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Chapter 6 looks at the long afterlife of apprenticeship, examining women’s claims to become free and the ways in which they met, and did not meet, the demands of City custom. As with indentures, the paperwork of petitions shows marriage undercutting women’s entitlements; a maze of customary rights blocked women from enjoying the freedom unconditionally. At the same time, in practice the City accepted humble petitions, took fees and granted ‘small shops’ to women who could prove their connections to companies. Women’s place in the City was significant and rooted in tradition and daily practice, but contingent.
In this chapter, Clara and Robert are shown to have embraced the Androgyne principle in their romantic relationship and marriage. Theorized by Jakob Boehme and adopted by the Jena romantics, the Androgyne ideal promoted the fusion of marital partners as well as gender-fluid behaviours in the name of spirituality. Of particular interest are Clara’s deeds in the period following Robert’s institutionalization in March 1854. Instead of decreasing her commitment to idealized matrimony, she deliberately strengthened it and maintained that outlook, even after Robert’s death in July 1856, until the end of her own life in 1896. This chapter investigates several questions: Why? What informed and motivated Clara’s actions? Were they simply displays of female heroism and/or conjugal fidelity? Whose interests were being served? What did her decisions imply about her perceptions of gender and gendered conduct? And why were her choices accepted, socially and culturally? The Schumanns’ correspondence and diary entries, published statements issued by Clara, and reviews of her playing are analysed in social-historical context. In her role as Robert’s posthumous Androgyne, Clara brought together diverse strands: their bond, certainly, but also philosophical-literary beliefs about perfect love, set within a Lutheran Pietist cultural framework that promoted female strength.
Chapter 5 centers around the concept of legal majority that distinguished not only adults from minors but also Republican law that honored such differentiation from Qing law that upheld parental control over grown-up and minor children alike. Marriage, which had once been conceived as a relationship arranged by parents to continue ancestral worship, was reconceptualized as a union formed by and between mature men and women for the purpose of raising minor children to achieve autonomous adulthood. Parents’ lifelong custodial rights over property and labor of their children were replaced by a maintenance regime that entitled aged parents to request financial support, but that prioritized adult sons and daughters’ needs over parental demands.
This chapter explores twelfth-century readings of the book of Ruth, seemingly a short pastoral story. The limited scale and scope of the book is particularly revealing of the careful ingenuity and engaged earnestness with which clerics and monks approached scripture, a fact that may be obvious but is often obfuscated by the apparent repetitions from exegete to exegete, the deep unfamiliarity to a modern eye of the intellectual tools and methods they used and the sheer textual mass of medieval exegesis. There is still a lot that historians can learn from reading those texts. In the book of Ruth, the fluid identities of the two female protagonists and their eventful lives, alongside the clear figure of a Boaz-Christ that elevated the theological status of the whole book, were scrutinised, assimilated and reinvented by twelfth-century clerics, monks and masters who had their own identities, life trajectories and zeitgeist to imagine and to shape through their words.
This chapter examines the struggles confronted by the women of Matsu. I take three women, born between 1950 and 1980, who lived through the era of military rule and beyond, as examples of the rise of a new female self and for the changing meanings of contemporary family and marriage.
Article 24(4) of the Constitution of Kenya qualifies the right to equality “to the extent strictly necessary for the application of” Islamic law “in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance”. Section 3 of the Marriage Act provides that, although spouses have equal rights during marriage and at its dissolution, “the parties to an Islamic marriage shall only have the rights granted under Islamic law”. The Law of Succession Act states that it is generally not applicable to the estate of a deceased Muslim. In this article, the author examines case law from the Kadhi's Court, the High Court and the Court of Appeal on issues of Muslim marriages and inheritance. These cases illustrate, in some instances, the tensions between Islamic law and human rights.
The recusant brothers-in-law William, third Baron Vaux of Harrowden (1535-95) and Sir Thomas Tresham (1543-1605), are best-known as exemplars of stalwart Catholicism and for their claims of fidelity to queen and country. They rose to prominence for their connection to the Jesuit proto-martyr Edmund Campion in 1581, and Vaux’s daughters Anne and Eleanor are celebrated — or notorious — for their support of the Jesuit Henry Garnet and suspected complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. Tresham’s sister Mary married Vaux, and the two men enjoyed a close friendship. Vaux leant heavily on Tresham for counsel, and the families have thus been absorbed into arguments for a closed Catholic community who drew closer together amid persecution. Yet these families were also divided, not by religio-political matters of great weight, but by more earthly causes of family unhappiness: youthful disobedience, scandalous marriage, and money. Through a close analysis of three linked episodes of family strife, this article looks beyond the singular fact of their confessional identity to argue that, like their Protestant counterparts, Catholics were not immune to acrimony. Disruptions to family unity could heap further tribulation on Catholics, and shared confessional identity might not be sufficient to repair bonds once severed.
Ecclesiastical courts were rightly seen by nineteenth-century thinkers as a closed shop, a court system separate from the general court system which had its own proctors, advocates and judges. These courts had jurisdiction over the laity in a number of matters such as marriage, burial and probate of wills, though this changed during the century. The chapter describes the attempts at reform, and the difficulties with discipline of the laity as well as clergy that were addressed in the course of legislative change. Appeal lay with the secular courts and here too lay problems, where the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council served as the final court of appeal
This chapter turns to the experiences of the laity when they found themselves in ecclesiastical courts in disputes over marriage, wills and burial, disorderly behaviour, or unacceptable use of language: speech crimes: brawling, defamation and blasphemy. It looks at examples of the costs and consequences to the laity of finding themselves in ecclesiastical courts, and the role of the debtors’ prisons.
Family systems shape social institutions, yet they are rarely considered in histories of economic development. In this article, we show that a suite of social conventions—such as age gaps at marriage, bride price, sequestration, and discrimination and violence against women—are overrepresented in polygamous societies as compared to monogamous societies. This dichotomy can be explained on the grounds that polygamy produces a chronic scarcity of marriageable females. We argue that this suite, which we call gamos and which we quantify by two different methods, has demonstrably significant consequences for social, institutional, and economic development.
We study marital assortative mating in education and its relation to dowry in India. There are four main results and contributions of this paper. First, instrumental variable estimates using Indian Human Development Survey-II data suggest existence of positive assortative mating in education levels of husband and wife. Second, this association is weaker in dowry-prominent districts suggesting that in districts with strong patriarchal norms, high dowry transfers could substitute for lower bride's education. Third, we study the independent effect of husband's and wife's education and its interaction on dowry. Estimates suggest that dowry rises with the groom's education and falls with the bride's schooling years. However, the joint effect of husband-and-wife education on dowry is negative, implying that though dowry rises with groom's education, the rate of increase is smaller the more educated the bride is. Finally, to explain the empirical results, we propose a theoretical model of assortative mating in the presence of dowry.
Chapter Seven, Legacies, draws the stories of some of the central characters to a close and following them home. The Armistice could not reverse the disruption of the First World War; the webs of empire were further tangled by these encounters experienced by these colonial troops. Through mutiny, migration, war marriages and memorialisation, I explore the consequences of these interactions in the years after the war’s end to show how the networks of the First World War endured beyond the end of the conflict. The experience of encounters, much like the experience of combat and frontline labour, was newly acquired ‘cultural baggage’ and part of being a veteran in the interwar colonies and dominions.
The laws regulating how and where couples can get married – as opposed to who they can marry – are widely recognised as being in need of reform. The basic structure of the current law dates back to the Marriage Act 1836, and many elements – the requirements for Anglican weddings and differential treatment of Jewish and Quaker weddings – have a still longer history. Despite the law's longevity, many of the current requirements have their origins in past panics, tactical compromises or quick fixes. While the laws enacted in 1836 were shaped by their historical context, even then the legal framework did not fit how couples wanted to marry. This paper traces the history of marriage law reform to explain how we ended up with a set of laws that are highly restrictive, inconsistent and complex, and why reform is needed.
Psychosocial difficulties, including changed relationships are among the most pervasive and concerning issues following stroke. This study aimed to collate and thematically analyse qualitative literature describing the experience of close personal relationships from the perspective of stroke survivors.
Using a scoping review methodology, four databases (CINAHL/EBSCO, MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Psychinfo) were systematically searched, yielding 3100 citations. Following exclusion of duplicates and screening against inclusion criteria at title/abstract and full text levels, 53 articles were included in the review. Data were charted and thematically analysed.
While research has increased since 2000, longitudinal designs are few. Four overarching themes and 12 subthemes were identified. ‘Social disruption’ described changing social worlds, lost social opportunities and shrinking networks. ‘Changed relationships’ included changed family and spousal relationships and changed parenting relationships. The third theme ‘relationships help’ highlighted positive aspects including belonging, support and a life worth living. The final theme was ‘coping with an altered social world’ and described adjustment and emotional responses.
Relationships are an important aspect of life post stroke but are subject to changes and challenges. This article brings together a breadth of qualitative data to describe lived experiences. Further research, in particular, longitudinal research is required.
Even before arriving in Hong Kong from Moscow, Ho Chi Minh had prior experience in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou, having set up there in November 1924 (one year after Tan Malaka). The period coincides with the First United Front between Kuomintang government under Sun Yat-sen and the communists and with Soviet advisors moving in. Drawing in part upon materials supplied by French agents and Comintern records, this chapter explains how Ho Chi Minh bonded with a core group of confidants and comrades in Guangzhou, including youth trainees, many of whom would return to center stage in communist party organization in Hong Kong as well as in future actions. However, he was obliged to move this group away from anarchist and other ideologies in the interest of setting down a secretive Leninist-style cell system. Besides teaching and writing, Ho Chi Minh devoted much time to propagandizing among Vietnamese youth. The chapter also identifies the role of one Vietnamese double agent in brokering his local marriage, shortlived as it was, owing to the collapse of the united front and major repression of the Left.
CH 3: The New Woman, a figure that emerged in the fin-de-siècle novel, was a decidedly metropolitan phenomenon. Yet novels by sisters Mary and Jane Findlater and their better-known contemporary Mona Caird explored the possibility of a Scottish New Woman, recognizing the peculiar impediments to economic and intellectual independence faced by women in rural Scotland. Employing aesthetic techniques that foregrounded their own artistry, including impressionistic reveries, abrupt shifts in perspective, and elaborate symbolism, Caird and the Findlaters suggested that the capacity to appreciate and create beauty is the defining characteristic of Scotland’s New Woman. Caird represents the Scottish landscape as a source of inspiration for her musical protagonist but condemns the conformity demanded by Scottish society as antithetical to the development of her considerable genius. By contrast, the Findlaters suggest that women’s artistic development is possible within the limitations imposed by Scottish society, albeit on the small scale that they employ in their own novels.
This chapter provides an overview of Roth’s life, focusing on the author's upbringing in the Weequahic neighborhood of Newark, his education at Bucknell University and University of Chicago, his first forays into publication, his teaching positions at the Iowa Writers Workshop and University of Pennsylvania, his marriages, health struggles, and the significant peaks and valleys of his career, from critical setbacks to major awards and recognitions, including The Pulitzer Prize, National Book Awards, and PEN/Faulkner awards.