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I use SkyMapper DR1.1 to explore the quality of its uvgriz photometry, and zero-points. I introduce a formalism to derive photometric zero-points across the sky by benchmarking against stars with well known effective temperatures, bypassing the need for absolute spectrophotometry.
We explore the circumstellar effects on the Li and Ca abundances determination in a complete sample of massive Galactic AGB stars. The Li abundance is an indicator of the hot bottom burning (HBB) activation, while the total Ca abundance could be affected by overproduction of the short-lived radionuclide 41Ca by the s-process. Li abundances were previously studied with hydrostatic models, while Ca abundances are determined here for the first time. The pseudo-dynamical abundances of Li and Ca are very similar to the hydrostatic ones, indicating that circumstellar effects are almost negligible. The new Li abundances confirm the (super-)Li-rich character of the sample Li-detected stars, supporting the HBB activation in massive Galactic AGB stars. Most sample stars display nearly solar Ca abundances that are consistent with predictions from the s-process nucleosynthesis models. A minority of the sample stars show a significant Ca depletion. Possible reasons for their (unexpected) low Ca content are given.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.
The current photometric datasets, that span decades, allow for studying long-term cycles on active stars. Complementary Ca H&K observations give information also on the cycles of normal solar-like stars, which have significantly smaller, and less easily detectable, spots. In the recent years, high precision space-based observations, for example from the Kepler satellite, have allowed also to study the sunspot-like spot sizes in other stars. Here I review what is known about the properties of the cyclic stellar activity in other stars than our Sun.
This short review is intended to be a snapshot of some recent observational facts and open questions regarding the study of chemical evolution in the innermost regions of the Milky Way, as traced by spectroscopy of cool giant and supergiant stars.
HD 202850 is a late B-type supergiant. It is known that photospheric lines of such stars vary. Due to macroturbulence the lines are much wider than expected. Macroturbulence has been linked to stellar pulsations. It has been reported that there are several B supergiants that undergo pulsations. In our previous work, we detected a pulsational period of 1.59 hours in this object from data taken with the Ondřejov 2-m telescope. We continued to investigate this object and we took several time series with the DAO 1.2-m telescope. Our new data suggest that there may be some additional pulsational periods in this star. We present our new results in this poster.
The statistical equilibrium of neutral and ionized silicon in the atmospheres of cool stars is discussed. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects (NLTE) are investigated. It is found that the NLTE effects for Si are important, in particular for warm metal-poor stars. For warm metal-poor stars, the NLTE abundance correction reaches ~0.2 dex relative to standard LTE calculations.
This review summarises current observations of masers around evolved stars and models for their location and behaviour, followed by some of the many highlights from the past 5 years. Some of these have been the fruition of long-term monitoring, a vital aspect of study of stars which are both periodically variable and prone to rapid outbursts or transition to a new evolutionary stage. Interferometric imaging of masers provide the highest-resolution probes of the stellar wind, but their exponential amplification and variability means that multiple observations are needed to investigate questions such as what drives the wind from the stellar surface; why does it accelerate slowly over many tens of stellar radii; what causes maser variability. VLBI parallaxes have improved our understanding of individual objects and of Galactic populations. Masers from wide range of binary and post-AGB objects are accessible to sensitive modern instruments, including energetic symbiotic systems. Masers have been detected up to THz frequencies with Herschel and ALMA's ability to resolve a wide range of maser and thermal lines will provide accurate constraints on physical conditions including during dust formation.
Based on our large spectral database obtained at CASLEO Argentinian Observatory, we analyzed the relation between simultaneous measurements of Hα and Ca ii H+K fluxes. Although the correlation between both proxies is positive for the solar case, in 2007 our group found that while some stars exhibit correlations between Hα and the Ca ii lines, the slopes change from star to star, including cases where no correlation was found. To discern if this flux-flux relation depends on the level of activity of the star and if it is associated with the distribution of active regions in the stellar atmosphere, in this work we analyze the relation between Hα-Ca ii fluxes for the whole set of 44 G dwarf stars and individually for a subset of several solar-type stars of different level of activity.
Supersoft X-ray fluxes in early-type galaxies provide an excellent test for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors: the double degenerate (DD) scenario is believed to produce no supersoft sources (SSSs) except just before the SN Ia explosion, while the single degenerate (SD) scenario produces SSSs in some phases of the symbiotic channel. Recent observations of the supersoft X-ray flux of early-type galaxies show a remarkable agreement with theoretical predictions of the SD scenario, which thus turns out to be a strong support for the SD scenario, despite the original observations aimed at the opposite conclusion. Here I explain why X-ray fluxes are so weak in early-type galaxies. (1) Candidate binaries in the SD scenario become SSSs only during a short time on their way to SNe Ia explosions, because they spend a large part of their lifetime in a wind phase. (2) During the SSS phase, symbiotic stars emit very weak supersoft X-ray fluxes even if the WD is very massive. It should be emphasized that supersoft X-ray symbiotic stars are very rare and we need more observations to understand their nature.
The lithium abundance was calculated for five metal-poor red giant stars from Li i doublet at 6707 Å by fitting the observed high-resolution spectra with synthetic spectra. The lithium abundance was found to be low in all stars, logϵ(Li) ≤ 1.8, confirming lithium depletion on the red giant and asymptotic giant branch.
Connections between observations of the lithium abundance in various types of red giants and stellar evolution are discussed here. The emphasis is on three main topics; 1) the depletion of Li as stars ascend the red giant branch for the first time, 2) the synthesis of 7Li in luminous and massive asymptotic giant branch stars via the mechanism of hot-bottom burning, and 3) the possible multiple sources of excess Li abundances found in a tiny fraction of various types of G and K giants.
Our recent study of solar-type stars from the HARPS GTO sample provides highly accurate information with regard to Lithium abundances in stars with and without detected planets (Israelian et al. 2009). When the Li abundances of planet bearing stars are compared with the “single” stars, we find an excess of Li depletion in planet hosts with effective temperatures in the range 5700-5850 K. We also found that small amounts of Li have survived in the atmospheres of some planet-host solar analogs. Enhanced Li depletion in planet host stars puts constraints on mixing processes responsible for this phenomenon. We show that neither age nor metallicity are responsible for this observational fact.
Rapidly-evolving red supergiants (RSG) lose half or more of their mass before ending their lives as supernovae. Masers allow us to study the mass loss from 4 nearby RSG in AU-scale detail using MERLIN and EVN/global VLBI. The water maser clouds are over-dense and over-magnetised with respect to the surrounding wind. In most cases, the brighter an individual maser component is the smaller its apparent (beamed) FWHM appears, as predicted for approximately spherical clouds. Individual water maser features have a typical half-life of 5-10 yr, but comparison with single dish monitoring suggests that the water vapour clouds themselves survive many decades (the water maser shell crossing time), within which the local masers wink on and off. OH mainline masers are found in the tenuous surrounding gas, overlapping the water maser shell, surrounded by OH 1612-MHz masers at a greater distance from the star.
Relatives to Planetary Nebulae, such as barium stars or symbiotic systems, can shed light on the connection between Planetary Nebulae and binarity. Because of the observational selection effects against direct spectroscopic detection of binary PNe cores with orbital periods longer than a few dozen days, at present these “awkward relatives” are a critical source of our knowledge about the binary PNe population at longer periods. Below a few examples are discussed, posing constraints on the attempts to model nebula ejection process in a binary.
Year to decade-long cyclic period changes have been observed in many classes of close binaries. The Algol binary WW Cygni shows a cyclic change in its orbital period with an amplitude of slightly more than 0.02 days and a period of 56 years. A hypothetical third or fourth body does not satisfactorily explain the observed variation in the orbital period. The change in luminosity and color of the system at primary eclipse minimum are in agreement with the model proposed by Applegate for a magnetic cycle induced period change in WW Cygni. We have commenced monitoring 9 close binaries for evidence of the luminosity and color changes consistent with the magnetic cycle hypothesis. δ Librae is suggested as a case suitable for observation with an optical interferometer to test the third body proposed for this Algol system.
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