and detailed as part of a broader method of investigation and hypothesis testing.
This is an engaging introduction to the study of language for undergraduate or beginning graduate students, aimed especially at those who would like to continue further linguistic study. It introduces students to analytical thinking about language, but goes beyond existing texts to show what it means to think like a scientist about language, through the exploration of data and interactive problem sets. A key feature of this text is its flexibility. With its focus on foundational areas of linguistics and scientific analysis, it can be used in a variety of course types, with instructors using it alongside other information or texts as appropriate for their own courses of study. The text can also serve as a supplementary text in other related fields (Speech and Hearing Sciences, Psychology, Education, Computer Science, Anthropology, and others) to help learners in these areas better understand how linguists think about and work with language data. No prerequisites are necessary. While each chapter often references content from the others, the three central chapters on sound, structure, and meaning, may be used in any order.
This article examines whether children alter a variable phonological pattern in an artificial language towards a phonetically-natural form. We address acquisition of a variable rounding harmony pattern through the use of two artificial languages; one with dominant harmony pattern, and another with dominant non-harmony pattern. Overall, children favor harmony pattern in their production of the languages. In the language where harmony is non-dominant, children's subsequent production entirely reverses the pattern so that harmony predominates. This differs starkly from adults. Our results compare to the regularization found in child learning of morphosyntactic variation, suggesting a role for naturalness in variable phonological learning.
Chapter 2, The Gifted Language Learner, outlines the long-standing fascination in SLA with those who are able to reach a native-like level in a second language (L2).
Up to now, gifted language learning (GLL) is nearly exclusively investigated in terms of cognitive processing, e.g., as a function of aptitude, memory or musical talent, rather than as an outgrowth of language contact or cultural affiliation.
Understanding the need for greater consistency in empirical work in this area, we specify what “native-likeness” looks like in linguistic terms for lexicon, morphosyntax, phonology, pragmatics, etc. We also dig deeply into case studies of exceptional L2 learners in order to find commonalities in their approach. These in-depth examinations bring a number of issues into sharp focus, and build the argument that GLL is not the result of any singular source of influence. The interaction of numerous factors, playing out in context, tells the real tale.
In this paper, I examine a case of vowel insertion found in Savo and Pohjanmaa dialects of Finnish that is typically called “epenthesis”, but which demonstrates characteristics of both phonetic excrescence and phonological epenthesis. Based on a phonological analysis paired with an acoustic corpus study, I argue that Finnish vowel insertion is the mixed result of phonetic excrescence and the phonologization of these vowels, and is related to second-mora lengthening, another dialectal phenomenon. I propose a gestural model of second-mora lengthening that would generate vowel insertion in its original phonetic state. The link to second-mora lengthening provides a unified account that addresses both the dialectal and phonological distribution of the phenomenon, which have not been linked in previous literature.
This article questions the prevalent account of North Germanic tonogenesis, which proposes that at the outset, Accent 2 was characterized by a double-peaked melody close to the one found in central Swedish today (Riad 1998, Kingston 2011). The spreading patterns observed in the data analyzed here are difficult to reconcile with this hypothesis. My analysis instead offers support in favor of the alternative hypothesis that the phonetic roots of the accentual contrast are to be found in a difference in timing between single peaks, specifically, peak delay in plurisyllabic domains, but not in mono-syllables due to lack of space. The variation observed in the single peak Dalarna varieties today, from robust timing differences in the south to absence or only partial implementation of the tonal contrast in the north, strongly suggests that the accentual contrast has been spreading northwards through incremental peak delay in Accent 2 words. I argue that this situation mirrors the initial stages in the development that, through additional peak delay, eventually resulted in a double-peaked Accent 2 melody in central Scandinavia. At the same time, the older single peak patterns are still retained in Dalarna and scattered around the geographical margins of Norway and Sweden.*
To investigate cross-linguistic interactions in bimodal bilingual production, behavioural and electrophysiological measures (ERPs) were recorded from 24 deaf bimodal bilinguals while naming pictures in Catalan Sign Language (LSC). Two tasks were employed, a picture-word interference and a picture-picture interference task. Cross-linguistic effects were explored via distractors that were either semantically related to the target picture, to the phonology/orthography of the Spanish name of the target picture, or were unrelated. No semantic effects were observed in sign latencies, but ERPs differed between semantically related and unrelated distractors. For the form-related manipulation, a facilitation effect was observed both behaviourally and at the ERP level. Importantly, these effects were not influenced by the type of distractor (word/picture) presented providing the first piece of evidence that deaf bimodal bilinguals are sensitive to oral language in sign production. Implications for models of cross-linguistic interactions in bimodal bilinguals are discussed.