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In the conclusion, I link the story I tell in this book to the present, by considering in particular the genesis of the current Italian citizenship law, its disputed principles and controversial modalities of inclusion. By privileging ius sanguinis (“the right of blood”), this law has resulted in the creation of second-class citizens, as a large number of residents of foreign origins and their children have been excluded from the benefits of citizenship. This legal framework and the persisting linkage between Italianness and whiteness continues to generate exclusion and discrimination in a society that has become much more diverse than it was in the postwar period examined in the book.
Quantum sensing, computing, and communication offer some significant improvements on classical technologies, in some cases create fundamentally new capabilities. Quantum technologies are quickly arriving. Even if the most hyped promises in quantum computing are not realized in the next decade, in the near term quantum sensing could shift relationships irrevocably. This book has painted the landscape of quantum's implications---from nation-state concerns of strategic conflict, intelligence gathering, and law enforcement activities; to the concerns of companies that may be subject to industrial policy priorities and restrictions; to the level of the individual who may face institutions with great asymmetries in sensing and sense-making power. This chapter concludes with a forecast of quantum technology scenarios, with forecasts for each quantum technology analyzed in this book, and with a summary of the most important policy issues to pursue.
This chapter considers people (primarily conservatives) who have criticized the Nordic Model and suggested a counter, dystopian version. This approach stretches from Eisenhower in the 1950s to Trump. Sweden and its alleged problems with crime and immigration are a particular theme of this argument.
Approximately half of migrants worldwide are women and girls. Women’s experiences of migration are shaped by contextual factors, such as employment, financial resources, family structure and dynamics, sociopolitical climate, abuse and violence, and documentation status. Further, women’s responses to adapting to a new sociocultural environment often necessitates shifts in roles and positions within family and broader society. Guided by an ecological framework, this chapter provides an overview of salient factors that impact migrant women’s experiences of stress and resilience. We emphasize the dynamic interaction of multiple layers of context and development, including the influence of sociopolitical climate on mental health and access to resources (APA, 2012; Clauss-Ehlers et al., 2019). While recognizing that women have unique experiences of migration across different regions of the world, in this chapter we focus specifically on experiences of immigrant women in the USA, and provide a case illustration of how immigrant women may experience risk and protective factors.
This paper aims to explore attitudes toward immigration among two non-White groups, Asian Americans and Black Americans. For more than a decade, individuals from Asia have comprised the majority of immigrants entering the United States each year. Today, the majority of the Asian American U.S. population remains foreign-born. Yet using data collected from the 2016 Collaborative Multiracial Post-Election Survey and the 2016 National Asian American Survey—a time period marked by high levels of saliency with regard to immigration issues—we find that Black Americans, the majority of whom are U.S.-born, exhibit even more progressive attitudes towards immigration, both legal and undocumented, than mostly foreign-born Asian Americans. Our research challenges economic and material theories related to immigration attitudes and suggests that political connections to and “linked fate” with other minorities better explain why Black Americans exhibit more progressive attitudes toward immigration than Asian Americans.
New Zealand-born Katherine Mansfield identified as a cosmopolite and ‘a stranger – an alien’; she staked her claim to London citizenship through writing the city, while asserting her colonial status and co-opting Maori identity. These multiple identities were playfully self-fashioned, but Mansfield was also interpolated as an outsider by the British state. Mansfield was resident in London during a period of decisive change in immigration politics and policy: from the Aliens Act of 1905 and its classification and expulsion of ‘undesirable’ alien bodies, to wartime legislation designating certain aliens as enemies, and (re)introducing passports, registers, identity books, travel permits, labour permits, and internment, to the declaration that British subject status could be lost by women who married a foreign man, to the expansion of wartime immigration controls in peacetime. This chapter considers literary representations of colonial migration and displacement in and around London, how these shifted during the Edwardian period, and then again during wartime, and how such literary representations shaped and were shaped by a broader national discourse (and discourse of nationality).
This chapter delves into the reasons for attending to the cognitive constraints of the political decision maker, whether average citizen or member of the ruling elite. The main focus of our discussion is the concept of bounded rationality and other cognitive strategies that humans have evolved in order to make good enough political decisions, if not optimal ones. The discussion includes a review of many instances where cognitive short cuts, or heuristics, influence decisions by reducing the burden associated with making choices in highly complex information environments. The downside, of course, is that these shortcuts can also lead citizens and leaders astray, fomenting biases, even as they help simplify a decision. Understanding how cognitive limitations affect the ability of citizens and elites to make good decisions is the key to solving a large number of puzzles in our politics. The chapter also addresses how, if at all, one could overcome these biases.
This essay replies to three critics of my book Territorial Sovereignty: A Philosophical Exploration. First, in response to Kit Wellman, I defend the claim that states sometimes have a right against external interference even when their decisions depart from the requirements of social justice. This “right to do wrong” is grounded in respect for a legitimate procedure of collective self-determination, in which the state's members have an important interest. Second, I reply to Michael Blake's concern that there is an inconsistency in my treatment of people's actual wills in politics. I clarify that my view places weight on the actual wills only of “cooperators” (a technical term), and that cooperators’ actual wills matter because they have claims against alien rule. There is no inconsistency in treating political annexation differently from immigration since immigrants rarely threaten to impose alien rule on cooperators. Finally, I address Adom Getachew's concerns about the imperial dimensions of the states system, arguing that my book contains resources for theorizing remedial claims to land in settler colonial societies and other reparative duties of global justice.
This chapter provides a brief overview of efforts to promote heritage and community language education among two of the fastest growing newly emerging minority populations in the United States, that is, those who fall broadly under the labels of “Chinese” and “Indian” language communities in the United States. San Francisco has been one of the major centers of Chinese immigration to the United States since the nineteenth century and has emerged as one of the major centers for more recent Chinese immigration. Indian immigration has also rapidly increased since 1965, and the greater Washington, DC metropolitan area represents one of the key urban areas for the growth of South Asian populations. Each of these ethnolinguistic communities in the United States is not homogenous because they all reflect the linguistic diversities of their respective homelands. In addition, they also reflect the influence of the large Diasporas of Chinese and Indian populations around the globe.
While the structure of party competition evolves slowly, crisis-like events can induce short-term change to the political agenda. This may be facilitated by challenger parties who might benefit from increased attention to issues they own. We study the dynamic of such shifts through mainstream parties’ response to the 2015 refugee crisis, which strongly affected public debate and election outcomes across Europe. Specifically, we analyse how parties changed their issue emphasis and positions regarding immigration before, during, and after the refugee crisis. Our study is based on a corpus of 120,000 press releases between 2013 and 2017 from Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. We identify immigration-related press releases using a novel dictionary and estimate party positions. The resulting monthly salience and positions measures allow for studying changes in close time-intervals, providing crucial detail for disentangling the impact of the crisis itself and the contribution of right-wing parties. While we provide evidence that attention to immigration increased drastically for all parties during the crisis, radical right parties drove the attention of mainstream parties. However, the attention of mainstream parties to immigration decreased toward the end of the refugee crisis and there is limited evidence of parties accommodating the positions of the radical right.
This essay examines Representative John Lewis's engagement with the 1987 uprising of Cuban immigrant detainees held in Atlanta's federal penitentiary, which occurred near the beginning of Lewis's time in Congress. Cuban prisoners at the penitentiary took control of the institution and detained several hostages in order to forestall their deportation back to Cuba. After the uprising ended, in contrast to other public figures who advocated harsh punitive treatment, Lewis urged mercy and compassion for the prisoners. Lewis's involvement in the story revealed his underlying understanding of human rights, which he connected to his experiences in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. This broad conception of human rights shaped his engagement with issues of immigration throughout the remainder of his congressional career, especially during the administration of President Donald Trump. Lewis's engagement with issues of immigration is also especially noteworthy in light of metro Atlanta's emergence as a key site for the settlement of immigrants and refugees from around the world, which continues to shape the politics of the metro area.
This paper studies the impact of immigration on the US macroeconomy. I identify structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) with time-varying parameters (TVPs) and stochastic volatility (SV) using a novel set of restrictions. The TVP-SV-SVARs are estimated on a quarterly sample including average labor productivity (ALP), hours worked, immigration, consumption, and term spread from 1953 to 2017. An immigration supply shock increases domestic ALP and hours worked over the business cycle horizons. Movements in immigration are explained by its own shock and to a lesser extent by the productivity and news shocks. IRFs driven by these shocks vary over the sample, especially around changes in immigration policy such as the Immigration Act of 1990. In contrast, the forecast error variance decompositions exhibit little change over the sample. Immigration plays an important role in the US macroeconomy.
This chapter unpacks Garrett Hardin's 1968 landmark article "The Tragedy of the Commons" by exploring the controversial views of its author and the explosive social context from which it emerged. More than an essay about resource management in the abstract, Hardin's admitted main point in "The Tragedy of the Commons," often excerpted out of many anthologies and reprints, is at its core an argument for population control. Hardin’s views veered from the mainstream and openly incorporated racist, xenophobic, and anti-immigrant ideas. Given this, it seems quite surprising today that the article was received so well, both popularly and in academic circles. But in reality, Hardin's success came because of his focus on population – not in spite of it. The article came at just the right time to catch on: precisely when the environmental movement neared its crest and just before his most controversial idea – population control – was about to enter the public realm as a serious matter of debate.
Immigration is sometimes claimed to be a key contributor to economic growth. Few academic studies, however, examine the direct link between immigration and growth. And the evidence on the outcomes that the literature does examine (such as the impact on wages or government receipts and expenditures) is far too mixed to allow unequivocal inferences. This chapter surveys what we know about the relationship between immigration and growth. The canonical Solow model implies that a one-time supply shock will not have any impact on steady-state per capita income, while a continuous supply shock will permanently reduce per capita income. The relationship between immigration and growth obviously depends on many variables, including the skill composition of immigrants, the rate of assimilation, distributional labor market consequences, the size of the immigration surplus, potential human capital externalities, and the long-term fiscal impact of immigration. Despite the disagreements about how to measure all of these effects, however, there is consensus on one important point: Immigration has a more beneficial impact on growth when the immigrant flow is composed of high-skilled workers.
This introduction summarizes the nine central chapters that make up this volume. Martin Feldstein examines the structural reasons for relatively high US growth rates, notes fiscal problems inhibiting future growth including in deficits in social insurance programs, and suggests reforms. Flávio Cunha examines how the development of human capital, especially at early ages, affects economic growth. George Borjas analyzes how increased immigration would affect economic growth in the United States. Glenn Hubbard explores the debate between “techno-optimists” and “techno-pessimists” on the growth effects of technological progress, while Timothy Bresnahan examines in detail the commercial applications of Artificial Intelligence Technologies (AITs). Robert Barro estimates the macroeconomic effects of the recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, while John Diamond and George Zodrow examine the macroeconomic and distributional effects of a carbon tax. Ross Levine discusses the links between banking and economic prosperity, and Stephen Turnovsky examines the relationships among income, wealth inequality, and economic growth.
The chapters in this volume provide insightful and provocative discussion of many of the issues related to whether the United States is likely to continue on the robust growth path of earlier years or whether economic growth is likely to decelerate or even enter an extended period of “secular stagnation.” In this concluding chapter, the editors of the volume tie together some of the threads that appear in the various chapters, extend the analyses in several directions, and discuss some policy implications. The discussion is organized around three themes: (i) technology and productivity growth; (ii) labor markets and economic growth, including the importance of human capital accumulation and the role of immigration; and (iii) fiscal policy, including both expenditure and tax reform.
The UK has recently adopted a policy of granting digital-only proof of immigration status for certain groups of migrants. More than 4.5 million individuals are reliant on this form of status and the number is growing. In this paper, we argue that this policy, as currently operationalised, is unlawful as a result of its discriminatory impact. If it remains unchanged, the roots of digital discrimination in immigration policy and administration will be allowed to spread, with potentially disastrous consequences.
Although economic growth has historically been an engine of prosperity in the United States, recent trends have generated uncertainty regarding the prospects for sustaining such growth. Economists disagree about the relative importance of many factors affecting future growth, including rapid technological advances, immigration, the growth of the financial sector, problems with the educational system, increasing income inequality, an aging population, and large fiscal imbalances that have not been addressed by the political system. This collection of chapters, authored by many of today's leading economists, addresses the prospects for economic growth in the United States over the next few decades. During a time of great economic uncertainty, this book engages with both sides in the debate over economic growth, focusing on policy options that increase the prospects for vigorous economic growth in the future.
Chapter 2 provides a brief historical background of Middle Eastern migration to the west and details how authoritarian-nationalist regimes in Libya, Syria, and Yemen pushed exiles and emigrants to the United States and Great Britain. By examining the state of diaspora mobilization from the 1960s to the eve of the Arab Spring in 2010, the author demonstrates anti-regime movements were small, atomized, and considered partisan by their conationals. Neither Libyan and Syrian exiles nor well-resourced white-collar professionals were able to forge public member-based associations or initiate large anti-regime protest events during this period. Yemeni movements, meanwhile, focused on supporting southern separation from the Yemeni state, rather than on the reform or liberalization of the Yemeni government.
This chapter explores the portrayal of Chicago in the fiction of Saul Bellow, examining the conflict between materialism and visionary idealism that lies at the heart of his work. Starting from the stereotypical characterization of Chicago as the home of brute matter, cynical pragmatism, and the mass production of commodities and physical things, the chapter traces Bellow’s autobiographical search for hidden spiritual truths, connecting this to the Jewish notion of being exiled in a foreign land, vestiges of the soul or the spirit disguised among the quotidian ugliness of industrial America. This conflict between things and ideas, matter and spirit, morality and “the hustle” of economic life, draws on both the conflicts of Bellow’s early life and the wider patterns of Jewish immigration and assimilation. Chicago appears in Bellow’s work as both an overwhelming physical presence and a metaphysical absence, linked to the emptiness of the prairies and haunted by the Jewish-Russian past of Bellow’s family. These contradictions and paradoxes are traced through a close reading of Bellow’s short fiction, as well as his major novels The Adventures of Augie March, Herzog, and Humboldt’s Gift.