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Chapter 4 shows dinosaurs’ link to concerns about secularisation and specialisation contributed to Arthur Conan Doyle’s famous romance The Lost World. It argues that the text can be understood in relation to Conan Doyle’s romantic approach to scientific knowledge, especially his strident anti-materialism and aversion to technical jargon. Examining archival material from New York Public Library’s Berg Collection, including the original manuscript, Fallon weaves the content of The Lost World together in surprising ways with Conan Doyle’s palaeontological forays, cryptozoological sightings, and interest in psychical research, showing that noting the differences between the US and UK serialised and book versions provides a more precise understanding of Conan Doyle’s intended romantic effects. In particular, Fallon emphasises the illustrations by Conan Doyle’s brother-in-law, Patrick Forbes. Alongside the text, these subtle and meticulously planned images make clear the author’s desire to convince readers that the world is full of unexplained wonders. As such, the British book edition in which Forbes’s images appear was, for Conan Doyle, the correct way to experience The Lost World.
This chapter explores the scene of conflict with a foreign power in Shakespeare’s plays, particularly the history plays 1 Henry VI, King John, and Henry V, in which war with France provides the testing ground for an exploration of the contrast between foreign and native, or national, values. In these plays, Englishness is largely defined in terms of masculine stoicism and canny tactical knowledge, as opposed to French foppishness. The characterization of the English as providentially favored underdogs up against an overconfident enemy present in Henry V and King John recalls Elizabethan conflicts with Spain and the papacy. Gender identity also factors prominently in Shakespeare’s creation of a sense of the foreign, as he describes England’s island geography as a virginal national space to be defended against invasion. At the same time, Macbeth demonstrates that Shakespeare does not shy away from this conflict between foreign and native on the home front.
This critical review of the literature seeks to understand the psychological impact that treatment interventions may have on prostate cancer (PC) survivors.
Materials and Methods:
A literature search was conducted using databases of peer-reviewed literature. The search terms used were devised using the building-blocks technique to divide the query into facets. The articles were manually assessed for relevance and appraised using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Government guidelines and regulations were also used following a manual search on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) website. This process resulted in a total of 12 sources being included in the critical review.
The key themes that arose from the review were masculinity, depression, anxiety and psychological implications related to sexual functioning. Psychological impact varies on an individual basis and is influenced by the quality of a patient’s experience during and after treatment in relation to sufficient information giving and support.
Open communication should be encouraged by healthcare professionals to assess patient mental wellbeing. The extent of psychological impact varies on an individual basis; however, there are predictive factors that can make an individual more at risk of being affected psychologically post-PC treatment.
Hamilton Carroll considers shifting trends across nearly two decades of post-9/11 novels from early works grappling with the unrepresentability of terror to recent narratives by Susan Choi, Mohsin Hamid, Joseph O’Neill, and Jess Walter that depict the everyday experiences of racialized precarity in a period of perpetual warfare, nuclear proliferation, migration catastrophes, and neo-ethnonationalisms. Political turmoil and violence by state and non-state entities remain central to twenty-first century life, even as the events of September 11, 2001, have shifted from recent trauma to historical retrospection.
Certain geographical and social borderlands breed despair and pessimism. In the post-Soviet Latvian borderlands traditions of alcohol use mark out some of the contradictory expectations of masculinity in the new liberal economy. In this perspective piece I will be looking at how certain discourses serve to conceal the degrading conditions and lack of opportunity in certain occupations. This argument will be pursued in relation to the occupation of timber logging which is an exclusively male occupation (although this was not the case during the early Soviet period). This occupation reflects not just the terms of working conditions but illustrates the gendered nature of misfortune in Latvia. Loggers speak of a lack of perspective in their lives. I will examine the meaning and implications of this lack of perspective.
Because Mailer often addressed various modes of violence in his fiction and nonfiction, over time many readers have mistakenly believed that Mailer endorsed all forms violence. Yet Mailer was careful to parse the nuances of different forms of violence, and rarely, if ever, does violence go wholly unquestioned in his work. This chapter covers Mailer’s distinctive criticisms of violence, addressing his notions of “creative” violence versus purely destructive violence; his sharp criticisms of the violences enacted in Vietnam; his meditations on structural violence, and the connections he draws between violence, courage, and manhood.
In 1975 Mailer published The Fight, an account of the Muhammad Ali and George Foreman “Rumble in the Jungle” in Kinshasa. His portrait of Ali during the days leading up to the famous face-off punctuates Mailer’s ongoing fascination with the sport, which he covered in his journalism for decades. In all of these pieces, Mailer expounds on the existential and moral aspects of boxing, drawing connections between boxing, moral courage, masculinity, and existential leadership, which also appear in novels like The Deer Park, An American Dream, and Tough Guys Don’t Dance. This chapter engages with boxing as a journalistic focus of Mailer’s but centers on his ongoing fascination with Ali as the symbol of all that boxing symbolized.
Chapter Three, ‘At Camp’, explores how military camps produced new tensions as the men began to observe and interact with troops from other part of the empire and among the Allied forces. Colourful descriptions of the ‘Empire united in arms’ elided the asymmetries of power and inter-colonial competition at stake in the militarised setting. The struggle to achieve status within an envisioned hierarchy of colonial races manifested in how the men wrote about those they met and how they represented themselves – in their uniform, fitness and soldierly bearing – in these spaces. Military sports days and leisure activities afforded new opportunities away from the battlefield to prove martial manliness, creating physical spectacles captured in official photography of the pageantry of the British Empire at war. The chapter thinks, too, about how these camp spaces encouraged curiosity about the new people the men were meeting and how they recounted moments of intimate and human connection that ran parallel to more antagonistic constructions of identity.
Chapter One, ‘Contexts’, is the starting point for these colonial journeys from New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies. What it was like to be a young man in Wellington, Cape Town or Kingston in 1914? The chapter explores the cultural ‘baggage’ the newly enlisted men brought with them: their expectations for the conflict and what service to the empire meant, to think about how this would influence their representation of their encounters. This chapter acts as touchstone for the rest of the book in explaining how New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies got involved with the war, how they recruited and who they sent. The intricacies of racial restrictions on the service of men of colour are explored, from those demanded by the South African government, to later decisions made about the combatant status of the British West Indies Regiment which help to understand the structural framing of the encounters the men experienced.
In a number of works, ranging from “The White Negro” to An American Dream to Miami and the Siege of Chicago, Mailer controversially confronts the issue of race. As this chapter explains, he does so in ways that reflect the racist limitations of perspective arising from Mailer’s own position of privilege, and which also capture significant elements of the racial climate of the time.
This afterword considers Mailer’s legacy in the context of the recent #MeToo movement, addressing the difficulties of studying a controversial author in this context, as well as the potential intellectual merits of doing so.
In Portrait of Picasso as a Young Man, Mailer attempts to make sense of the life of a painter he deemed one of his greatest influences. In Advertisements for Myself, he included a short piece called “An Eye on Picasso,” and had also planned to pen a biography of Picasso as early as 1962. Moreover, Mailer himself also dabbled in the visual arts, producing a number of sketches that invoke a Modernist aesthetic in their relative abstraction. This chapter traces these connections, and illuminates the role that Cubism played in determining the shape and dimension of Mailer’s literary canon during the second half of the twentieth century.
Mailer’s definitions of manhood lie at the center of much of his work; they not only inform the construction of his fictional protagonists, but are also connected to his ideas of existentialism, and are tied to his hopes for the future of America. Mailer’s notions of manhood also often intersect with his theories of violence, and thus threaten to uphold toxic notions of masculine power (which Mailer himself internalized throughout his life, evident in his performance of machismo), though Mailer also confronts the many pressures and vulnerabilities associated with cultural expectations of manhood.
In September 1968, regular British Vogue columnist Polly Devlin returned from a year working for the magazine’s sister publication in New York, and published a long article commenting on how, in her absence, the mood had changed.
The study of Theravada Buddhism and gender has often focused on the relationship between men's and women's roles, particularly their differing ability to become fully ordained monks. Yet in Thailand, as in many parts of the world, gender is more complicated than the binary of just men and women. Scholars have noted that what it means to be a man in Thailand is often defined in terms of not being effeminate, gay, or transgender. Drawing on Thai news stories, social media comments, and ethnographic research, I explore how monastic masculinity—the way in which what it means to be an ideal monk informs notions of being an ideal man—is constructed through the assertion that effeminate gay or kathoei (transgender) individuals cannot and should not be ordained. Taking into account such broader social constructions of gender and sexuality is important to better understand the relationship between masculinity and Buddhist monasticism.
This chapter traces the crtical reception of Roth's Portnoy’s Complaint, released to significant controversy. While many deemed the novel to be brilliant and hilarious, others found it offensive. Many readers were taken aback by its unabashed engagement with sex: protagonist Alex Portnoy speaks frankly about many aspects of his sexual life, particularly his propensity for masturbation. As is the case with many of Roth’s works, readers interpreted the protagonist to be almost wholly autobiographical. Moreover, many Jewish critics and rabbis, specifically, felt that the book’s material further revealed Roth to be a “self-hating Jew." Yet for many of the same reasons that it was criticized, Portnoy’s Complaint has also been hailed as one of Roth’s signature works, which exemplifies a coming into his unique voice and trademark sense of humor.
This chapter will provide context for Roth’s interrogations and representations of masculinity. In Roth’s texts, Jewish protagonists often face competing expectations for their manhood: one definition of manhood is offered by a their Jewish family and culture while another, more aggressive and violent model of manhood, however, is operative and idealized within the larger constructs of American society, performed by white, Gentile men. These competing definitions are further complicated by anxieties over the history of victimization and feminization associated with Jewishness
Roth is known for his frank depictions of sex and desire; indeed, these elements of his novels have been some of the primary sources of their controversy. Yet what often goes overlooked, especially among those who read Roth’s work as sexist or hyper-masculinist, are the ways he engages with notions of sexual fluidity. This chapter will provide readers with some necessary theoretical and cultural background for understanding the variety of ways Roth writes about sex and desire. In some ways, a heteronormative culture informs his representation of such. However, Roth’s representation of queerness and homosocial discourse in works ranging from Letting Go to The Professor of Desire to Sabbath’s Theater to Indignation, among other works, complicates a simplistic reading of his engagement with sexuality.
Whilst loneliness and social isolation amongst older care-givers are becoming increasingly recognised, little is known about how these concepts impact on specific sub-groups of care-givers, such as older males. In the current study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the experiences of loneliness and social isolation amongst older spousal male care-givers. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 24 participants, caring for a spouse/partner with a long-term chronic condition. After thematic analysis of the data, three themes were identified: dwindling social interactions, loneliness in the spousal relationship, and living with loneliness and social isolation. Study findings suggest that opportunities for social interactions gradually ‘dwindled’ due to a reluctance by older male care-givers to leave their spouse/partner at home alone, to accept offers of help or respite, or to attend social events without their spouse/partner. Consequently, social isolation increased. Feelings of physical and emotional loneliness were evident, and the loss of spousal companionship (such as loss of conversation and shared interests) increased loneliness. Individualised coping strategies were adopted including focusing on moments of positivity, talking to others and using prescribed medication. Findings provide insight into the experience of loneliness and social isolation for many older male spousal care-givers. This may facilitate a better understanding of older male care-givers’ support needs in addressing loneliness and social isolation, and should help to inform the development of targeted support services for this population.