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Chapter 3 launches with Pseudolus’ opening scene which revolves around a letter. I explore Phoenicium’s epistle to discern how it determines Pseudolus’ comic course as well as audience expectations about what lies ahead, and consider what a letter composed by a meretrix reveals about literacy and the symbolism of writing on the Plautine stage. Next is the play’s protracted indeterminacy, which flies in the face of its textual exposition. Why is Pseudolus uncertain about how to proceed when he himself recites the letter that so clearly sets out the comic plot? The answer lies in this comedy’s claim to dramatic innovation. Pseudolus tells us that its epistolary interception is new to the comic stage, a nova res which inspires in the schemer a novum consilium that neither he nor we expect. But the play repeatedly undercuts its own novelty, a paradox reified in the element around which its innovation revolves – the stolen letter. I perform a close analysis of the false delivery scene in which this text is put into action, reading for its epistolarity but also laying bare the internal replication it effects and the resultant mise-en-abyme.
Six Plautine prologues1 and six Terentian prologues are our earliest unequivocal proof of original titulature in ancient drama.2 The twelve titles these provide are also the only securely author-sanctioned titles we have for the entire republican period until Cicero.3 While any authorial title is revelatory, the titles of Roman comedies are especially so; we have just seen that the title of a translation can convey information about its relationship to the source text. Juxtaposed with “Thesauros”, “Trinummus” gave us a key to understanding not only how the playwright conceptualizes his own play but also how he has reconceptualized a Greek play.4 Plautus’ titular changes, then, are meaningful and we should be paying more attention – not least because the poet does not always give his translation a new name: of ten comedies in the corpus whose originals we know for sure,5 only six have new titles.6 What is the difference between plays with changed names and those whose Greek names have just been translated into Latin? Are the former more Plautine than the latter? Is Mercator closer to Emporos than Stichus is to Adelphoi?
The Enlightenment represents the first time since Democritus that philosophers began to systematically question religious explanations for material phenomenon, instead looking for strictly materialistic explanations that were consistent with our understanding of the temporal plane. In particular, this is when science began to challenge the power of the Western religious authorities, which also challenged the principle of rule by divine right. In addition to the appearance of religious skepticism and scientific explanations, this is the period when revolutions against inherited rule challenged the kings and queens of Europe. This period is also associated with a dramatic increase in literacy in Western countries, which makes an interesting contrast with, for example, China, where the complexity of the written language served as an obstacle to higher rates of literacy for several centuries. In general, high rates of literacy are inversely correlated with institutional power and correlated with personal liberty in citizens. The worldwide spread of democracy over the last 200 years is a direct result of intellectual changes associated with the Enlightenment, but the chapter also reviews why the transition to democracy has not been universal.
An ideography is a general-purpose code made of pictures that do not encode language, which can be used autonomously – not just as a mnemonic prop – to encode information on a broad range of topics. Why are viable ideographies so hard to find? I contend that self-sufficient graphic codes need to be narrowly specialized. Writing systems are only an apparent exception: at their core, they are notations of a spoken language. Even if they also encode non-linguistic information, they are useless to someone who lacks linguistic competence in the encoded language or a related one. The versatility of writing is thus vicarious: writing borrows it from spoken language. Why is it so difficult to build a fully generalist graphic code? The most widespread answer points to a learnability problem. We possess specialized cognitive resources for learning spoken language, but lack them for graphic codes. I argue in favor of a different account: what is difficult about graphic codes is not so much learning or teaching them as getting every user to learn and teach the same code. This standardization problem does not affect spoken or signed languages as much. Those are based on cheap and transient signals, allowing for easy online repairing of miscommunication, and require face-to-face interactions where the advantages of common ground are maximized. Graphic codes lack these advantages, which makes them smaller in size and more specialized.
Histories of advertising in Africa focus on the postwar and postcolonial periods. This essay examines an innovative marketing campaign in South Africa's eastern Cape in the 1930s. The campaign reveals congruence and conflict between increased marketing of consumer goods to African households and the contemporaneous growth of women's home improvement societies. The newspaper Umlindi we Nyanga used testimonials and written competitions to sell its Ambrosia brand of tea to rural women. Advertisers and consumers drew on local meanings of tea consumption and debates about feminine respectability to present tea-drinking women as ‘intelligent’ and ‘wise mothers’. The emphasis on intelligence linked tea to literacy, in part because text-based consumer culture offered rural women a way to visibly consume socially respectable goods. The essay concludes with a close examination of two testimonials written by leaders of home improvement societies, which hint at the contradictions implicit in the commercialization of the ‘wise mother’.
The link between school education and art therapy is supported by the fact that it comes to supplement the common school education activities of children with special educational requirements with a dual purpose: to complete and fix their specific content; to train and practice as much as possible the students’ minds and critical thinking through artistic means.
Prevention of absenteeism and school dropout of the child with special educational requirements through art therapy.
In art therapy, the most used methods specific to the fields of visual arts are: drawing, painting, icon, modeling on the wheel, but other techniques can be used. Children are the ones who choose their work materials and activities from the offer that the art therapist makes.
From the offer of materials, the beneficiary prefers to paint porcelain objects and letters. He was challenged to identify letters after which he painted them.
Increasing the feeling of social utility, self-confidence. Improving school situation. Reducing school dropout and literacy.
The beneficiary has an interest in letters and numbers and their writing. Form words quickly, easily identifying letters. Create your own games by comparing numbers. Make puzzles with letters and numbers.
Art education helps the beneficiary to more easily express their emotions, perceptions, desires and way of thinking. Learning numbers and letters becomes a fun activity when using colors.
The child needs education through art, because without it there is an imbalance in the fundamental purpose of man, that of developing harmoniously and multilaterally.
Understanding reading abilities and their development is fundamental for language comprehension and human cognition. Now in its second edition, this book draws on research from multiple disciplines to explain reading abilities in both L1 and L2, and shows how this research can be applied in practice in order to support reading development. Research into reading has progressed a great deal since the first edition was published, so this edition has been completely updated and revised, in order to reflect these advances. All chapters present updated research studies, and completely new chapters are included on the neurocognition of reading, reading-writing relationships, and digital reading. If you want to know how reading works, no matter the language(s) involved, as well as how it can be taught effectively, this book provides a persuasive research foundation and many practical insights. It is essential reading for academic researchers and students in Applied Linguistics and TESOL.
Psychosocial factors strongly influence language learning and reading achievement for children. Evidence indicates a strong positive relationship between attitudes toward reading in the first (L1) and second or third languages (L2/L3) and subsequent reading achievement among multilinguals. Many studies of children learning to read demonstrate direct positive relationships between intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. Other studies have found that extrinsic motivation is the motivational facet that most predicts achievement. Researchers have begun to consider how the relationship between reading attitudes in one language might affect reading motivation and outcomes for another language. In this chapter we examine relevant theoretical frameworks of motivation and psychosocial factors that influence language learning and reading. Next, we present state-of-the-field findings regarding psychosocial factors related to reading achievement among multilingual children. We discuss how to reconcile contradictory findings and consider which features of language and context may be salient for predicting relationships. Finally, we make recommendations for future research and consider pedagogical implications.
The Cambridge Handbook of Childhood Multilingualism provides a state-of-the art view of the intra- and interdisciplinarity in linguistics, psychology, sociology, and education through a kaleidoscope of languages, countries, scholars, and cultures. The volume provides: (1) understanding that for most children multilingualism is the linguistic reality in which they grow; (2) an analysis of the effect of languages flowing from different sources, at different times and in different forms, on the uniqueness of child multilingualism processing beyond mono/bilingualism; (3) insights into diversity in the socialization of multilingual children; (4) elaboration of the triangulation of childhood, parenthood, and schooling as natural multilingualism-cultivating conditions motivated by internal and external forces; (5) an integrative approach to multilingual children’s development where the child at the center is cradled by multilingualism and languages, and (6) a focus on multilingualism as a capacity independent from mono/bilingualism. The different language typologies, in different countries and different continents, gathered in this volume tease out what is universal to childhood multilingualism as an agent of “new linguistic realities.”
Growing up multilingually and in a multilingual social environment affects the acquisition of literacy. Many multilingual children learn to read and write in the language required by the institutional context. This is often a second, sometimes unfamiliar, language for them and it is the dominant language of the society they live in. However, these children might also learn, or be in contact with, other written languages used in their families and communities. The practices in all written languages vary, and family or community languages and literacies might be typologically close or distant from the language and literacy practices expected at school, which is the main institution for literacy acquisition. Unfolding the resources and needs of multilingual children’s literacy acquisition is at the center of this chapter. The contexts of literacy acquisition in multilingual societies is presented on three different levels: by defining literacy and literacies, by presenting different multilingual and multiliterate contexts, and by zooming in on one aspect of literacy, that is, spelling.
This chapter examines Charles Chesnutt’s teaching career in the south during Reconstruction. Chesnutt left his work as a teacher in order to pursue a career in literature, primarily of fiction. The connection between Chesnutt’s stories and his experiences as a Black teacher in the south reveals a new story about Black education crucial to understanding the history of Reconstruction.
Cross-disciplinary research in recent years on the intersections between both translation and translanguaging and translation and identity has sought to emphasize the diverse multilingual practices of translators while acknowledging the agency of translators in negotiating power and meaning, and foregrounding the often marginalized practice of translation itself as a creative and multiply boundary-crossing activity. In this chapter, we review current research on translation, translanguaging, and identity in order to better understand the ways that identity is operationalized in multilingual and collaborative translation practice; propose a new model of translator identity that addresses the diversity and collaborative nature of much translation work; analyze multilingual translator identity in practice by highlighting two examples of collaborative translation data from a global multilingual literacy project; and make the case that recognition of the multifaceted, translingual practices of translation, together with our enhanced model of translator identity, may help reconcile divergent understandings of translanguaging and the role of the translator across disciplinary boundaries.
On 31 October 1517 a thirty-three-year-old priest in the small German town of Wittenberg wrote a letter that would change the course of history. Addressed to the bishop of his parish, Martin Luther’s letter complained about the Roman Catholic Church’s selling of indulgences, the practice by which the Pope would grant remission from the punishment of sin. The more Luther read the Bible, the more he became convinced that it was not by performing good deeds that one obtained salvation, but by faith alone through God’s grace. It was wrong to claim, he argued in the Ninety-Five Theses contained in the letter, that indulgences could absolve buyers from eternal punishment and grant them salvation.
These indulgences were, of course, a valuable source of income for the Church, especially at a time when Pope Leo X planned to rebuild St Peter’s Basilica in Rome.
Chapter 1 sets out a new sociological model for analysing the relationship between agricultural books, knowledge and labour in early modern Britain. The first section argues that the major socio-economic trends in early modern agriculture, giving rise to agrarian capitalism, necessarily involved a concentration in managerial control and therefore required a change in the social system of knowledge. The second section explores recent sociological approaches to books, knowledge and labour. It concludes by summarising how these sociological insights can be applied to early modern agriculture to develop a new framework for understanding the cumulative social impact of printed information and advice. It establishes the basic research question pursued in later chapters: How did books contribute to new divisions of labour and new ways of controlling knowledge?
This chapter explores the consequences of patchwork forms of state authority on subnational development outcomes, primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. It presents two key mechanisms in state–society relations in the economy – commodification and investment – that have economic consequences for growth and human development. It then demonstrates the impact of the patchwork state on different measures of growth and human development, both between and within Indian states. It broadens this discussion out to consider South Asia in comparative perspective, explaining the starkly different trajectories of Pakistan and Bangladesh through the preponderance of different forms of governance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the relationship among development, violence, and the patchwork state.
In this volume, Karin Krause examines conceptions of divine inspiration and authenticity in the religious literature and visual arts of Byzantium. During antiquity and the medieval era, “inspiration” encompassed a range of ideas regarding the divine contribution to the creation of holy texts, icons, and other material objects by human beings. Krause traces the origins of the notion of divine inspiration in the Jewish and polytheistic cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds and their reception in Byzantine religious culture. Exploring how conceptions of authenticity are employed in Eastern Orthodox Christianity to claim religious authority, she analyzes texts in a range of genres, as well as images in different media, including manuscript illumination, icons, and mosaics. Her interdisciplinary study demonstrates the pivotal role that claims to the divine inspiration of religious literature and art played in the construction of Byzantine cultural identity.
The third chapter in the volume’s final thematic strand (Cultural Perspectives) concerns language and literacy in the age of William the Conqueror. Following an introduction explaining the languages and linguistic developments in the cross-Channel Anglo-Norman state, the chapter casts its view broadly across Britain and beyond, before offering some considerations of the important subjects of literacy, Latinity, and genre. Detailed attention is given to questions concerning the persistence of Old English and the advent of Anglo-Norman, as well as to book production.
American Protestants forcefully employed education in their efforts to Christianize America. Those efforts included not only the forming of publicly provided schools but a vast and impressive array of educational platforms, institutions, purveyors, and popularizers that have had a wide-ranging effect on American history and culture. Protestants in America have practiced their faith educationally at home, in schools, and through professional associations and confessional ministries; taken together, these tell the story of persistent, generous, engaging, and inclusive Protestantism in America – aiming not only to read, but to read the Bible written into the fabric of the nation.
In and after 1819, particularly after Peterloo, support for radical change among disfranchised Londoners broadened. The conspirators themselves were ‘ordinary Britons’. In no senses part of the ‘mob’, they were craftsmen with families who were losing craft status and income in the worsening post-war economy. Many had the common disabilities of the poor, but Wivell’s extraordinary prison portraits show their common humanity. Most were shoemakers, a craft that was famously literate, thoughtful, and radical.