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The skeletal structure of a sentence is defined by the propositional acts of reference, predication, and modification. Reference is carried out by a referring phrase. The prototypical head of a referring phrase denotes an object; this is a noun. Modifiers are dependents of a noun that form attributive phrases. The prototypical head of an attributive phrase denotes a property; this is an adjective. A clause predicates something of a referent or referents. The prototypical head of a clause denotes an action; this is a verb. Reference, modification, and predication of nonprototypical concepts is possible, and often expressed by distinct constructions. Three principles govern how combinations of information packaging and semantic content are expressed: any concept can be packaged in any way; some ways are more ‘natural’ than others; and how they are packaged is constrained by conventions of the speech community. Nonprototypical constructions often share properties of ‘neighboring’ prototypical constructions. They often differ by having additional forms coding the nonprototypical function, and/or by a lesser potential for expressing associated grammatical categories (e.g., inflections).
I provide a syntactic analysis of the take-time construction (It took an hour to complete the test). The investigation provides insight into well-known issues concerning the related tough-construction. Using a battery of standard syntactic diagnostics, I conclude that the take-time construction and the tough-construction require a predication analysis of the antecedent-gap chain, not a movement analysis. I also conclude that the nonfinite clause is in a modificational relationship with the main clause predicate, not a selectional relationship. Broadly, this study expands the class of tough-constructions, illustrating crucial variation among predicates, and pointing the way to a unified analysis. The investigation also reveals undiscussed aspects of English syntax, including the fact that English has a high applicative position.
This article explores the syntax of compound pronouns (e.g. someone, nothing). Several theories of these formatives have been proposed previously (e.g. Kishimoto 2000; Blöhdorn 2009), but most of them fail to account for the fact that compound pronouns behave simultaneously like compounds and phrases. By presenting corpus data of some special coordination and modification patterns of compound pronouns, I argue that they should instead be analysed as compound phrases: constructions which are morphologically compounds, but syntactically phrases. Both features play important roles in determining how compound phrases are modified. Moreover, I propose a modification paradigm based on Larson & Marušič (2004), which classifies common postmodifiers at different levels. Finally, I examine the syntactic behaviour of less frequently used nominal compound pronouns such as nobody, which are supplementary to the phrasal ones.
What "goes without saying," what’s expected (statistically or normatively), is often unmarked linguistically. What is special, distinctive, in some way seen as unusual, gets marked. For social kinds, this often involves adding modifiers or affixes to names of distinctive subkinds within an overarching social category – hyphenated Americans, for example. This can lead to the erasure of those distinctive subkinds in talk of the overarching category. So, for example, ‘hyphenated’ Americans can be ignored in some talk of Americans. It can also lead to erasure of distinctiveness among those not included in the marked subkinds so that, e.g., whiteness or maleness can be elided with being American or being human. Dominant social groups often have no distinctive labels since they become ‘normal’ exemplars of the larger social group. Subordinated groups can push back by labeling the larger default category and trying to get its members to label themselves, to acknowledge, e.g., that being cisgender brings with it a range of experiences and privileges not all share.
Chapter 5 on amendment, modification, and revision is organically linked with the former chapter on interpretation. It deals with the possibility of a temporal motion of a treaty through amendment, modification or revision. This may lead to either increase (auxesis), diminution (meiosis), or even alteration (alloiosis) of a treaty. The chapter goes through the development of the rules of amendment and modification in the VCLT, and also examines the contemporary development of the law of treaties through conferences of parties established by multilateral environmental agreements. This practice has led to new approaches to treaty modification, which did not exist in classical international law. It may be said that such modifications are effected through secondary legislation, which in turn may lead to the questions of legitimacy. This chapter concludes with an examination of the patterns of amendment and modification that emerge from the multilateral treaties that have been registered in the League of Nations and United Nations Treaty Series.
Meaningful access to social participation sets a standard for repairing harms imposed by disability discrimination. To be meaningful, access must secure more for people for whom opportunity has been arbitrarily proscribed than merely ushering them through a newly unbolted door only to confront further barriers impelled by bias. Meaningful access to a social process is diminished or denied when individuals, due to disability, are prevented from achieving the benefits that generally motivate individuals to participate in that process. Yet interpreting the meaningful access standard has proved elusive for courts. An influential early decision made the illusory affirmation that the door was open to people with disabilities receiving Medicaid because they had the same fourteen days of eligibility for hospital care as others, even though they disproportionately required longer hospital stays to achieve similar care goals.
Implementation scientists increasingly recognize that the process of implementation is dynamic, leading to ad hoc modifications that may challenge fidelity in protocol-driven interventions. However, limited attention to ad hoc modifications impairs investigators’ ability to develop evidence-based hypotheses about how such modifications may impact intervention effectiveness and cost. We propose a multi-method process map methodology to facilitate the systematic data collection necessary to characterize ad hoc modifications that may impact primary intervention outcomes.
We employ process maps (drawn from systems science), as well as focus groups and semi-structured interviews (drawn from social sciences) to investigate ad hoc modifications. Focus groups are conducted with the protocol’s developers and/or planners (the implementation team) to characterize the protocol “as envisioned,” while interviews conducted with frontline administrators characterize the process “as realized in practice.” Process maps with both samples are used to identify when modifications occurred across a protocol-driven intervention. A case study investigating a multistage screening protocol for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is presented to illustrate application and utility of the multi-method process maps.
In this case study, frontline administrators reported ad hoc modifications that potentially influenced the primary study outcome (e.g., time to ASD diagnosis). Ad hoc modifications occurred to accommodate (1) whether providers and/or parents were concerned about ASD, (2) perceptions of parental readiness to discuss ASD, and (3) perceptions of family service delivery needs and priorities.
Investigation of ad hoc modifications on primary outcomes offers new opportunities to develop empirically based adaptive interventions. Routine reporting standards are critical to provide full transparency when studying ad hoc modifications.
For anyone who wants to become a more effective writer, a more perceptive reader, and a more precise thinker, an understanding of English sentence structure is indispensable. This book shows you how to begin. Using clear and engaging examples from English, it introduces the basic concepts of syntactic structure to readers with no background in linguistics. Starting with simple, familiar phrases, and progressing to more complex sentences, it builds on what we already intuitively know, to provide a step-by-step account of why we understand these examples as we do. It then shows how that understanding can be applied to writing, helping us to avoid some of the common hallmarks of 'bad writing', such as ambiguity, redundancy, and vagueness. A unique and valuable resource, this book will enrich your understanding of English in ways that will make you a more effective user of the language. Publisher's note: The e-book edition of this title, like the print editions, contains color. For those e-reader devices and applications that cannot display color, the color material is available in pdf format as an online resource: www.cambridge.org/Freidin
Zonal Safety Analysis (ZSA) is a major part of the civil aircraft safety assessment process described in Aerospace Recommended Practice 4761 (ARP4761). It considers safety effects that systems/items installed in the same zone (i.e. a defined area within the aircraft body) may have on each other. Although the ZSA may be conducted at any design stage, it would be most cost-effective to do it during preliminary design, due to the greater opportunity for influence on system and structural designs and architecture. The existing ZSA methodology of ARP4761 was analysed, but it was found to be more suitable for detail design rather than preliminary design. The authors therefore developed a methodology that would be more suitable for preliminary design and named it the Preliminary Zonal Safety Analysis (PZSA). This new methodology was verified by means of the use of a case study, based on the NASA N3-X project. Several lessons were learnt from the case study, leading to refinement of the proposed method. These lessons included focusing on the positional layout of major components for the zonal safety inspection, and using the Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)/Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to identify system external failure modes. The resulting PZSA needs further refinement, but should prove to be a useful design tool for the preliminary design process.
In view of the increasing public awareness of the relationship between healthy diet and prevention of many diseases, particularly civilisation-related diseases, producers are trying to focus consumers’ attention on the health-promoting components found in poultry meat or introduced to final products. The health-promoting quality of poultry meat may be improved by undertaking certain animal management measures (genetic and nutritional factors), reducing undesirable components, adding individual biocomponents and applying appropriate technological measures. These include changing fatty acid profiles, increased content of bioactive protein and reduced content of sodium chloride, nitrates and nitrites. At present research is being conducted on methods to enrich the composition of meat and its processed products with bioactive substances such as vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and other beneficial components, e.g. fibre.
The application of natural fertilizer mixtures that improve nutrient retention ability of soils has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In addition to rock phosphate (RP), the basic components of these mixtures are zeolites modified with selected cations, such as the ammonium ion. The NH4-zeolite serves as a carrier of nutrients as well as a soil conditioner, and it promotes the RP dissolution in all soil types. The purpose of the present work was to prepare costeffective NH4-zeolite supplement, using 32 full factorial experimental designs, with concentration of modifier and processing time as variables. Saturation processes were carried out on two types of natural zeolites, K- clinoptilolite (K-Cp) and Ca-clinoptilolite (Ca-Cp). The Response Surface Method (RSM) was applied for evaluation of cation exchange, suggesting an effective NH4+ modification of natural zeolite at lower quantities of modifier than commonly found in other studies on the topic. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), differences between samples relative to the process variables were clearly outlined and correlated with concentrations of the exchanged cations. The best results were obtained for the K-Cp type modified with 1.5 M solution of ammonium sulfate (at a Cp/NH4+ stochiometric ratio 1:7.5) for all three processing intervals. By optimizing the modification process parameters, an experimental design of partially saturated NH4-Cp supplement that has the potential to supply all major plant nutrients was proposed.
This article discusses the syntactic and semantic properties of descriptive relative clauses, a type of relative clause discussed in the literature on Chinese. It is argued that descriptive relative clauses are found in the dialect of Upper Austria, a version of Bavarian German. In particular this dialect has a set of reduced definite articles that are used for discourse referents that are intrinsically uniquely identifiable, as a matter of world knowledge. As such, they cannot be restricted by a relative clause, where restriction is taken to exclude alternatives. Such DPs can, however, be modified by descriptive relative clauses. I propose that descriptive relative clauses attach to NP while restrictive relative clauses attach to nP. Thus, the article contributes to determining whether there are different relative clauses associated with different layers of projections in the nominal domain.
In this study, natural bentonite was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide to obtain organobentonite (HDTMA-bentonite). Bentonite and HDTMA-bentonite were then characterized using XRD, XRF, SEM, FT-IR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, elemental analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques. The HDTMA+ cation was found to be located on the surface and enters the interlayer spaces of smectite according to the XRD and SEM results. FT-IR spectra indicated the existence of HDTMA functional groups on the bentonite surface. The BET surface area significantly decreased after the modification due to the coverage of the pores of natural bentonite. After the characterization, the adsorption of a textile dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB19), onto bentonite and HDTMA-bentonite was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of HDTMA-bentonite for RB19 was 502 mg g-1 at 20°C. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and it was exothermic and physical in nature.
Structural parameters of periphytic ciliate communities on a modified substrate were studied in Korean coastal waters during the period August–November 2007. In order to reduce the strong disturbances from tidal current and circulation in marine ecosystems, a modified slide method, named the polyurethane foam enveloped slide (PFES) system, was used to host ciliate communities. A total of 37 ciliate species, about half of which belong to the orders Hypotrichida and Cyrtophorida, were identified using living observation and silver impregnation method with this system. The sessile ciliates belonged to the orders Peritrichida and Suctorida, while the motile forms were represented primarily by the species of the orders Hypotrichida, Cyrtophorida and Pleurostomatida. The species diversity and evenness were significantly higher in the PFES system than those on the conventional slides (paired t-test: t = 2.384, 2.415; P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the ciliate communities from both sampling systems had similar species composition, but represented significant differences in species distribution and temporal dynamics mainly due to the most dominant peritrich Zoothaminium duplicatum, which overly colonized the conventional slides. Results suggest that the PFES system is more effective than the conventional slide method for periphytic ciliate colonization with high species diversity, evenness and sensitive temporal dynamics mainly due to the reduction of disturbances from tidal current and circulation in marine ecosystems.
We successfully generated clear amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles of Anemone coronaria using only a single restriction enzyme (EcoR I). Four primer combinations generated 571 bands in 37 anemone accessions with an average 142.75 bands per primer combination. Polymorphism among the 37 samples was very high (98.15%). This high polymorphism showed that the one-enzyme AFLP method is effective for the assessment of genetic diversity as well as cultivar differentiation of anemone. We observed 26 bands which differentiated between fingerprints derived from leaf and corm DNA of eight plant individuals. However, the low percentage of such bands showed that anemone corms can also be used to evaluate anemone germplasm using AFLP markers.
Our investigations indicated a possibility to extend the range of lysozyme activity using thermal and chemical – thermal modification. We found that under the adopted conditions of modification a weakly acid environment (pH 5 – 6) promotes an increased polymerisation of lysozyme and makes it possible to obtain approx. 50% of polymers. It was observed that lysozyme concentration in the solution subjected to thermal modification, the pH value of the solution, the temperature and time of modification have a significant effect on the content of the forming polymers. It was found that the application of lysozyme modification leads to an increase in its antibacterial activity in a comparison to the activity of lysozyme monomer. The modified lysozyme did reduce viability of Gram-positive bacteria and Gramnegative bacteria.
It is not possible for persons within and between the many disciplines involved in disasters to communicate with each other without clear definitions of the specific terms that are used. In many instances, the same terms have different meanings in different disciplines. Thus, a standardized set of definitions is provided in this chapter and in the associated Glossary of Terms. Some definitions discussed in this Chapter include: (1) disaster; (2) medical disaster; (3) hazard; (4) risk; (5) prevention; (6) modification; (7) event (including onset, duration, amplitude, intensity, scale, and magnitude); (8) impact; (9) mitigation; (10) preparedness; (11) damage; (12) vulnerability; (13) resilience; (14) absorbing capacity; (15) buffering capacity; (16) disaster management; (17) response; and (18) recovery. An annotated, comprehensive set of definitions is provided in the Glossary of Terms in these Guidelines.
Self-reports of alcohol consumption account for approximately 50 % of the reported sales of alcohol. In the absence of a gold standard, it is not known how accurately different methods of measurement reflect actual consumption and whether under-reporting varies among different populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the consumption reported by the widely used quantity-frequency questionnaire (QFQ) with that reported in a cross-check dietary history interview (DHI), which has higher face validity. In 171 male and 197 female subjects of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (mean age 36 years), alcohol consumption was assessed by both the QFQ and the DHI. Most subjects reported a moderate consumption of alcohol by both measures. Spearman correlation coefficients were high (0·77 and 0·87 in men and women respectively). Overall, greater alcohol consumption was reported using the DHI. The difference between the DHI and QFQ reports was usually greater for wine than for beer. Backward stepwise regression analysis showed that the difference in reporting was positively related to a more irregular drinking pattern, and in wine drinkers to the square of the QFQ report. Sex, drinking alone or with others and the CAGE (acronym for four questions on drinking behaviour) score were not related to the difference in reporting. The precision of DHI estimation from QFQ reports and other factors was low. Serious questions arise as to the validity and precision of alcohol consumption measurements based on the QFQ alone. QFQ information may be improved by incorporating questions on the type of beverage and drinking patterns.