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This Element discusses the relationship between Christianity and evolutionary theory, with special emphasis on Darwinian evolutionary theory (Darwinism). The Creationists argue that the two are incompatible and it is religion that is the truth and Darwinism the falsity. The New Atheists argue that the two are incompatible and it is religion that is the falsity and Darwinism the truth. Through a careful examination of both Darwinian theory and Christianity, it is shown that both extremes are mistaken. It is accepted that there are difficult issues to be solved, for example the problem of evil - which some think is exacerbated by Darwinism - and the necessarily appearance of Homo sapiens - which is problematic if evolutionary theory does not guarantee progress and the evolution of humans as the apotheosis. It is argued that there are ways forward, and Christianity and evolutionary thinking can be shown compatible.
This chapter concludes the book by shifting the analysis to three sets of interlinked conversations that seem to frame the current debates about race and migration. We begin by analysing the impact of the ongoing conversation about the position of the United Kingdom within the European Union that led to the decision in the 2016 Referendum to support a strategy of leaving the Union and taking back control of national borders. As several commentators have argued in recent years, the impact of the debates around Brexit is likely to be felt in the coming decade or so as their impact on influencing and shaping both current and future agendas about race and racism become more evident. We then move on to explore the implications of continual efforts to develop and maintain a hostile environment around questions of immigration and belonging to assert control over borders and create a social basis for integrated communities. The final part of this chapter allows us to engage critically with the attempt by some commentators to distinguish racism from those forms of identity that are defined in terms of national citizen preference and racial self-interest.
Development, and particularly sustainable development, face a growing threat of being undermined by a changing climate, particularly through the impacts of frequent and extreme weather events. It is common knowledge that disasters can wipe out and set back development gains. Conversely, the social, political, economic, and environmental development decisions, options, and the paths chosen, contribute to an increase in inequality, poverty, environmental degradation, vulnerability, and exposure to hazards. Unfortunately, global commitments to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) development planning and programming still do not adequately consider or act upon these risks. Despite advances in linking DRR, CCA, and development, albeit conceptually, there is not much progress on how integration should be carried out. In 2015, three important UN agreements, (1) the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; (2) the Paris Agreement for Climate Change, and (3) the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, were adopted. These three agreements brought coherency on how to reduce the risk and impacts of disasters thus making development gains sustainable. The disparities of locating CCA within environmental authorities, DRR within disaster management authorities, civil service and home affairs, and addressing sustainable development goals through different sectors impede such endeavors to address disaster risk and the negative consequences of disasters coherently. This, in turn, undermines sustainable development. Despite the identified differences between DRR and CCA, they are complementary development issues. Addressing disaster and climate risks to achieve sustainable development goals requires close coordination among the different organizations and sectors. It requires working coherently, avoiding duplication, and taking advantage of synergies and co-benefits in their actions. By examining how interorganizational theory conceptualizes integration, the chapter will provide a theoretical grounding for integrating DRR and CCA, taking into consideration sustainable development, by proposing an analytical framework to integrate the three policy areas.
Inputs to the thalamus display perplexing heterogeneity in source, transmitter, and the complexity of axon terminals. Almost the entire neuraxis provides excitatory and/or inhibitory terminals to the thalamus. The structure of both glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs varies from simple unisynaptic to highly complex multisynaptic terminals. Variable bouton structures support neurotransmission with different kinetics. In contrast to earlier accounts that proposed the dominance of a single type of input on thalamocortical activity (“relay cell”), in the majority of the thalamus, integration of inputs with different origins, transmitters, and complexities is the rule. Because most thalamic inputs are confined to only a portion of the structure, the emerging picture is that inputs can be integrated in many distinct ways in different thalamic territories. As a consequence, unlike in modular networks, where, however complex the input space is, it is homogeneous across the structure (e.g., the striatum, cerebellum, or cortex), no canonical thalamic module can be defined. The reason for this unique complexity is presently unclear, but the lack of canonical input organization in the thalamus certainly limits the opportunity of generalizing thalamic transfer function between territories. Deciphering the role of the thalamus requires an understanding of the diversity in thalamic input integration in each region.
This concluding chapter summarizes the main insights gained in this book. Emotion theories show substantial agreement in their working definition of emotions in terms of the typical and apparent properties of emotions (intensional format) and the prototypical emotions (divisio format) they want to see explained. Their constitutive explanations range from narrow to broad. The most pronounced differences reside in the causal-mechanistic explanations they propose. Five fault lines stand out centering on the questions whether (a) emotions are caused by a stimulus-driven or goal-directed process, (b) the origin of feelings is central or peripheral, (c) emotions are caused by special-purpose or general-purpose mechanisms, (d) emotions do or do not form a scientific set, and (e) the variety in the set of emotions is best captured with discrete emotions or dimensions. The chapter also examines whether there is any hope for a unifying theory integrating several theories or a general framework for conducting emotion research. Starting from a unifying theory that combines a maximum of mechanisms, a pruning stage is required based on empirical research. A speculation about the result of this pruning exercise, inspired by the goal-directed theory advocated in this book, is presented, ultimately leading to the demystification of emotion.
Synaptic transmission from preganglionic to postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia is cholinergic nicotinic. Most autonomic ganglia transmit the central message with high accuracy to the postganglionic neurons. This concurs with the idea that the target tissues are predominantly under the control of the central nervous system. A small number of sympathetic preganglionic neurons connect to a large number of postganglionic neurons. This divergence is primarily for distribution. Additionally, postganglionic neurons receive convergent synaptic input from several preganglionic neurons. Neurons in sympathetic paravertebral and parasympathetic ganglia and some neurons in prevertebral ganglia receive one or two suprathreshold preganglionic synaptic inputs, the rest being subthreshold. Discharges in these postganglionic neurons are generated by strong synaptic inputs but not by summation of weak synaptic inputs. Some neurons with non-vascular functions in sympathetic prevertebral ganglia receive, in addition to preganglionic inputs, cholinergic synaptic inputs from peripheral intestinofugal neurons. In many sympathetic neurons of the prevertebral ganglia, and in some parasympathetic ganglia, the central synaptic input is weak or even may play a subordinate role. Nicotinic synaptic transmission in vasoconstrictor neurons in sympathetic ganglia can be enhanced by muscarinic and non-cholinergic mechanisms.
Pablo Ouziel offers his reflections on the Workshop and volume. He describes the development of some of the main themes. Next, he presents six distinct types of working relationships among democratic citizens that he first developed in his research with citizens involved in Spain’s 15M movement. Then, he shows the presence of these six ‘joining hands’ relationships in the various chapters. This exercise enables us see how the diverse democratic citizens of each and every chapter can work together in context-specific, integrative relationships of democratic cooperation and contestation. As the chapter illustrates these relationships of democratic “joining hands” or integration are not only possible, but actual, here and now, in the local and global field of democratic diversity. The further growth of these action-coordination relationships has the potential to generate and integrate robust democracies with the capacity to respond to our ecosocial crises and co-create a sustainable, democratic future.
There has been growing interest in the vertical integration of physicians and hospitals during the past decade, as evidenced by multiple literature reviews and research investigations.1 Historically, physicians operated small firms that provided “physicians’ services” to patients who sometimes used facilities provided by separate hospital firms at which many physicians would have “privileges.” This interest in combining the two types of organizations culminated in a December 2020 issue of Health Services Research devoted to the topic that expressed surprise (and disappointment) that integration is not “a miracle cure”.2 Just months earlier, two of the major proponents of vertical integration published a study in the August issue of Health Affairs that came to a similar, “startling” conclusion: the financial integration of physicians and hospitals (e.g., via employment) had no impact on their clinical integration (and perhaps none on quality).
The discourse of deservingness has been mobilised against certain groups in the UK society navigating UK labour markets, among them refugees and asylum seekers. These discourses, leading to the stigmatisation of the unemployed are coupled with an emphasis on the importance of individuals taking responsibility to develop their ‘employability’. Little attention has been paid to scrutinise the contrast between the deservingness rhetoric and policy making with the actual conditions newcomers, and in particular refugees and asylum seekers, are confronted with when seeking employment. Our paper fills such a gap by indicating key contradictions at the heart of labour market integration in the UK. On the one hand, the emphasis on deservingness is coupled with policy discourses that construct an environment shaped by welfare and labour market chauvinism. On the other hand, the policy architecture is fundamentally flawed in a number of ways in terms of the support mechanisms necessary to ensure that newcomers can successfully integrate into the labour market.
The success of legal time is to be found in its exterior and standardized character. In this chapter, it argued on the basis of Heidegger and Bergson that such a perspective misses the peculiar characteristics of human time and does not relate well to processes. The first characteristic of human time is that it cannot be stopped. This does not only imply that time is finite, it also means that human time inevitably moves forward from birth to one’s inescapable death. Furthermore, human time cannot be traversed: in a human life, one cannot actually go back to the past or move forward to the future. A third characteristic of human time lies in its irreducible relationship with eternity. If one wants to eternally exclude someone, it is unclear how long this will actually last. Bergson furthermore reminds us that the reference to processes is always inadequate, it is qualitatively different from what it refers. We see this in the discussion of formal and material criteria used to refer to the process of migrants living within a certain territory. Two dominant approaches – jus domicilii and jus nexi – both ultimately fail to grasp such process.
The jus temporis that is argued for in this chapter aims to explicate the value of human time that is to be found in the finite, irreversible, and unstoppable character of human time. To make the value of human time explicit, "rootedness" and "integration" are conceptually distinguished. The latter signifying qualified time, the former mere lapse of human time. Rootedness simply signifies the entanglement of presence on a territory with the lapse of finite and irreversible human time. This conception of rootedness is at the heart of jus temporis and its implications are not limited to questions of citizenship acquisition. It is argued that the value of rootedness equally applies to waiting time in procedures, endless forms of temporariness, and unlawful residence. Concretely, it is argued that this jus temporis implies two elements. The first is a certain openness to the future, the possibility that a certain situation will not last forever. The second element is that there should be end-terms at work in law: procedures may not last forever, temporariness may not continue eternally, and there should be a moment when long-term unlawful residences can become lawful.
Civil aircraft that fly long ranges consume a large fraction of civil aviation fuel, injecting an important amount of aviation carbon into the atmosphere. Decarbonising solutions must consider this sector. A philosophical-analytical feasibility of an airliner family to assist in the elimination of carbon dioxide emissions from civil aviation is proposed. It comprises four models based on the integration of the body of a large two-deck airliner with the engines, wings and flight surfaces of a long-range twin widebody jet. The objective of the investigation presented here is to evaluate the impact of liquid hydrogen tank technology in terms of gravimetric efficiency. A range of hydrogen storage gravimetric efficiencies was evaluated; from a pessimistic value of 0.30 to a futuristic value of 0.85. This parameter has a profound influence on the overall fuel system weight and an impact on the integrated performance. The resulting impact is relatively small for the short-range aircraft; it increases with range and is important for the longer-range aircraft. For shorter-range aircraft variants, the tanks needed to store the hydrogen are relatively small, so the impact of tank weight is not significant. Longer range aircraft are weight constrained and the influence of tank weight is important. In the case of the longest range, the deliverable distance increases from slightly over 4,000 nautical miles, with a gravimetric efficiency of 0.3, to nearly 7,000 with a gravimetric efficiency of 0.85.
Time is one of the most important means for the exercise of power. In Migration Law, it is used for disciplining and controlling the presence of migrants within a certain territory through the intricate interplay of two overlapping but contradicting understandings of time – human and clock time. This book explores both the success and limitations of the usage of time for the governance of migration. The virtues of legal time can be seen at work in several temporal differentiations in migration law: differentiation based on temporality, deadlines, qualification of time and procedural differentiation. Martijn Stronks contests that, hidden in the usage of legal time in Migration Law, there is an argument for the inclusion of migrants on the basis of their right to human time. This assertion is based in the finite, irreversible and unstoppable character of human time.
Con el retorno reciente de los migrantes mexicanos, miles de estudiantes con experiencia escolar en Estados Unidos se incorporaron a las escuelas mexicanas. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la adaptación lingüística de estos estudiantes en una ciudad con alto retorno, Tijuana, México. Se utiliza metodología mixta que comprende el análisis de la Encuesta de Migración e Integración Escolar 2017, así como treinta y seis entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a estudiantes transnacionales en 2018 y 2019. Los hallazgos sugieren un proceso paulatino de aprendizaje del español y pérdida del inglés a mayor tiempo en México desde el último arribo, así como la existencia de competencias lingüísticas desiguales según la socialización escolar en cada país, el país de identificación cultural y nacimiento, el capital económico, social y cultural de los hogares, y los apoyos de maestros y compañeros. Se requieren políticas públicas que favorezcan el bilingüismo en las escuelas de ambos países.
This chapter integrates different parts of the book. A general model of motivation involves dopamine underlying the 'wanting' part and opioids the 'liking' part. Humans (and other mammals) appear to strive to maintain their mood within a tolerable zone, if necessary, through addictive activities. A widely observed feature amongst sexual serial killers is an early history of abuse, bullying and taunting. Many killers have failed to develop any bonding with an adult caregiver. High levels of stress are evident throughout their lives. Stressors that seem to carry particular weight are those of humiliation in social interaction, where revenge might seem appropriate. Chronic stressors repeated over years can be distinguished from the acute stressors that often immediately precede a killing. Many heterosexual killers disapproved of what they perceived to be immorality of an important female, such as a mother or wife. Sibling rivalry and excessive drug/alcohol intake characterize some of those described here.
Shifting gears toward a social history of decolonization in the metropole, Chapter 2 looks at the housing provided for the refugee-like groups of returnees that depended on public welfare to put a roof over their heads. Bringing to light both the achievements and the limits of the state’s deliberate policy of integration, the chapter argues that the aid provided to the returnees served as laboratory for building a new welfare state aligned with the Western European model that Portuguese elites wished to espouse. Zooming in on the living conditions of residents, it also shows, however, that a lack of adequate facilities and resources frequently led to considerable hardships for the returnees. What is more, state-fostered integration was starkly unequal and tendentially racialized: Migrants who were non-Portuguese, nonwhite, or both were overrepresented in the housing facilities that offered the most difficult conditions. The success story of integration that dominates some academic and most popular accounts of the returnees’ history so far is in urgent need of qualification.
Integration is widely considered to be difficult to define and even harder to facilitate. Whist the integration of migrants to the United Kingdom (UK) remains a ‘hot topic’ in policy, politics and public opinion it is also the subject of numerous attempts to conceptualise and measure it. In this article we draw on empirical research undertaken with a wide range of organisations working between refugees and powerful national organisations which perform everyday ‘integration work’. We present a possible framework for operationalising and enriching the day-to-day work of the integration of refugees. We explore this work through the lens of the Equality Act 2010. In so doing, we aim to demonstrate that more closely aligning ‘integration work’ within the framework of the Equality Act provides both greater conceptual and operational clarity about how to enhance the integration of refugees in the UK.
Chapter 15 offers new perspectives on the formative struggle to establish the League of Nations as an effective international organisation at the heart of the postwar order. It argues that in spite of the global conceptions they advanced its key architects intended the League to become the superstructure of a new transatlantic international order and security architecture. It analyses how far it was possible to find common ground between the most influential American and British blueprints for an integrative League and the markedly different French plans for an institution of the victors whose main purpose was supposed to be to protect France and constrain Germany. And it illuminates why ultimately the League of Nations came to be founded as a truncated organisation dominated by the principal victors of the Great War and initially excluding the vanquished, which were required to undergo a period of probation to become eligible for membership. Finally, it explains the far-reaching consequences this had and examines how far the League nonetheless had the potential to become the essential framework of a modern Atlantic and global order over time.
Chapter 20 sheds new light on what arguably was the crucial problem of the peacemaking process of 1919 – the fact that ultimately the peace settlement and the terms and rules of the new order were not negotiated between the victors and the vanquished but imposed by the western powers, above all on the fledgling Weimar Republic. It shows that what led to this outcome were not only the unprecedented transatlantic complexities Wilson and the principal British and French “peacemakers” faced when trying to hammer out the fundamental parameters of the peace and postwar order, and to reconcile their often all but irreconcilable interests, aims and ideological priorities. As it underscores, the imposed peace of 1919 was also the outgrowth of underlying hierarchical assumptions the victors shared about their “right” to dictate terms to the defeated German power and to place it on probation. Also analysing the strategies that leading German policymakers like Brockdorff-Rantzau and Matthias Erzberger pursued to open the door to a negotiated peace it finally reappraises the eventual political-cum-ideological battle between the victors and the vanquished that escalated in 1919 and analysis the destructive consequences of the peace settlement’s ultimate imposition.
Chapter 16 focuses on a comprehensive analysis of how the principal negotiators of the victorious powers sought to come to terms with the two most vital and indeed intricately interconnected questions of the entire peacemaking process: the challenge of establishing a new security architecture to stabilise the Atlantic world and make it “safe for democracy”; and the challenge of agreeing on the fundamental terms of the German settlement and how to deal with the pivotal problem of what shape and what status was to have in the postwar order. It reappraises how the protagonists came to forge a hybrid system of collective security that combined the novel guarantees of the League of Nations, temporary territorial guarantees, far-reaching disarmament of the defeated power and, crucially, specific security agreements under which Britain and the United States pledged to come to France’s aid in the case of unprovoked German aggression. And it offers a new interpretation both of the challenges of fortifying these elements into a new international concert system that could effectively secure the fledgling Atlantic peace and of the challenges of negotiating terms of a German settlement that could gain legitimacy not only among the victors but also on the part of the vanquished.