To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This is an engaging introduction to the study of language for undergraduate or beginning graduate students, aimed especially at those who would like to continue further linguistic study. It introduces students to analytical thinking about language, but goes beyond existing texts to show what it means to think like a scientist about language, through the exploration of data and interactive problem sets. A key feature of this text is its flexibility. With its focus on foundational areas of linguistics and scientific analysis, it can be used in a variety of course types, with instructors using it alongside other information or texts as appropriate for their own courses of study. The text can also serve as a supplementary text in other related fields (Speech and Hearing Sciences, Psychology, Education, Computer Science, Anthropology, and others) to help learners in these areas better understand how linguists think about and work with language data. No prerequisites are necessary. While each chapter often references content from the others, the three central chapters on sound, structure, and meaning, may be used in any order.
Cross-linguistic generalizations about grammatical contexts favoring syncretism often have an implicational form. This paper shows that this is expected if (i) morphological paradigms are required to be both as small and as unambiguous as possible, (ii) languages may prioritize these requirements differently, and (iii) probability distributions for grammatical features interacting in syncretic patterns are fixed across languages. More specifically, this approach predicts that grammatical contexts that are less probable or more informative about a target grammatical feature $ T $ should favor syncretism of $ T $ cross-linguistically. The paper provides evidence for these predictions based on four detailed case studies involving well-known patterns of contextual syncretism (gender syncretism based on number, gender syncretism based on person, aspect syncretism based on tense, and case syncretism based on animacy).
First identify the foreground abnormality (or activity) based on three key features of Location (generalized, lateralized, bilaterally independent, focal, or multifocal), occurrence (sporadic or repetitive), and morphology (sharp or blunt). Next, qualify your description with the modifiers of prevalence, duration, amplitude, and frequency. Prevalence - abnormalities may be continuous or intermittent, if intermittent; they may be abundant, frequent, occasional or rare. Duration - intermittent abnormalities may be very long, long, intermittent, brief, or of a very brief duration when they occur. These terms are most useful with continuous EEG monitoring. Amplitude - abnormalities may be very low (< 20 uV), low (20-49 uV), medium (50-199 uV), or high (> 200 uV) in amplitude; always measure the absolute amplitude (peak to trough). Frequency - measure the typical rate of the abnormality to the nearest 0.5 per second division. When reporting the waveform, the modifiers (prevalence, duration, amplitude, and frequency) should precede the three key features of location, composition, and morphology.
Frequency is the number of times a waveform occurs per second (one big square). Rhythms in addition to frequency have characteristic features of location, morphology, reactivity, and state dependence. Frequencies are descriptive; rhythms are diagnostic. Clinically relevant frequency bands include delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (5-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-30 Hz). The alpha rhythm is an obligate feature of normal wakefulness, and it has considerable variations. Abnormal alpha rhythm may be slow, asymmetric, or unreactive (Bancaud’s phenomena). Excessive beta is associated with sedative medications. In most normal adults, theta and delta rhythms are limited to drowsiness or sleep; their occurrence during wakefulness may be abnormal.
Spelling has been found to be influenced by the frequency with which certain orthographic patterns occur. We examined whether Grades 2–5 children were already sensitive to orthographic frequency in spelling present tense verb inflections that sound the same but are spelled differently. Children were asked to spell present tenses in two homophonous forms; both inflections are pronounced with final /t/ but are spelled with final -d (“ik vind,” I find) or -dt (“hij/zij vindt,” he/she finds). Previous research has shown that adolescents and adults make inflection errors based on the relative frequency within a pair; as “vind’ is more frequent than “vindt,” “vind” is often used incorrectly. The children showed low correct scores for third person singular spellings, and overall better performance for -d dominant verbs. Surprisingly, they did make errors related to homophone inflection but in the wrong place, marking the wrong time: homophone-based errors occurred in present tense non-homophone verbs and in past tenses. We take our findings to mean that the children were not sensitive to homophone dominance. Furthermore, the findings illustrate the importance of specific graphotactic patterns in literacy development and call for attention to these patterns in models and teaching of spelling.
Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis is a contemporary and innovative computer-based algorithm that can be used for the quantification of subtle changes in a cellular structure. In this work, we use this method for the detection of discrete alterations in hepatocyte chromatin distribution after in vivo exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The study was performed on 40 male, healthy C57BL/6 mice divided into four groups: three experimental groups that received different doses of IONPs and 1 control group. We describe the dose-dependent reduction of chromatin textural uniformity measured as GLCM angular second moment. Similar changes were detected for chromatin textural uniformity expressed as the value of inverse difference moment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the impact of iron-based nanomaterials on hepatocyte GLCM parameters. Also, this is the first study to apply discrete wavelet transform analysis, as a supplementary method to GLCM, for the assessment of hepatocyte chromatin structure in these conditions. The results may present the useful basis for future research on the application of GLCM and DWT methods in pathology and other medical research areas.
Given the importance of embryo developmental competence assessment in reproductive medicine and biology, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of fertilization and cleavage morphokinetics with embryo morphology to predict post-ICSI live birth. Data from embryos cultured in a time-lapse microscopy (TLM) incubator and with known live birth outcomes (LB: embryos achieving live birth, n = 168; NLB: embryos not achieving live birth, n = 1633) were used to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on morphokinetic or morphological scores, and the respective areas under the curve (AUC) were compared. The association between live birth and 12 combinations of four morphokinetic quality degrees (A–D) with three morphological quality degrees (A–C) was assessed using multivariate analysis. Morphokinetic parameters from tPNa to t8 were reached earlier in LB compared with NLB embryos. The ROC curve analysis indicated that morphokinetic information is more accurate than conventional morphology to predict live birth [AUC = 0.64 (95% CI 0.58–0.70) versus AUC = 0.58 (95% CI 0.51–0.65)]. The multivariate analysis was in line with AUCs, revealing that embryos with poor morphokinetics, independently of their morphology, provide lower live birth rates (P < 0.001). A considerable percentage of embryos with top morphology presented poor morphokinetics (20.10%), accompanied by a severely reduced live birth rate in comparison with embryos with top morphology and morphokinetics (P < 0.001). In conclusion, TLM-derived early morphokinetic parameters were more predictive of live-birth achievement following ICSI than conventional morphology.
The palate is a fundamental region in food swallowing and presents different adaptations in species. This research aimed to describe structural and ultrastructural characteristics of the palatine epithelium and the connective tissue cores (CTCs) of ten red-rumped agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina—Linnaeus, 1758) using macroscopic, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We found nine palatine ridges in the diastema and hard palate, and a smooth surface in the soft palate. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium with projections of lamina propria and soft palate had gland clusters. Epithelial removal revealed CTCs with a conical shape with high density in the hard palate and the sides of the soft palate. Near the CTCs were nerve fibers in the hard palate, and the soft palate had muscular tissue below the gland clusters. The structural and ultrastructural characteristics enable stability of the hard palate and fixation to the soft palate sides, while the soft palate center has greater mobility thus assisting in food swallowing. We concluded that structural characteristics are similar to other mammals, although the morphology of agouti's palate differs in the amount and disposition of palatine ridges, and the conical CTC's morphology.
Several studies have signaled grammatical difficulties in individuals with developmental dyslexia. These difficulties may stem from a phonological deficit, but may alternatively be explained through a domain-general deficit in statistical learning. This study investigates grammar in children with and without dyslexia, and whether phonological memory and/or statistical learning ability contribute to individual differences in grammatical performance. We administered the CELF “word structure” and “recalling sentences” subtests and measures of phonological memory (digit span, nonword repetition) and statistical learning (serial reaction time, nonadjacent dependency learning) among 8- to 11-year-old children with and without dyslexia (N = 50 per group). Consistent with previous findings, our results show subtle difficulties in grammar, as children with dyslexia achieved lower scores on the CELF (word structure: p = .0027, recalling sentences: p = .053). While the two phonological memory measures were found to contribute to individual differences in grammatical performance, no evidence for a relationship with statistical learning was found. An error analysis revealed errors in irregular morphology (e.g., plural and past tense), suggesting problems with lexical retrieval. These findings are discussed in light of theoretical accounts of the underlying deficit in dyslexia.
This chapter gives an introductory overview of the strategies for forming words in the languages of mainland Southeast Asia. The chapter begins with a discussion of the form class distinctions that are found, including the categories of noun, verb, adjective, adposition, and adverb. Of the various processes for forming words, the chapter focuses on compounding and reduplication, which are relied upon widely in languages of the area, and affixation, which is a speciality of Austroasiatic languages in particular. The chapter features a section on the uses of tone in word formation, a feature of Hmong-Mien languages. Psycho-collocations are discussed: an area-wide form of compounding involving the mention of body parts to denote emotional and psychological states.
Mexico has a wealth of plant genetic resources, including Capsicum species. In southern Mexico, specifically in the western part of the Yucatan Peninsula, Maya farmers have preserved a great diversity of chilli pepper landraces of C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense. However, the morphological diversity, capsaicinoid content, conservation status and potential use of these species have not been studied. To fill this gap and generate information to support the conservation and use of these species, we characterized the phenotypic diversity and capsaicinoid content for nine chilli pepper landraces from the western Yucatan Peninsula by assessing 15 quantitative and 39 qualitative traits for 10 plants of each landrace. For quantitative variables, two groups of chilli pepper landraces were obtained by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Group I was formed by Rosita, Bobo, Dulce, Xcat'ik1, Xcat'ik2 and Verde landraces; Group II included the Maax, Bolita and Pico Paloma landraces. For qualitative variables, three groups of chilli pepper landraces were obtained; Group I included Dulce, Bobo, Xcat'ik1, Xcat'ik2 and Verde landraces, Group II only included the Rosita landrace, and Group III included Maax, Bolita and Pico Paloma landraces. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) quantification of capsaicinoids indicated higher values in landraces Rosita (14,062.3 μg/g D.W), Bolita (5928.1 μg/g D.W), Maax (3438.4 μg/g D.W) and Pico Paloma (3138.9 μg/g D.W). The Yucatan chilli pepper landraces provide valuable diverse germplasm for morphological characteristics and capsaicinoid content that can be used in breeding and conservation programmes.
This chapter gives an introductory overview of the basic typological properties of the languages of mainland Southeast Asia, including the morphological profile, and the relative position of major components of phrases, including clauses, noun phrases, adpositional phrases, and comparative constructions. The chapter discusses sentence type distinctions, with a special focus on sentence-final particles, which are found across the mainland Southeast Asia area. The chapter features a section on expressive language, including expressives/ideophones and poetic idioms.
Ecological and biogeographic information for marine gastropods has lagged behind taxonomic, molecular and phylogenetic information, limiting understanding of evolutionary processes. We investigated niche separation and speciation in rapinine whelks that represent a rare deep estuarine penetration by muricid gastropods. We studied the genetic and ecological differentiation of four Indothais morphotypes, distributed along a salinity gradient in Brunei (Borneo, South East Asia). Our molecular analyses, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rRNA), revealed three species having the following relationship [Indothais rufotincta (Tan & Sigurdsson, 1996), [I. javanica (Philippi, 1848), [I. gradata (Jonas, 1846)]]]. This pattern coincided with their salinity-related distributions, such that I. rufotincta occurred alone in the open coastal waters, and I. javanica and I. gradata extended into the upper estuary. This suggests speciation through divergent selection and local adaptation, specifically synapomorphic low salinity tolerance by I. javanica and I. gradata. The observed intertidal vertical separation where the species co-occur suggests competitive exclusion of the others by the most-recently evolved I. gradata. This species also showed greatest morphological and genetic variation, and unique niche expansion involving feeding on both hard surface and muddy sediment organisms. Our study presents a novel hypothesis for the speciation of these snails.
The present study reviews Perinereis Group 2 species from the Eastern and South-eastern Asian seas based on morphological analysis of the types, non-types and original descriptions, and the use of molecular evidence (COI and 16S rDNA) from newly collected material. These species are characterized by having two bar-shaped paragnaths on pharyngeal area VI, which are often deemed conical when small and pointed, triggering misidentifications as to Neanthes species. New terminology and definition for this particular type of bars are proposed, and the generic position of some resembling Neanthes species is also re-assessed. Five species are transferred to Perinereis: Perinereis babuzai comb. nov., P. belawanensis comb. nov., P. kinmenensis comb. nov., P. shigungensis comb. nov. and P. vitabunda comb. nov. ‘Perinereis aibuhitensis’ species group is newly proposed by encompassing species having proximal dorsal ligule similar throughout the body, dorsal cirri short, and blades of heterogomph falcigers straight with long terminal tooth forming a distinct tendon. Perinereis belawanensis comb. nov., P. linea and P. vitabunda comb. nov. are redescribed. Perinereis linea is regarded as a senior synonym of Nereis (Neanthes) orientalis and Perinereis vancaurica tetradentata based on type material, whereas its exotic status in the Mediterranean Sea is questioned. An identification key to all currently valid species within Perinereis Group 2 is also provided.
Children's differing learning trajectories cross-linguistically have been at the forefront of gender acquisition research, often with conflicting results and conclusions. As a result, the source of children's different learning behaviors in gender acquisition has been unclear. I argue that children's gender acquisition is driven by the search for productive patterns. First, I provide corpus studies where the predictions of a learning model (Yang, 2016) are formulated. Second, I report the results of an elicited production task on Icelandic-speaking children (N = 26, ages 2;6-6;3 years) and adults (N = 18) that puts these predictions to test. The results suggest that Icelandic-speaking children and adults draw a categorical distinction between productive and unproductive suffixes in Icelandic gender assignment. I discuss the implications of these findings for morphological learning beyond gender acquisition.
The quantification of morphology through time is a vital tool in elucidating macroevolutionary patterns. Studies of disparity require intense effort but can provide insights beyond those gained using other methodologies. Over the last several decades, studies of disparity have proliferated, often using echinoderms as a model organism. Echinoderms have been used to study the methodology of disparity analyses and potential biases as well as documenting the morphological patterns observed in clades through time. Combining morphological studies with phylogenetic analyses or other disparate data sets allows for the testing of detailed and far-reaching evolutionary hypotheses.
This study describes the embryonic development of Moenkhausia oligolepis in laboratory conditions. After fertilization, the embryos were collected every 10 min up to 2 h, then every 20 min up to 4 h, and afterwards every 30 min until hatching. The fertilized eggs of M. oligolepis measured approximately 0.85 ± 0.5 mm and had an adhesive surface. Embryonic development lasted 14 h at 25ºC through the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, and segmentation phases. Hatching occurred in embryos around the 30-somites stage. The present results contribute only the second description of embryonic development to a species from the Moenkhausia genus, being also the first for this species. Such data are of paramount importance considering the current conflicting state of this genus phylogenetic classification and may help taxonomic studies. Understanding the biology of a species that is easily managed in laboratory conditions and has an ornamental appeal may assist studies in its reproduction to both supply the aquarium market and help the species conservation in nature. Moreover, these data enable the use of M. oligolepis as a model species in biotechnological applications, such as the germ cell transplantation approach.
This work introduces new morphological and molecular information on the filaroid nematode Setaria cervi (Rudolphi, 1819) obtained from 13 infected game ungulates out of 96 dissected. The hosts comprised the following: a single moose (Alces alces), ten red deer (Cervus elaphus) and two sika deer (Cervus nippon) originating from the western and northern regions of the Czech Republic. Based on the complete sequences of the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), all 20 females and four males belonged to the species S. cervi. We detected three developmental female stages (adult fertile females, juvenile L5 females and L4 female larvae) differing in size and some morphological traits as the subtle structure of peribuccal crown and shape and features of tail knob. Such differences were described in detail for the first time. The phylogenetic relationships within the family Onchocercidae have been evaluated using new information on the cox1 sequence of S. cervi (maximum likelihood method, GTR + I + G model). In accordance with the latest phylogenetic studies, the present analysis confirmed the ancient separation of the subclass Setariinae from the remaining two onchocercid lineages Dirofilariinae and Onchocerinae.
A new species of the genus Aporcella collected from a watermelon field in Nigeria is described, including its morphological and molecular (small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) characterization. Aporcella femina sp. n. is distinguished by its 3.21–3.64 mm-long body, inner cuticle layer with fine but distinct transverse striation, lip region offset by deep constriction, 22–25 μm broad, odontostyle 20–26 μm, neck 661–811 μm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–56% of the total neck length, female genital system didelphic–amphidelphic, uterus 191–350 μm or 1.9–3.3 mid-body diameters long, V = 52–57, tail short and convex conoid (35–48 μm, c = 72–98, c′ = 0.7–0.9) and males absent. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial sequence of SSU and LSU (D2–D3) rDNA revealed a close relationship of A. femina sp. n. with other Aporcella species, confirming the monophyly of the genus as well as its association to a clade made of several taxa characterized by the absence of pars refringens vaginae.
Functional benefits of the morphologies described by Bergmann's and Allen's rules in human males have recently been reported. However, the functional implications of ecogeographical patterning in females remain poorly understood. Here, we report the findings of preliminary work analysing the association between body shape and performance in female ultramarathon runners (n = 36) competing in hot and cold environments. The body shapes differed between finishers of hot and cold races, and also between hot race finishers and non-finishers. Variability in race performance across different settings supports the notion that human phenotype is adapted to different thermal environments as ecogeographical patterns have reported previously. This report provides support for the recent hypothesis that the heightened thermal strain associated with prolonged physical activity in hot/cold environments may have driven the emergence of thermally adaptive phenotypes in our evolutionary past. These results also tentatively suggest that the relationship between morphology and performance may be stronger in female vs. male athletes. This potential sex difference is discussed with reference to the evolved unique energetic context of human female reproduction. Further work, with a larger sample size, is required to investigate the observed potential sex differences in the strength of the relationship between phenotype and performance.